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Elsborg, P., Appleton, P. R., Pons, J., Wikman, J. M., Bentsen, P. & Nielsen, G. (2023). Factorial validity, predictive validity and measurement invariance of the Danish version of the coach-created Empowering Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ-C). Journal of Sports Sciences, 41(8), 715-726
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factorial validity, predictive validity and measurement invariance of the Danish version of the coach-created Empowering Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ-C)
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 715-726Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to translate and validate a Danish version of the coach-created Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ-C), retest the factor structure and provide further investigation into the psychometric properties in terms of measurement invariance across gender, age and competitive level, reliability and predictive validity. Methods: The participants were 1719 male and 551 female Danish football players 12–20 years of age (M = 14.81) playing at recreational, medium and elite levels. Participants filled in EDMCQ-C as well as questionnaires measuring psychological needs (BPNESS) and behaviour regulation (BRSQ). Factor structure of the EDMCQ-C was tested using Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling. To test whether the factor structure differed across gender, age group and competitive level, an invariance analysis comparing configurational, metric and scalar models was conducted. Results: EDMCQ-C showed good psychometric properties and measurement invariance across age, gender and competitive level. Both dimensions of EDMCQ-C were associated to needs satisfaction and behaviour regulation in expected directions and had high internal consistency. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the reliability of the two dimensions of EDMCQ-C, their predictive validity and for measurement invariance across age, gender and competitive level and provides a Danish version of the EDMCQ with sound psychometric properties. © 2023 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2023
Keywords
Coaching, ego climate, task climate
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51389 (URN)10.1080/02640414.2023.2230707 (DOI)001032196500001 ()37486014 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85165581041 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: Ministry of Culture, Denmark

Available from: 2023-08-15 Created: 2023-08-15 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Elsborg, P., Appleton, P., Wikman, J. & Nielsen, G. (2023). The associations between motivational climate, basic psychological needs and dropout in volleyball – A comparison across competitive levels. European Journal of Sport Science, 23(3), 393-403
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The associations between motivational climate, basic psychological needs and dropout in volleyball – A comparison across competitive levels
2023 (English)In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 393-403Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of motivational climate for the satisfaction of psychological needs and dropout in recreational, intermediate and elite volleyball. Seven thousand nine hundred thirty six volleyball players from all 321 volleyball clubs across Denmark were invited to participate in the study. Three thousand three thirty answered the questionnaire and 2150 were included in the analysis. Dropout from Volleyball was measured as the proportion of players that had stopped playing volleyball over the last year. The coach-created motivational climate was measured using the Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports. The satisfaction of players’ psychological needs was measured using an adapted version of the basic psychological needs in exercise scale. The psychometric scales were validated and showed good model fit. For volleyball players of all levels, the degree of mastery climate predicted the satisfaction of the players’ basic psychological needs satisfaction during volleyball which was, in turn, associated with lower dropout rates. Performance climate had a weak negative association with the satisfaction of psychological needs on the intermediate level only. When adjusting the models for the negative association between performance climate and mastery climate this negative association became nonsignificant and a weak positive association to needs satisfaction emerged for players at the elite level. Findings confirm that the coach-created mastery climate in volleyball teams is important for the satisfaction of players’ basic psychological needs and continuation within the sport across the recreational, intermediate and elite levels. Highlights Coach-created mastery climate in volleyball teams was positively associated with the satisfaction of the players’ basic psychological and negatively associated with dropout. These associations between coach created climate, need satisfaction and dropout were similar across different sporting levels. Performance orientation had little influence and seemed mainly problematic if it was at the expense of mastery climate. © 2022 European College of Sport Science.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
continuation, ego climate, enjoyment, motivation, Task climate, well-being
National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-48091 (URN)10.1080/17461391.2022.2041100 (DOI)000784429400001 ()35137679 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85129292363 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding text: This study was supported by the Danish ministry of culture (Kulturministeriets Forskningsudvalg). [FPK.2019-0047].

Available from: 2023-01-02 Created: 2023-01-02 Last updated: 2023-03-13Bibliographically approved
Elholm Madsen, E., Hansen, T., Damsgaard Thomsen, S., Panduro, J., Ermidis, G., Krustrup, P., . . . Wikman, J. (2022). Can psychological characteristics, football experience, and player status predict state anxiety before important matches in Danish elite-level female football players?. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 32(S1), 150-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can psychological characteristics, football experience, and player status predict state anxiety before important matches in Danish elite-level female football players?
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2022 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 32, no S1, p. 150-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Elite football can make players feel nervous, and personality characteristics, as well as experience, affect how well pressure is handled before important games. Studying the psychological characteristics of female football players can provide information on how well psychological pressure is handled and generate knowledge on how to support players in order to improve performance. Based on a sample of 128 female elite football players from 8 top-level teams, the present study investigates whether psychological characteristics and football experience/player stus in elite female football players can predict state anxiety before important matches. Our results outline that high age and national team experience negatively predicted most of the trait anxiety subscales. In line with previous research, no psychological differences were found between goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders, and strikers while starting players revealed to have significantly lower trait anxiety. When measuring before important matches, we found that somatic state anxiety was negatively associated with senior national team experience and positively associated with worry trait anxiety and fear of failure. Cognitive state anxiety was negatively associated with hope for success and positively associated with somatic and worry trait anxiety. Self-confidence was positively associated with youth national team experience and negatively associated with worry trait anxiety. It can be concluded that psychological characteristics and national team experience are both important for optimal state anxiety before important matches in elite-level women's football. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. © 2020 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
coaching, soccer, sport psychology, training, women's football
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46077 (URN)10.1111/sms.13881 (DOI)000595319900001 ()2-s2.0-85097005161 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: The Danish FA (DBU). Open access funding: Projekt DEAL.

Available from: 2021-12-10 Created: 2021-12-10 Last updated: 2022-04-08Bibliographically approved
Madsen, M., Larsen, M. N., Cyril, R., Møller, T. K., Madsen, E. E., Ørntoft, C., . . . Krustrup, P. (2022). Well-Being, Physical Fitness, and Health Profile of 2,203 Danish Girls Aged 10-12 in Relation to Leisure-time Sports Club Activity-With Special Emphasis on the Five Most Popular Sports. Strength and conditioning journal, 36(8), 2283-2290
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Well-Being, Physical Fitness, and Health Profile of 2,203 Danish Girls Aged 10-12 in Relation to Leisure-time Sports Club Activity-With Special Emphasis on the Five Most Popular Sports
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2022 (English)In: Strength and conditioning journal, ISSN 1524-1602, E-ISSN 1533-4295, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 2283-2290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the relationship between leisure-time sports club activities and well-being as well as physical health parameters in 10-12-year-old Danish girls. Two thousand two hundred three girls took part in the study, which included questionnaires on participation in leisure-time sports clubs, well-being, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test, long jump, balance tests, body composition, blood pressure (BP), and resting heart rate (RHR). Data were analyzed according to whether the girls participated in leisure-time sport and according to the 5 most frequently reported sports. Girls enrolled in leisure-time sports had higher physical well-being (49.3 ± 8.6 vs. 45.2 ± 8.3), psychological well-being (50.4 ± 9.0 vs. 49.4 ± 9.8), experienced more peer and social support (50.2 ± 10.0 vs. 48.9 ± 10.7), and perceived a more positive school environment (52.5 ± 8.0 vs. 50.5 ± 9.3), as well as showing higher Yo-Yo (+39%), long jump (+10%), and balance performance (+15%) than girls not involved in sport clubs. The girls active in sports clubs had higher relative muscle mass (+5%), lower fat percentage (-11%), body mass index (-5%), RHR (-3.4 b·min-1), and diastolic BP (-1.4 mm Hg) compared with girls not involved in sport (p<0.05). Girls who played soccer showed higher aerobic fitness compared with inactive girls (+67%), dancers (+39%), swimmers (+38%), and gymnasts (+16%). Gymnasts had a lower fat percentage than inactive girls (-19%), team handballers (-10%), swimmers (-12%), and soccer players (-4%). Girls participating in club-based leisure-time sports showed higher well-being and better fitness and health profiles than girls not involved in any sports club activities. Girls involved in soccer had better aerobic fitness and gymnasts a lower fat percentage. Copyright © 2020 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2022
Keywords
Yo-Yo IR1C, long jump, balance, body composition, KIDSCREEN-27, sport participation
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-48928 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0000000000003819 (DOI)000834988000032 ()32991507 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85135421247 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: Nordea-fonden, the Danish Football Association (DBU), and Aase and Ejnar Danielsens Foundation.

Available from: 2023-01-12 Created: 2023-01-12 Last updated: 2023-02-21Bibliographically approved
Elholm Madsen, E., Krustrup, P., Hvid Larsen, C., Elbe, A.-M., Wikman, J., Ivarsson, A. & Lautenbach, F. (2021). Resilience as a protective factor for well-being and emotional stability in elite-level football players during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Science and medicine in football, 5(sup1), 62-69
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience as a protective factor for well-being and emotional stability in elite-level football players during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic
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2021 (English)In: Science and medicine in football, ISSN 2473-3938, E-ISSN 2473-4446, Vol. 5, no sup1, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In Denmark, the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown resulted in a compact season finisher for elite footballers, potentially impacting their mental health.Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the protective role of resilience and the impeding role of trait anxiety on elite footballers’ level and variability of well-being and emotional stability. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty-five male elite-level players (Mage = 25.04 ± 4.82) completed baseline measures on trait anxiety and resilience. Additionally, well-being and positive and negative affect were assessed before games (n = 24) over 62 days. Separate two-level regression analysis using Bayesian statistics was conducted to test potential relationships. Results: Results show a credible positive relationship between the average level of well-being and within-person variability over time as well as the average level in positive affect. This indicates that resilience might be a protector for mental health. In addition, higher levels of trait anxiety (i.e., subscale concentration disruption) were associated with higher levels of negative affect and higher variability over time. This indicates that trait anxiety might facilitate negative affect. No other credible relationships were found. Conclusion: High resilience and low trait anxiety are identified as relevant factors for mental health within elite footballers during COVID-19. Implications for practice are discussed. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxfordshire: Taylor & Francis Group, 2021
Keywords
COVID-19, emotional regulation, mental health, soccer
National Category
Psychology Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-45450 (URN)10.1080/24733938.2021.1959047 (DOI)000679827000001 ()2-s2.0-85111734647 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-26 Created: 2021-08-26 Last updated: 2022-01-26Bibliographically approved
Ryom, K., Wikman, J. M. & Stelter, R. (2021). Supporting Self-Concept in School Settings Targeting Migrant Background Boys. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 65(4), 676-692
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting Self-Concept in School Settings Targeting Migrant Background Boys
2021 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 676-692Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the experience of and effect created by a team sport and coaching intervention upon the self-concept of male school students (age: 12–16; n = 129) from diverse backgrounds. A convergent parallel mixed-method design was used to compare and relate a questionnaire study and an interview study in a quasi-experimental design, based on a two-year intervention period. Quantitative results showed a significant effect on (1) general self-concept, (2) physical skills, and (3) social relations. Qualitative interviews showed participants experiencing (1) a stronger and more confident self, (2) a better physical condition, and (3) a stronger and more supportive social environment. Implications of the results are discussed alongside strategies for working with self-concept in school settings targeting migrant background boys. © 2020 Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2021
Keywords
Group coaching, mixed methods, school, self-concept, team sport
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41947 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2020.1739136 (DOI)000524564400001 ()2-s2.0-85082403355 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: Nordea-fonden: [Grant Number 2]; Danish Ministry of Culture: [Grant Number 1].

Available from: 2020-04-18 Created: 2020-04-18 Last updated: 2021-06-07Bibliographically approved
Wikman, J. M., Ryom, K., Melby, P. S., Elsborg, P. & Elbe, A.-M. (2020). Motivational aspects of Football as Medicine (1ed.). In: Peter Krustrup; Daniel Parnell (Ed.), Football as Medicine: Prescribing Football for Global Health Promotion (pp. 102-115). London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivational aspects of Football as Medicine
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2020 (English)In: Football as Medicine: Prescribing Football for Global Health Promotion / [ed] Peter Krustrup; Daniel Parnell, London: Routledge, 2020, 1, p. 102-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order for football to be effective as medicine it is important that participants actively engage in playing football on a regular basis. One of the key factors for regular participation in football activities is the participant’s motivation. As motivation is an interplay between the person and situation, the chapter is divided into two major sections: Personal motivational factors and situational motivational sectors. The first section, focusing on personal motivational factors, gives an overview of two frequently used motivational frameworks in physical activity, namely the Self-Determination Theory and the flow concept. It is then argued that football and similar team sports elicit more intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as more flow experiences, compared to individual physical activity. Lastly, it is investigated why football and similar team sports are more motivating, and suggested that it is due to a higher degree of satisfaction of the basic psychological needs, a higher degree of social relations and better conditions for eliciting flow. The second section, focusing on situational motivational factors, starts by giving an overview of the mastery and performance climate distinction in the Achievement Goal Theory. It is subsequently argued that the theory-driven TARGET and Empowering Coaching frameworks can inform football as medicine activities that will engage participants and contribute to their long-term participation in recreational football activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2020 Edition: 1
Series
Critical Research in Football ; 5
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41918 (URN)10.4324/9780429284892-9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85105183917 (Scopus ID)9780367248888 (ISBN)9780429284892 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-04-18 Created: 2020-04-18 Last updated: 2023-02-21Bibliographically approved
Ryom, K., Elsborg, P. & Wikman, J. M. (2020). SJSEP – new winds from the north. Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2, 1-1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SJSEP – new winds from the north
2020 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 2596-741X, Vol. 2, p. 1-1Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Library, 2020
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41904 (URN)10.7146/sjsep.v2i0.118474 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-04-18 Created: 2020-04-18 Last updated: 2020-11-03Bibliographically approved
Madsen, M., Elbe, A.-M., Madsen, E. E., Ermidis, G., Ryom, K., Wikman, J., . . . Krustrup, P. (2020). The “11 for Health in Denmark” intervention in 10- to 12-year-old Danish girls and boys and its effects on well-being—A large-scale cluster RCT. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 30(9), 1787-1795
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The “11 for Health in Denmark” intervention in 10- to 12-year-old Danish girls and boys and its effects on well-being—A large-scale cluster RCT
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2020 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 30, no 9, p. 1787-1795Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The present study investigates the well‐being effects for 10‐ to 12‐year‐old children  who participated in the school‐based intervention “11 for Health in Denmark,” which comprises physical activity (PA) and health education. Subgroup analyses were carried out for boys and girls.

Method: Three thousand sixty‐one children were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG) by 5:1 cluster randomization by school. 2533 children (mean age 11.5 ± 0.4; 49.7% boys) were assigned to IG and 528 children (mean age 11.4 ± 0.5; 50.8% boys) were assigned to CG. IG participated in the “11 for Health in Denmark” 11‐week program, consisting of 2 × 45 min per week of football drills, small‐sided games, and health education. CG did not participate in any intervention and continued with their regular education. Before and after the intervention period, both groups answered a shortened version of the multidimensional well‐being questionnaire KIDSCREEN‐27.

Results: The “11 for Health in Denmark” intervention program had a positive effect on physical well‐being in girls (IG: 48.6 ± 8.5 to 50.2 ± 9.3), whereas the improvement was not significant in boys. The program also had a positive impact on well‐being scores for peers and social support (IG: 50.2 ± 10.2 to 50.8 ± 10.1), though when analyzed separately in the subgroups of boys and girls the changes were not significant. No between‐group differences were found for psychological well‐being or school environment.

Conclusion: The intervention program had a positive between‐group effect on physical well‐being in girls, whereas the change was not significant in boys. The overall scores for peers and social support improved during the intervention period, but no subgroup differences were found.

 © 2020 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2020
Keywords
KIDSCREEN-27, physical activity, physical well-being, psychological well-being, school setting, football
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43294 (URN)10.1111/sms.13704 (DOI)000535583100001 ()32353906 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85085642951 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-11-09 Created: 2020-11-09 Last updated: 2020-11-09Bibliographically approved
Bennike, S., Storm, R. K., Wikman, J. M. & Ottesen, L. S. (2020). The organization of club football in Denmark – a contemporary profile. Soccer & Society, 21(5), 551-571
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The organization of club football in Denmark – a contemporary profile
2020 (English)In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 551-571Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article provides an understanding of the organization of Danish club football, including both grassroots and professional activities. We do this by analysing how it has developed and how it relates to four basic social orders viewed as ideal types; civil society, market, state and associations. Our study is grounded in document analysis, a questionnaire survey and existing knowledge of sports clubs and, in particular, football clubs. Our findings show how Danish football is a game that operates between these social orders. We highlight four unique traits: firstly, the existence of an overall formal, bureaucratic, non-profit, rather autonomous associative decentral democratic structure; secondly, a high number of non-profit, democratically organized grassroots clubs of different sizes spread around the country; thirdly, late professionalism; and fourthly, the creation of a certain business model of professional Danish football. © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2020
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41888 (URN)10.1080/14660970.2019.1690472 (DOI)000498697200001 ()2-s2.0-85075497237 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: Nordea-fonden

Available from: 2020-04-14 Created: 2020-04-14 Last updated: 2020-09-25Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5177-8002

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