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Urbas, A., Nehez, J. & Svensson, P. (2023). First Teacher Assignments in the light of Responsibility and Accountability. In: : . Paper presented at European Conference on Educational Research (ECER 2023), Glasgow, UK, 22-25 August 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First Teacher Assignments in the light of Responsibility and Accountability
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is increasing attention to the role of education in teaching environmental issues such as climate change (Teach the Future, n.d.). Whilst environmental issues are science-dependent, science is not sufficient to respond to today’s environmental challenges. Yet internationally, science and geography are those subjects most likely to include environmental content (UNESCO, 2021). In England, students can expect to learn about environmental challenges including climate change, biodiversity and pollution during their compulsory science education (DfE, 2013). These topics are often controversial, rife with moral tensions (Zeidler, Herman, & Sadler, 2019), and characterised by both descriptive facts and normative values. The values often deal with solutions to the problems, what kind of actions can be taken on an individual or societal level and even what kind of society is preferred. This makes the issues both scientific and political. Yet little is known about how politics enters the science classroom. In this study, we aim to understand how environmental politics enters the classroom, and how science teachers address different approaches to political participation with their students.

In order to develop democratic environmental governance, there is a need for representation of different groups of people, opportunities for participation and for spaces for deliberation (Lidskog & Elander, 2007), i.e. for politics. Schools are potential sites for participation and deliberation and for learning democracy (Biesta & Lawy, 2006). Politics can be defined in different ways, from a narrow focus on electoral processes to broader conceptualisations which include different ways of making decisions and shaping power relations. In this study, we are concerned with power and social change (Dahl & Stinebrickner, 2003) i.e. “the capacity for agency and deliberation in situations of genuine collective or social choice” (Hay, 2007, p. 77) through science education. This definition of politics goes beyond electoral and party politics and includes activities outside formal political institutions. This is in accordance with Heywood (1999)’s characterisation of politics as an a social activity that arises out of interaction between or among people, which develops out of diversity (the existence of different interests, wants, needs and goals), and which relates to collective decisions which are regarded as binding upon a group of people. Carter (2018) identifies the environment as a policy problem for several reasons, including that the environment can be considered a public good, with complex and interdependent relationships between people and ecosystems acting across national borders with consequences felt into the future.

This characterisation of politics is relevant to the study context as education is a social activity which brings together people with different views, interests and goals in relation to the environment, and it is a context in which collective decisions can be made, for example, about how the school function, what is taught (and how), and what actions or outcomes are desirable as a result of education. Not all of these actions and outcomes can be considered political and we see politics as related to societal engagement and political participation more broadly. Ekman and Amnå (2012) have developed a typology of different forms of participation in society. They distinguish between (a) non-participation (disengagement); (b) civic participation (latent political), whether social involvement or civic engagement; and (c) political participation (manifest political), which can be formal political participation or activism. Each of these three types of participation are further classified in terms of individual and collective forms. In this study, we use Ekman and Amnå’s (2012) typology to understand the ways in which teachers address the political dimensions of the environment in school science. The research question we set out to explore in the study is: how do science teachers address political participation in science education?

Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources UsedAn exploratory qualitative approach was used to understand science teachers’ perceptions and approaches to environmental politics. We focused on science teachers with responsibility for teaching students aged 11-16 in England because we were interested in what students experience during their compulsory secondary science education, where the curriculum demands that they learn about ecosystems and the environment. 

A deductive approach to instrument design was used, drawing on Ekman and Amnå’s (2012) typology of latent and manifest political participation and non-participation (see Table 1 above) in the design of the interview guide and in the analysis of data to understand the ways in which politics enters the science classroom. Given the potentially sensitive nature of some of the questions, we used one-to-one interviews, conducted online to increase the geographical reach, and minimise the need for travel.  The interview guide contained open-ended questions on science teachers’ perspectives on and experiences of teaching environmental politics in science education.  We deliberately did not ask about educational policy; only about teachers’ own experiences, practices, personal perspectives and barriers they encountered.  

Participants were provided with an infographic using examples from Ekman and Amnå’s (2012) typology and asked to mark ways of participating in society which they had:planned and taught (green); mentioned in passing or in response to a question from a student (orange); and, never addressed (red).  The interview focused on reasons for these decisions.  Interviews were conducted by three members of the research team and took place in January - June 2022. Each lasted approximately 1 hour. 

Interviews with 11 teachers were recorded and transcribed and interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) (Smith, 2004) used to analyse the data.  This approach aims not at generalisation but rather to understand how individuals make sense of their own experiences (Guihen, 2019), namely, how politics enters the science classroom.  IPA is typically used to generate meaningful insights from a small dataset, often in psychology and health sciences.  It is appropriate here because it provides a way to understand how participants make sense of their social world, it allows for diversity of perceptions rather than looking for a single objective truth and it allows researchers to interpret these experiences and understand the perspective of an insider and then interpret what it means for them to have this perspective (Reid, Flowers, & Larkin, 2005). An iterative approach to data analysis was used, with reflexive discussions between each stage of analysis.   Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or FindingsTeachers participating in this study saw a place for politics in science education.  However, it  was described as almost absent in lessons. Teachers were more likely to discuss individual, legal, forms of participation, focusing on civil (latent political) actions rather than collective, manifest forms of participating. Even when politics enters the classroom, it tends to be students rather than teachers who introduce the topic, unless there are links to the curriculum or other legal and political frameworks. Policy (national and school) and colleague and student perceptions prevented teachers from planning to discuss manifest forms of political participation with students.  

Politics (especially collective aspects) are experienced as off-limits to teachers in the study. This post-political logic distances people (here, young people but also teachers) from involvement in decision-making and reduces their capacity to be involved in environmental decision-making now and in the future.  These absences, we argue, contribute to a broader societal trend which closes off spaces to discuss and celebrate disagreement (Blühdorn & Deflorian, 2021), and which diminish the potential for young people to learn democracy. In order to develop democratic governance of environmental issues, there is a need for representation, opportunities for participation and for spaces for deliberation (Liskog & Elander, 2007).  Schools are in many ways ideal sites to encourage political participation as they are shared spaces of learning - both about forms of participation but also how to participate and to deliberate across disagreement, or as one of the teachers in this study put it ‘we need to teach them how to use their voice properly and how to be heard’. This requires those who are in positions where they can act to listen to these voices and engage in deliberation and bring politics - as the capacity to deliberate and make collective decisions - into the science classroom.

Keywords
Environment, politics, teachers, science education, responsibility
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51613 (URN)
Conference
European Conference on Educational Research (ECER 2023), Glasgow, UK, 22-25 August 2023
Funder
Halmstad University
Available from: 2023-09-11 Created: 2023-09-11 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved
Nehez, J., Karlsson, A. & Svensson Källberg, P. (2023). Försök till transspråkande undervisning: tre typpraktiker. Educare (1), 183-215
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Försök till transspråkande undervisning: tre typpraktiker
2023 (Swedish)In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, no 1, p. 183-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today many classrooms in Sweden are multilingual, characterized by a diversity of linguistic, cultural and epistemological resources available for teaching and learning. Handling this diversity puts certain demands on teachers in order to provide all students equal learning opportunities in a context where the language of instruction is Swedish. As a response to this, local school development projects based on multilingualism as a resource have been initiated. This study focuses on two such projects with the aim to deepen the knowledge about how translanguaging teaching practices can be developed. To make visible what characterizes as well as enable and constrain translanguaging teaching practices under development, the theory of practice architectures is used. Three different practices are identified The Multilingual, The Ambivalent multilingual and The Monolingual teaching practice. The practices are formed by differing cultural-discursive, material-economic and social-political arrangements. Above all, cultural-discursive arrangements such as norms and ideas affect the differences between the three practices. Existing norms and ideas affect how material and economic resources, mostly identic in all three practices, are used. Furthermore, monolinguistic norms seem to form hierarchical relations. Thus, we argue to develop translanguaging practices multilingual norms are important to develop.Article Details 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö University Press, 2023
Keywords
flerspråkighet, praktikarkitekturer, studiehandledning, transspråkande undervisning
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51006 (URN)10.24834/educare.2023.1.744 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2023-07-05Bibliographically approved
Nehez, J. (2023). How to identify actions to improve in the practices of a professional learning community: a study of an action research project. Educational action research, 1-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to identify actions to improve in the practices of a professional learning community: a study of an action research project
2023 (English)In: Educational action research, ISSN 0965-0792, E-ISSN 1747-5074, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article presents an action research project conducted in a Swedish compulsory school. In the project the participants explored ways of identifying actions to improve in the practices of a professional learning community in order to develop teaching. This is important for participants in such communities, since the outcome of developed teaching is challenging to achieve. The exploration is guided by practice theories and is based on three practices: teachers’ peer observations of teaching, teachers’ plan-ning of these observations, and teachers’ and a researcher’s joint conversations based on the observations. By identifying actions in these practices and the relations between them, the findings show that how participating teachers formulated the direction of peer observations influenced the feedback that colleagues gave during observation practices, which in turn influenced both the input to and outcome of the conversations that followed these observa-tions. The study not only shows that this happened, but also how and why it happened, as well as how it can be visualised. Overall, the findings clearly demonstrate what promoted and what pre-vented the teachers’ professional learning and what needed to be improved. © 2023 The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2023
Keywords
Ecologies of practices, development of teaching, improvement in professional learning, peer observation, practice architectures
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-52341 (URN)10.1080/09650792.2023.2298424 (DOI)001130364000001 ()2-s2.0-85180820036 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-27 Created: 2023-12-27 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Håkansson Lindqvist, M. & Nehez, J. (2023). Processtödjares praktiska arbete för förbättringskapacitet hos huvudmän och skolor i Samverkan för bästa skola. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Processtödjares praktiska arbete för förbättringskapacitet hos huvudmän och skolor i Samverkan för bästa skola
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2023. p. 52
Series
FOUS Rapport
Keywords
Samverkan för bästa skola, processtödjare, dialog, artefakter, kritiska incidenter, förbättringskapacitet
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-52110 (URN)
Funder
Stockholm University
Available from: 2023-11-24 Created: 2023-11-24 Last updated: 2023-11-24Bibliographically approved
Wennergren, A.-C., Nehez, J., Nagy, C., C. Godolakis, H., Nilsson, L. & Wirén, F. (2023). Trepartssamtal med digitala observationsunderlag – en framgångsfaktor för lärarstudenters deltagande och resonemang. Nordvei: Nordisk tidsskrift i veiledningspedagogikk, 8(1), 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trepartssamtal med digitala observationsunderlag – en framgångsfaktor för lärarstudenters deltagande och resonemang
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2023 (Swedish)In: Nordvei: Nordisk tidsskrift i veiledningspedagogikk, E-ISSN 2535-3047, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med studien var att generera kunskap om digitala trepartssamtal för utveckling av lärarstudenters praktiska yrkeskunnande. Vi har undersökt vad som kännetecknar lärarstudenters resonemang om sin undervisning i trepartssamtal. Studien genomfördes under studenters sista period av verksamhetsförlagd utbildning där ett nytt distanskoncept för trepartssamtal prövades. Analysen av 16 samtal, vilka baserades på digitala observationsunderlag, visar att merparten av deltagarna hade granskat och reflekterat över underlagen, att studenten fick stort talutrymme och att några av egen kraft förde utvecklade resonemang om sin undervisning. Tre teman kunde urskiljas: studenter motiverar sina didaktiska val, studenter ger olika handlingsalternativ och studenter identifierar konsekvenser för eleverna. Vi konstaterar att det finns ett samband mellan kvaliteten i studenters resonemang över sin undervisning, delade observationsunderlag samt utrymme i tid mellan observation och handledning. Det implicerar att de flesta observationsunderlag innehöll tillräcklig god kvalitet för att kunna resonera över undervisning som legitima deltagare.

Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to generate knowledge about digital triadic conversations for the development of student teachers’ practical professional skills. The study was conducted in a distance context for triadic supervision during the final practicum period for student teachers. The analysis of 16 conversations showed that most students had processed the observation documentation, that the students became legitimate participants in the conversations and was given a considerable time to speak. Three themes were identified: students justified their teaching choices, they provided different courses of action, and they identified consequences for their pupils. We found a relation betweenquality in conversations, digital documentation in observation and time for preparation before the triadic supervision. The results implicate that the level of quality in documentation was good enough for reflection on teaching and for students’ legitimate participation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bergen: University of Bergen, 2023
Keywords
Chained reasoning, digital supervision, legitimate participation, preparation time, practicum, Digitala samtal, förberedelsetid, handledning, kedjade resonemang, legitima deltagare, verksamhetsförlagd utbildning
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50266 (URN)10.15845/ntvp.v8i1.3703 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-03-31 Created: 2023-03-31 Last updated: 2023-04-03Bibliographically approved
Nehez, J., Sülau, V. & Olin, A. (2022). A web of leading for professional learning – leadership from a decentring perspective. Journal of Educational Administration & History, 55(1), 23-38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A web of leading for professional learning – leadership from a decentring perspective
2022 (English)In: Journal of Educational Administration & History, ISSN 0022-0620, E-ISSN 1478-7431, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 23-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research shows that leadership is crucial for professional learning, often highlighting principals' or middle leaders' leading practices. However, in leading, professions with differing roles work together. With a decentring perspective on leadership, we shift the focus from the individual principal or middle leader to joint leading practices. Based on a practice theoretical perspective, this article explores how educational leadership unfolds in shared leading practices in a Swedish case where professional learning is led by principals, middle leaders, and an external development leader. The findings visualise a web of practices focusing on understanding roles, changing structures and changing content for professional learning. The shared leading practices are enabled by shared ideas, different positions, and common arenas for communication, but constrained by simplified assumptions and exclusion of teachers. In this web, single dilemmas are handled in different practices from differing perspectives, with changes in plans for professional learning as an outcome.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2022
Keywords
Decentring leadership, leading practices, practice architectures, ecologies of practices, shared leadership
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-47950 (URN)10.1080/00220620.2022.2114433 (DOI)000846700000001 ()2-s2.0-85136455465 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-25 Created: 2022-08-25 Last updated: 2023-02-17Bibliographically approved
Nehez, J., Blossing, U., Gyllander Torkildsen, L., Lander, R. & Olin, A. (2022). Middle leaders translating knowledge about improvement: Making change in the school and preschool organisation. Journal of educational change, 23(3), 315-341
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Middle leaders translating knowledge about improvement: Making change in the school and preschool organisation
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2022 (English)In: Journal of educational change, ISSN 1389-2843, E-ISSN 1573-1812, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 315-341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article deepens the knowledge of middle leaders’ impact on school improvement and organisation development. More precisely, it focuses on how middle leaders from comprehensive schools and preschools translated improvement strategies and tools from a municipal course on leading school improvement into their own organisations. It is based on interviews with middle leaders, teachers, and principals at two schools and two preschools. Translation theory is used as a theoretical frame. The findings show that the middle leaders translated improvement strategies based on local needs, and for several reasons: for clarification and reduction of roles and improvement areas; structuring improvement work; engaging and involving colleagues in school improvement; and developing a professional culture. When taking the role of translators, the middle leaders became central to progressing the developmental elements of local school organisations. The study recommends investing to provide middle leaders with improvement strategies and an understanding of translation theory to enable translations that aid the development of school organisations. © 2021, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2022
Keywords
middle leaders, organisation development, school improvement, translation theory
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-44191 (URN)10.1007/s10833-021-09418-2 (DOI)000631742200001 ()2-s2.0-85103199150 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-04-21 Created: 2021-04-21 Last updated: 2022-08-25Bibliographically approved
Nehez, J. & Blossing, U. (2022). Practices in different school cultures and principals’ improvement work. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 25(2), 310-330
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Practices in different school cultures and principals’ improvement work
2022 (English)In: International Journal of Leadership in Education, ISSN 1360-3124, E-ISSN 1464-5092, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 310-330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article deepens the knowledge of practices within school cultures and their dynamics in relation to improvement work. It investigates: Which practices can be identified in school improvement among principals at upper secondary school level? How are these practices shaped? How do they promote or prevent the improvement work of the principals? Three of six identified practices challenged the planned improvement. The significance of the study is the practice perspective which visualizes and concretizes the complexity within school cultures in relation to the dynamics of improvement work; it illuminates changes and subcultures as well as external factors shaping the culture. The practice perspective used in the study avoids descriptions of general culture types and results based on experiences, which are common challenges within school culture research. The study suggests researchers conduct practice analyses to illustrate complexity within school cultures and improvement. © 2020 The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon, Oxford: Routledge, 2022
Keywords
school improvement, school culture, practice architectures, school leadership, skolutveckling, skolkultur, skolledarskap, praktikarkitekturer, praktik
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43024 (URN)10.1080/13603124.2020.1759828 (DOI)2-s2.0-85084799991 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-09-01 Created: 2020-09-01 Last updated: 2022-03-10Bibliographically approved
Nehez, J. (2022). Styrning för lärarautonomi i samverkan mellan akademi och skola. Paideia (23), 21-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Styrning för lärarautonomi i samverkan mellan akademi och skola
2022 (Swedish)In: Paideia, ISSN 1904-9633, no 23, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Denna artikel presenterar en studie om hur lärares autonomi möjliggörs och begränsas i två olika samverkansprojekt mellan forskare och lärare. Sådan samverkan sägs riskera att styra lärare snarare än att stärka dem. Den presenterade studien visar dock att autonomi kan utvecklas i styrd samverkan, men också undergrävas vid utebliven styrning. Att samverkansmodeller delvis också är styrningsmodeller behöver således inte vara ett problem. Ledarskap, ägarskap och ansvar krävs i samverkan för lärarautonomi. Forskare och skolledare bör ta ett gemensamt ansvar för att hörsamma lärare och i partnerskap utveckla den samverkanskompetens som behövs för balans mellan autonomi och styrning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frederikshavn: Dafolo Forlag, 2022
Keywords
autonomi, partnerskap, praktiknära forskning, samverkan, samverkansforskning, samverkanskompetens, styrning
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-47905 (URN)
Available from: 2022-08-19 Created: 2022-08-19 Last updated: 2023-01-12Bibliographically approved
Nehez, J. (2022). To be, or not to be, that is not the question: External researchers in emancipatory action research. Educational action research, 1-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To be, or not to be, that is not the question: External researchers in emancipatory action research
2022 (English)In: Educational action research, ISSN 0965-0792, E-ISSN 1747-5074, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article nuances an ongoing discussion among researchers about external researchers in emancipatory action research in the educational field. It examines opportunities and challenges for emancipatory action research for participants in top-down and bottom-up initiated action research projects with external researchers. An analysis based on variables for studying critical emancipatory action research highlights four central questions in both projects: whose choice, improvement for what, whose voice and improvement for whom. An external researcher could empower the understanding of the participants involved in terms of what to improve, contribute to all voices being heard, and strengthen improvements in those who were not in position of power in both top-down and bottom-up initiated action research. However, in the top-down initiative, the external researcher could not emancipate the participants in relation to the question whose choice it is to conduct action research, unlike in the bottom-up initiative. The findings indicate that involving external researchers in action research aiming for emancipation or not is not the relevant question. Instead, the question of relevance is what is required from external researchers in order to contribute to emancipation, a central question for all participants, for developing meaningful collaboration between school organisations and universities. © 2022 The Author(s). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: , 2022
Keywords
bottom-up, collaboration, empowerment, participatory action research, top-down
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-47904 (URN)10.1080/09650792.2022.2084132 (DOI)000804684200001 ()2-s2.0-85131378667 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-18 Created: 2022-08-18 Last updated: 2023-08-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9293-0445

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