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Bocharova, I., Kudryashov, B., Rabi, M., Lyamin, N., Dankers, W., Frick, E. & Vinel, A. (2019). Characterizing Packet Losses in Vehicular Networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 68(9), 8347-8358
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 8347-8358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To enable testing and performance evaluation of new connected and autonomous driving functions, it is important to characterize packet losses caused by degradation in vehicular (V2X) communication channels. In this paper we suggest an approach to constructing packet loss models based on the socalled Pseudo-Markov chains (PMC). The PMC based model needs only short training sequences, has low computational complexity, and yet provides more precise approximations than known techniques. We show how to learn PMC models from either empirical records of packet receptions, or from analytical models of fluctuations in the received signal strength. In particular, we validate our approach by applying it on (i) V2X packet reception data collected from an active safety test run, which used the LTE network of the AstaZero automotive testing site in Sweden, and (ii) variants of the Rician fading channel models corresponding to two models of correlations of packet losses. We also show that initializing the Baum-Welch algorithm with a second order PMC model leads to a high accuracy model. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Autonomous vehicles, cooperative ITS, VANET, V2X, channel estimation, hidden Markov models, fading channels
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40265 (URN)10.1109/TVT.2019.2930689 (DOI)000487191500006 ()2-s2.0-85073793712 (Scopus ID)
Projects
AstaMoCA ”Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

A short version of this paper has been presented at 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) which was held on July 7-12, 2019 in Paris, France.

Funding: the Knowledge Foundation in the framework of AstaMoCA ”Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019), COST Action CA15127 (”Resilient communication services protecting end-user applications from disaster-based failures – RECODIS”) supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology), Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) in the framework of Strategic Mobility Program (2019-2020), from the Estonian Research Council under the grant PRG49 and from the ELLIIT Strategic Research Network.

Available from: 2019-07-25 Created: 2019-07-25 Last updated: 2020-02-03Bibliographically approved
Bocharova, I., Kudryashov, B., Lyamin, N., Frick, E., Rabi, M. & Vinel, A. (2019). Low Delay Inter-Packet Coding in Vehicular Networks. Future Internet, 11(12), Article ID 212.
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2019 (English)In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITSs), vehicles need to wirelessly connect with Roadside units (RSUs) over limited durations when such point-to-point connections are possible. One example of such communications is the downloading of maps to the C-ITS vehicles. Another example occurs in the testing of C-ITS vehicles, where the tested vehicles upload trajectory records to the roadside units. Because of real-time requirements, and limited bandwidths, data are sent as User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets. We propose an inter-packet error control coding scheme that improves the recovery of data when some of these packets are lost; we argue that the coding scheme has to be one of convolutional coding. We measure performance through the session averaged probability of successfully delivering groups of packets. We analyze two classes of convolution codes and propose a low-complexity decoding procedure suitable for network applications. We conclude that Reed–Solomon convolutional codes perform better than Wyner–Ash codes at the cost of higher complexity. We show this by simulation on the memoryless binary erasure channel (BEC) and channels with memory, and through simulations of the IEEE 802.11p DSRC/ITS-G5 network at the C-ITS test track AstaZero.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
V2X, C-ITS, IEEE 802.11p, error-correcting codes, convolutional codes, fading channels
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40702 (URN)10.3390/fi11100212 (DOI)000493523100010 ()2-s2.0-85073783875 (Scopus ID)
Projects
AstaMoCA “Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Funding: 

The research leading to the results reported in this work has received funding from the Knowledge Foundation in the framework of AstaMoCA “Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019), COST Action CA15127 (“Resilient communication services protecting end-user applications from disaster-based failures—RECODIS”) supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology), Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) in the framework of Strategic Mobility Program (2019–2020), from Eesti Teadusagentuur under the grant PRG49 and from the ELLIIT Strategic Research Network.

Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2019-12-10Bibliographically approved
Bocharova, I., Kudryashov, B., Rabi, M., Lyamin, N., Dankers, W., Frick, E. & Vinel, A. (2019). Modeling Packet Losses in Communication Networks. In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory: Proceedings. Paper presented at IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), Paris, France, July 7-12, 2019 (pp. 1012-1016).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling Packet Losses in Communication Networks
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2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory: Proceedings, 2019, p. 1012-1016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An approach to constructing discrete models of packet losses suitable for a wide variety of communication network applications is studied. It is based on estimating parameters of probabilistic automata described via so-called pseudo-Markov chains. The new technique is applied both to approximating a discrete time analog process at the output of known channel models and to the experimental data stream. Comparison of models is performed by computing probabilities of more than m losses out of n transmitted packets (P (m, n)). It is shown that for the Rician fading channel with exponential correlation and correlation determined by a Bessel filter, the obtained rank-two and rank-three discrete modes, respectively, provide high accuracy coincidence of P (m, n) performances. The rank-three discrete model computed on the experimental data stream obtained from the LTE network provides significantly better approximation of P (≥ m, n) performance than that obtained by the Baum-Welch algorithm.

National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40634 (URN)10.1109/ISIT.2019.8849400 (DOI)000489100301021 ()2-s2.0-85073163232 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-9291-2 (ISBN)978-1-5386-9290-5 (ISBN)978-1-5386-9292-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), Paris, France, July 7-12, 2019
Projects
AstaMoCA
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Funder: European Cooperation in Science and Technology & Estonian Research Council

Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2020-02-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1155-5717

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