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Raats, K. (2024). Advancing Human-Centred Algorithm Design Through Reflective Practice. In: Proceedings of the 57th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: . Paper presented at Hawaii International Conference of System Sciences (HICSS), Hawaiian Village, Waikiki, Hawaii, USA, 3-6 Jan, 2024.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advancing Human-Centred Algorithm Design Through Reflective Practice
2024 (English)In: Proceedings of the 57th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2024Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicle (AV) algorithms tend to be designed with a techno-solutionism mindset, causing algorithms to fail in real-world applications. This can be attributed to algorithm developers’ lack of routines and knowledge to consider the environments and circumstances AVs are intended to partake in. This paper argues for shifting towards a more responsible human-centred algorithm design (HCAD). It addresses this by demonstrating the different reflective practice qualities obtained by engaging algorithm designers from four companies with ethnographic materials. The study shows that Design Ethnographic (DE) approach allowed developers to consider the value of AVs from sociotechnical perspectives and facilitated collaborative learning and debating about what problems truly need solving to bring societal value. This demonstrates how ethnographically infused HCAD helps expand algorithm developers’ opportunities to participate responsibly in value co-creation for society.

Keywords
Reflective practice, autonomous vehicles, human-centred algorithm design, design ethnography
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51945 (URN)978-0-9981331-7-1 (ISBN)
Conference
Hawaii International Conference of System Sciences (HICSS), Hawaiian Village, Waikiki, Hawaii, USA, 3-6 Jan, 2024
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-04786
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2024-01-12
Raats, K. (2024). Algorithm developers’ strategies for human-centredness when developing algorithms for autonomous vehicles: the role of organisational context. In: : . Paper presented at European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2024), Paphos, Cyprus, 13-19 June, 2024.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Algorithm developers’ strategies for human-centredness when developing algorithms for autonomous vehicles: the role of organisational context
2024 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
Human-Centred Algorithm Design; Algorithm Development; Human-Centred Design; Autonomous Vehicles Development
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51946 (URN)
Conference
European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2024), Paphos, Cyprus, 13-19 June, 2024
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-04786
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2023-11-23
Raats, K., Fors, V. & Ebbesson, E. (2023). Tailoring Co-creation for Responsible Innovation: A Design Ethnographic Approach. In: Esko Penttinen; Sampsa Suvivuo; Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen; Matti Rossi; Hadi Ghanbari (Ed.), 14th Scandinavian Conference On Information Systems: The proceedings of the 14th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems (SCIS) held in Porvoo, Finland, 2023. Paper presented at Fourteenth Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems (SCIS2023), Porvoo, Finland, August 13-16 Augusti, 2023 . , Article ID 15.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailoring Co-creation for Responsible Innovation: A Design Ethnographic Approach
2023 (English)In: 14th Scandinavian Conference On Information Systems: The proceedings of the 14th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems (SCIS) held in Porvoo, Finland, 2023 / [ed] Esko Penttinen; Sampsa Suvivuo; Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen; Matti Rossi; Hadi Ghanbari, 2023, article id 15Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is hard to predict the impact of technology on society before it is developed enough. For example, the issue can be attributed to the need for more cross-sectoral collaboration in the design process. However, a solution for anticipating such outcomes has been proposed through the quadruple helix innovation model, which states that the involvement of government, academia, industry, and the public is essential in innovation systems. The question of how this collaboration can successfully be staged to foresee possible impacts is an empirical endeavour. This paper presents an iterative case study of how ethnographic material can be used to ongoingly tailor speculative co-creation to facilitate responsible innovation (RI) principles. The result is reflected through two lenses; the tools developed in the project to facilitate co-creation activities and the stakeholder reflections evoked through these tools.

Keywords
tailoring, co-creation, responsible innovation, design ethnography, speculative design
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51455 (URN)978-952-64-9639-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Fourteenth Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems (SCIS2023), Porvoo, Finland, August 13-16 Augusti, 2023 
Funder
Vinnova, 2018-02088
Available from: 2023-08-17 Created: 2023-08-17 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Raats, K. (2023). Towards trustworthy intelligent vehicle technology development. (Doctoral dissertation). Halmstad: Halmstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards trustworthy intelligent vehicle technology development
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses the unresolved issues of responsibility and accountability in autonomous vehicle (AV) development, advocating for human-centred approaches to enhance trustworthiness. While AVs hold the potential for improved safety, mobility, and environmental impact, poorly designed algorithms pose risks, leading to public distrust. Trust research focuses on technology-related aspects but overlooks trust within broader social and cultural contexts. Efforts are underway to understand algorithm design practices, acknowledging their potential unintended consequences. For example, Baumer (2017) advocates human-centred algorithm design (HCAD) to align with user perspectives and reduce risks. HCAD incorporates theoretical, participatory, and speculative approaches, emphasising user and stakeholder engagement. This aligns with broader calls for prioritising societal considerations in technology development (Stilgoe, 2013). The research in this thesis responds to these calls by integrating theories on trust and trustworthiness, autonomous vehicle development, and human-centred approaches in empirical investigations guided by the following research question: “How can human-centred approaches support the development of trustworthy intelligent vehicle technology?” This thesis approaches the question through design ethnography to ground the explorations in people’s real-life routines, practices and anticipations and demonstrate how design ethnographic techniques can infuse AV development with human-centred understandings of people’s trust in AVs. The studies reported in this thesis include a) interviews and participatory observations of algorithm designers, b) interviews and probing with residents, and c) staging collaborative, reflective practice through the design ethnographic materials and co-creation with citizens, city, academic and industry stakeholders, including AV algorithm designers. 

Through these empirical explorations, this thesis suggests an answer to the research question by coining a novel and timely framework for intelligent vehicle development: trustworthy algorithm design (TAD). TAD demonstrates trustworthiness as an ongoing process, not just a measurable outcome from human-technology interactions. It calls to consider autonomous vehicle algorithms as construed through a network of stakeholders, practices, and technologies and, therefore, defines trustworthy algorithm design as a continuous collaborative learning and evolvement process of different disciplines and sectors. Furthermore, the TAD framework suggests that for autonomous vehicle algorithm design to be trustworthy, it must be responsive, interventional, intentional and transdisciplinary. 

The TAD framework integrates ideas and strategies from different well-known trajectories of research in the field of responsible and human-centred technology development: Human-Centred Algorithm Design (Baumer, 2017), algorithms as culture (Seaver, 2017) and Responsible Innovation (Stilgoe et al., 2013). The thesis contributes to this field by empirically investigating how this integrated framework helps expand existing understandings of interactional trust in intelligent technologies and include the relevance of participatory processes of trustworthiness and how these processes are nurtured through cross-sector co-learning and design ethnographic materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2023. p. 94
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 103
Keywords
Trustworthy Algorithm Design, Trust, Design Ethnography, Autonomous Vehicles
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Information Studies Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51930 (URN)978-91-89587-20-5 (ISBN)978-91-89587-19-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-12-08, S1020, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
2017-03058_Vinnova / Trust in Intelligent Cars (TIC)
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-04786Vinnova, 2018-02088Vinnova, 2017-03058
Available from: 2023-11-10 Created: 2023-11-08 Last updated: 2023-12-01Bibliographically approved
Pink, S., Raats, K., Lindgren, T., Osz, K. & Fors, V. (2022). An Interventional Design Anthropology of Emerging Technologies: Working Through an Interdisciplinary Field. In: Maja Hojer Bruun, Ayo Wahlberg, Rachel Douglas-Jones, Cathrine Hasse, Klaus Hoeyer, Dorthe Brogård Kristensen, Brit Ross Winthereik (Ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of the Anthropology of Technology: (pp. 183-200). Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Interventional Design Anthropology of Emerging Technologies: Working Through an Interdisciplinary Field
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2022 (English)In: The Palgrave Handbook of the Anthropology of Technology / [ed] Maja Hojer Bruun, Ayo Wahlberg, Rachel Douglas-Jones, Cathrine Hasse, Klaus Hoeyer, Dorthe Brogård Kristensen, Brit Ross Winthereik, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2022, p. 183-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Emerging technologies—such as autonomous driving (AD) cars, blockchain, robotics, and drones—are increasingly part of popular narratives and industry and policy agendas. They are commonly understood as new digital, data-driven, intelligent, or automated technological innovations in development, or at the cusp of being launched into a market. Thus, the anthropological question of how they might become part of everyday, experiential, possible worlds demands our attention. In this chapter we outline an approach to emerging technologies that is rooted in design anthropology and takes an interventional stance. In doing so we situated design anthropology of emerging technologies within an interdisciplinary field which has tended to be dominated by technologically determinist approaches. Through the example of the notion of trust in AD cars, we show how policy, industry, engineering, and social science approaches configure to provide different and critical understandings. Drawing on our own design ethnographic research, we show how design anthropological attention to people offers an alternative and viable mode of understanding how emerging technologies become part of emerging worlds. © 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2022
Keywords
Autonomous driving cars, Design anthropology, Emerging technologies, Innovation, Trust
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46519 (URN)10.1007/978-981-16-7084-8_9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85160482433 (Scopus ID)978-981-16-7083-1 (ISBN)978-981-16-7084-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-03-25 Created: 2022-03-25 Last updated: 2023-11-10Bibliographically approved
Fors, V., Brodersen, M., Raats, K., Pink, S. & Smith, R. C. (2022). Investigating ADM in Shared Mobility: A design ethnographic approach (1ed.). In: Sarah Pink; Martin Berg; Deborah Lupton; Minna Ruckenstein (Ed.), Everyday Automation: Experiencing and Anticipating Emerging Technologies (pp. 197-212). London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating ADM in Shared Mobility: A design ethnographic approach
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2022 (English)In: Everyday Automation: Experiencing and Anticipating Emerging Technologies / [ed] Sarah Pink; Martin Berg; Deborah Lupton; Minna Ruckenstein, London: Routledge, 2022, 1, p. 197-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, we demonstrate how a design ethnographic approach to future algorithm-powered mobility solutions opens up possibilities to research social implications of automated decision making (ADM) from a situational perspective, by investigating the context of ADM rather than simply observing the technology itself and how it is used. The context of our discussion is one where the development of autonomous vehicles and artificial intelligence (AI) applications, in the service of transportation, has sparked a renewed research interest into shared mobility systems, and how these can respond to emerging challenges of rising traffic congestion and pollution levels. Our research addresses the gap between algorithm-based approaches to designing for optimizing, streamlining, and efficiency, the questions of how these systems and services are activated in people’s everyday life, and how they interfere with decision-making around traveling and shared mobility. We argue that to understand how these services and technologies will be adopted and implemented in society, research attention must be directed to people in real-life situations where this type of ADM operates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2022 Edition: 1
Keywords
automation, design ethnography, shared mobiliy
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46580 (URN)10.4324/9781003170884-17 (DOI)2-s2.0-85140566742 (Scopus ID)978-0-367-77340-3 (ISBN)978-0-367-77338-0 (ISBN)978-1-003-17088-4 (ISBN)
Projects
Design Ethnographic Living Labs for Future Urban Mobility – A Human Approach (AHA II)
Funder
Vinnova
Note

OA Funder: Malmö University Data Society

Available from: 2022-04-04 Created: 2022-04-04 Last updated: 2024-01-23Bibliographically approved
Pink, S., Smith, R. C., Fors, V., Lund, J., Raats, K., Osz, K., . . . Broström, R. (2021). Mobility as a Service Through Design: A Human Approach (1ed.). In: S. Coxon; R. Napper (Ed.), Advancing a Design Approach to Enriching Public Mobility: (pp. 1-17). Cham: Springer Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobility as a Service Through Design: A Human Approach
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2021 (English)In: Advancing a Design Approach to Enriching Public Mobility / [ed] S. Coxon; R. Napper, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2021, 1, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter explains how designing for future intelligent mobility systems is advanced by a human-centered approach, based in design anthropology. It provides an accessible introduction the theory and methodology of this approach, the production of ethnographic insights, and their translation into design probes for use workshops tailored to enable stakeholders to actively co-design future mobility and autonomous vehicle services and outlines the potentials and challenges of engaging diverse stakeholders—from industry and policy to the people who will use future technologies and services—in the development of future mobility. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2021 Edition: 1
Series
Intelligent Systems Reference Library, ISSN 1868-4394, E-ISSN 1868-4408 ; 198
Keywords
Mobility as a service, Autonomous driving vehicles, Design anthropology, Human-centered design, Co-design, Urban planning, Design ethnography, Futures
National Category
Social Sciences Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-45526 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-64722-3_1 (DOI)2-s2.0-85102869862 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-64721-6 (ISBN)978-3-030-64722-3 (ISBN)
Funder
Vinnova, 2018-02088
Available from: 2021-09-03 Created: 2021-09-03 Last updated: 2023-12-01Bibliographically approved
Pink, S., Osz, K., Raats, K., Lindgren, T. & Fors, V. (2020). Design anthropology for emerging technologies: Trust and sharing in autonomous driving futures. Design Studies, 69, Article ID 100942.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design anthropology for emerging technologies: Trust and sharing in autonomous driving futures
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2020 (English)In: Design Studies, ISSN 0142-694X, E-ISSN 1872-6909, Vol. 69, article id 100942Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article we demonstrate how design anthropology theory, methodology and practice can be mobilised to create interventions in how possible human futures with emerging technologies are understood and imagined. Drawing on our research into Human Experience and Expectations of Autonomous Driving (AD) cars we show how: we engaged ethnographic insights to redefine concepts of trust and sharing which contest dominant problem-solution narratives; and we mobilised these insights in applied contexts, through our AD Futures cards which employ ethnographic quotes and examples to disrupt common assumptions, align stakeholders with everyday experience, and pose new questions. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
design anthropology, interdisciplinarity, design methodology, automotive design
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-42018 (URN)10.1016/j.destud.2020.04.002 (DOI)000556769600003 ()2-s2.0-85088830637 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Human experiences and expectations on Autonomous Driving (HEAD)
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-02515
Available from: 2020-05-07 Created: 2020-05-07 Last updated: 2023-11-10Bibliographically approved
Raats, K., Fors, V. & Pink, S. (2020). Trusting autonomous vehicles: An interdisciplinary approach. Transport Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 7, Article ID 100201.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trusting autonomous vehicles: An interdisciplinary approach
2020 (English)In: Transport Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 7, article id 100201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The theoretical concept of trust has been identified as highly important to the successful design of intelligent technologies such as autonomous vehicles (AVs). In human-centred transport research this has resulted in a focus on trust in the technical design of future AVs and has raised the question of how the conditions that form trust change as technologies become more intelligent. In this article we discuss the first stage of an interdisciplinary project that brought together ethnographic and experimental user studies into trust in intelligent cars. This stage focused on the development of an interdisciplinary methodological framework for the user studies, through a review of 258 empirical HCI research articles on trust in automation and AVs. The review investigated the following research questions: a) what are the key themes in HCI methodologies used to research trust in automation and AVs; b) how do they account for trust in AVs as part of wider contexts; and c) how can these methodologies be developed to include more than momentary and individual human-machine interactions. We found that while theoretical understandings of trust in automated technologies acknowledge the relevance of the wider context in which the interaction occurs, existing methodologies predominantly involve experimental studies in simulated environments with a focus on reliance related aspects of trust. We identified that ethnographic user studies can potentially contribute to new connections between theoretical understandings and conventional experimental methods. Therefore, we propose a framework for an interdisciplinary approach that combines experimental and ethnographic methodologies to investigate trust in AVs. © 2020 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Human-computer interaction trust research, intelligent automation, autonomous vehicles, emerging technologies
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43009 (URN)10.1016/j.trip.2020.100201 (DOI)2-s2.0-85089915395 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-03058
Available from: 2020-08-28 Created: 2020-08-28 Last updated: 2023-11-10Bibliographically approved
Raats, K., Fors, V. & Pink, S. (2019). Understanding Trust in Automated Vehicles. In: OZCHI'19: Proceedings of the 31st Australian Conference on Human-Computer-Interaction. Paper presented at 31st Australian Conference on Human-Computer-Interaction (OZCHI'19), Fremantle, WA, Australia, December 2–5, 2019 (pp. 352-358). New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding Trust in Automated Vehicles
2019 (English)In: OZCHI'19: Proceedings of the 31st Australian Conference on Human-Computer-Interaction, New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, p. 352-358Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are developed to increase safety, and bring environmental benefits. Nevertheless, there is growing skepticism in society regarding these technologies, a tendency that centres issues of trust in research and design of future AVs. In this paper, we raise the question of how trust has been understood and researched in relation to automation within the field of HumanComputer Interaction (HCI) thus far and what has been identified as key issues to deepen our understanding of personal trust in contemporary AVs. To answer this question, we systematically reviewed 232 HCI research articles on trust in automation and AVs to identify a) key aspects of contemporary trust research theories and methodologies, and b) what dimensions of trust are in need of further investigation in relation to UX perspectives on trust. Based on the review, we discuss methodological implications of focusing on the experience of trust in future research. © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019
Keywords
trust, automation, autonomous vehicles, user experience, design ethnography
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40822 (URN)10.1145/3369457.3369493 (DOI)000555452200043 ()2-s2.0-85078704873 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-7696-9 (ISBN)
Conference
31st Australian Conference on Human-Computer-Interaction (OZCHI'19), Fremantle, WA, Australia, December 2–5, 2019
Projects
Trust in Intelligent Cars
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-03058
Available from: 2019-11-01 Created: 2019-11-01 Last updated: 2023-11-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7274-6002

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