hh.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Biography [eng]

Dr. Ross James Friel’s research focuses on advanced materials and processes to bring about new engineering capabilities in electronics, composites and sensors. This is primarily achieved through exploration and boundary pushing of 3D Printing, Additive and Hybrid Manufacturing techniques that are then applied to new areas of scientific and engineering innovation.

Notable successes of Dr. Friel's work are:

  • The creation of customisable microfluidic flow cells with on board spectroscopy to increase chemical reaction understanding.
  • Direct embedment of freeform electrical circuitry into metal matrix composites for real-time, harsh environment, structural health monitoring.
  • A proof of concept for the utilisation of lunar regolith material (‘Moon Dust’) with 3D Printing as a viable method for creating future moon base infrastructure.  
Publications (10 of 26) Show all publications
Friel, R., Gerling-Gedin, M., Nilsson, E. & Andreasson, B. P. (2019). 3D Printed Radar Lenses with Anti-Reflective Structures. Designs, 3(2), Article ID 28.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Printed Radar Lenses with Anti-Reflective Structures
2019 (English)In: Designs, E-ISSN 2411-9660, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine if 3D printed lenses with wavelength specific anti-reflective (AR) surface structures would improve beam intensity and thus radar efficiency for a Printed Circuit Board (PCB)-based 60 GHz radar. This would have potential for improved low-cost radar lenses for the consumer product market. Methods: A hyperbolic lens was designed in 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) software and was then modified with a wavelength specified AR structure. Electromagnetic computer simulation was performed on both the ‘smooth’ and ‘AR structure’ lenses and compared to actual 60 GHz radar measurements of 3D printed polylactic acid (PLA) lenses. Results: The simulation results showed an increase of 10% in signal intensity of the AR structure lens over the smooth lens. Actual measurement showed an 8% increase in signal of the AR structure lens over the smooth lens. Conclusions: Low cost and readily available Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) 3D printing has been shown to be capable of printing an AR structure coated hyperbolic lens for millimeter wavelength radar applications. These 3D Printed AR structure lenses are effective in improving radar measurements over non-AR structure lenses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
radar, 3D printing, lenses, anti-reflective coatings, millimeter wave radar, simulation, additive manufacturing, quasi-optics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39695 (URN)10.3390/designs3020028 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 2016/0303
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-07-31Bibliographically approved
Li, J., Monaghan, T., Kay, R., Friel, R. J. & Harris, R. (2018). Enabling internal electronic circuitry within additively manufactured metal structures - the effect and importance of inter-laminar topography. Rapid prototyping journal, 24(1), 204-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling internal electronic circuitry within additively manufactured metal structures - the effect and importance of inter-laminar topography
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 204-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the potential of ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to incorporate the direct printing of electrical materials and arrangements (conductors and insulators) at the interlaminar interface of parts during manufacture to allow the integration of functional and optimal electrical circuitries inside dense metallic objects without detrimental effect on the overall mechanical integrity. This holds promise to release transformative device functionality and applications of smart metallic devices and products.

Design/methodology/approach

To ensure the proper electrical insulation between the printed conductors and metal matrices, an insulation layer with sufficient thickness is required to accommodate the rough interlaminar surface which is inherent to the UAM process. This in turn increases the total thickness of printed circuitries and thereby adversely affects the integrity of the UAM part. A specific solution is proposed to optimise the rough interlaminar surface through deforming the UAM substrates via sonotrode rolling or UAM processing.

Findings

The surface roughness (Sa) could be reduced from 4.5 to 4.1 µm by sonotrode rolling and from 4.5 to 0.8 µm by ultrasonic deformation. Peel testing demonstrated that sonotrode-rolled substrates could maintain their mechanical strength, while the performance of UAM-deformed substrates degraded under same welding conditions ( approximately 12 per cent reduction compared with undeformed substrates). This was attributed to the work hardening of deformation process which was identified via dual-beam focussed ion beam–scanning electron microscope investigation.

Originality/value

The sonotrode rolling was identified as a viable methodology in allowing printed electrical circuitries in UAM. It enabled a decrease in the thickness of printed electrical circuitries by ca. 25 per cent. © Emerald Publishing Limited

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Topography, 3D printing, Aluminium alloy, Grain refinement, Mechanical strength, Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM)
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37843 (URN)10.1108/RPJ-08-2016-0135 (DOI)000424638800023 ()2-s2.0-85041829798 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
Goulas, A., Binner, J. G., Engstrøm, D. S., Harris, R. A. & Friel, R. J. (2018). Mechanical behaviour of additively manufactured lunar regolith simulant components. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part L, journal of materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical behaviour of additively manufactured lunar regolith simulant components
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part L, journal of materials, ISSN 1464-4207, E-ISSN 2041-3076Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing and its related techniques have frequently been put forward as a promising candidate for planetary in-situ manufacturing, from building life-sustaining habitats on the Moon to fabricating various replacements parts, aiming to support future extra-terrestrial human activity. This paper investigates the mechanical behaviour of lunar regolith simulant material components, which is a potential future space engineering material, manufactured by a laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing system. The influence of laser energy input during processing was associated with the evolution of component porosity, measured via optical and scanning electron microscopy in combination with gas expansion pycnometry. The compressive strength performance and Vickers micro-hardness of the components were analysed and related back to the processing history and resultant microstructure of the lunar regolith simulant build material. Fabricated structures exhibited a relative porosity of 44–49% and densities ranging from 1.76 to 2.3 g cm−3, with a maximum compressive strength of 4.2 ± 0.1 MPa and elastic modulus of 287.3 ± 6.6 MPa, the former is comparable to a typical masonry clay brick (3.5 MPa). The additive manufacturing parts also had an average hardness value of 657 ± 14 HV0.05/15, better than borosilicate glass (580 HV). This study has shed significant insight into realising the potential of a laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process to deliver functional engineering assets via in-situ and abundant material sources that can be potentially used for future engineering applications in aerospace and astronautics. © 2018, IMechE 2018.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
In-situ resource utilisation, laser additive manufacturing, lunar construction, lunar regolith, mechanical properties, powder bed fusion
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37842 (URN)10.1177/1464420718777932 (DOI)2-s2.0-85047802317 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-25
Bournias-Varotsis, A., Friel, R. J., Harris, R. A. & Engstrøm, D. S. (2018). Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing as a form-then-bond process for embedding electronic circuitry into a metal matrix. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 32, 664-675
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing as a form-then-bond process for embedding electronic circuitry into a metal matrix
2018 (English)In: Journal of Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1526-6125, Vol. 32, p. 664-675Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) is a hybrid manufacturing process that involves the layer-by-layer ultrasonic welding of metal foils in the solid state with periodic CNC machining to achieve the desired 3D shape. UAM enables the fabrication of metal smart structures, because it allows the embedding of various components into the metal matrix, due to the high degree of plastic metal flow and the relatively low temperatures encountered during the layer bonding process. To further the embedding capabilities of UAM, in this paper we examine the ultrasonic welding of aluminium foils with features machined prior to bonding. These pre-machined features can be stacked layer-by-layer to create pockets for the accommodation of fragile components, such as electronic circuitry, prior to encapsulation. This manufacturing approach transforms UAM into a “form-then-bond” process. By studying the deformation of aluminium foils during UAM, a statistical model was developed that allowed the prediction of the final location, dimensions and tolerances of pre-machined features for a set of UAM process parameters. The predictive power of the model was demonstrated by designing a cavity to accommodate an electronic component (i.e. a surface mount resistor) prior to its encapsulation within the metal matrix. We also further emphasised the importance of the tensioning force in the UAM process. The current work paves the way for the creation of a novel system for the fabrication of three-dimensional electronic circuits embedded into an additively manufactured complex metal composite. © 2018 The Society of Manufacturing Engineers

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Additive manufacturing, 3D printing, Embedded electronics, Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing, Ultrasonic consolidation, Plastic deformation
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37962 (URN)10.1016/j.jmapro.2018.03.027 (DOI)000435057100064 ()2-s2.0-85045029975 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK via the Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing.

Available from: 2018-09-13 Created: 2018-09-13 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Goulas, A., Binner, J. G. .., Harris, R. A. & Friel, R. J. (2017). Assessing extraterrestrial regolith material simulants for in-situ resource utilisation based 3D printing. Applied Materials Today, 6, 54-61
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing extraterrestrial regolith material simulants for in-situ resource utilisation based 3D printing
2017 (English)In: Applied Materials Today, ISSN 2352-9407, Vol. 6, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research paper investigates the suitability of ceramic multi-component materials, which are found on the Martian and Lunar surfaces, for 3D printing (aka Additive Manufacturing) of solid structures. 3D printing is a promising solution as part of the cutting edge field of future in situ space manufacturing applications.

3D printing of physical assets from simulated Martian and Lunar regolith was successfully performed during this work by utilising laser-based powder bed fusion equipment. Extensive evaluation of the raw regolith simulants was conducted via Optical and Electron Microscopy(SEM), Visible–Near Infrared/Infrared (Vis–NIR/IR) Spectroscopy and thermal characterisation via Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The analysis results led to the characterisation of key properties of these multi-component ceramic materials with regard to their processability via powder bed fusion 3D printing.

The Lunar and Martian simulant regolith analogues demonstrated spectral absorbance values of up to 92% within the Vis–NIR spectra. Thermal analysis demonstrated that these materials respond very differently to laser processing, with a high volatility (30% weight change) for the Martian analogue as opposed to its less volatile Lunar counterpart (<1% weight change). Results also showed a range of multiple thermal occurrences associated with melting, glass transition and crystallisation reactions. The morphological features of the powder particles are identified as contributing to densification limitations for powder bed fusion processing.

This investigation has shown that – provided that the simulants are good matches for the actual regoliths – the lunar material is a viable candidate material for powder bed fusion 3D printing, whereas Martian regolith is not. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
3D printing, Additive Manufacturing, Regolith, Simulants, ISRU, Space
National Category
Ceramics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37844 (URN)10.1016/j.apmt.2016.11.004 (DOI)000398981100007 ()2-s2.0-85009062589 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
Goulas, A. & Friel, R. J. (2017). Laser sintering of ceramic materials for aeronautical and astronautical applications. In: Milan Brandt (Ed.), Laser Additive Manufacturing: Materials, Design, Technologies, and Applications (pp. 373-398). Amsterdam: Woodhead Publishing Limited
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laser sintering of ceramic materials for aeronautical and astronautical applications
2017 (English)In: Laser Additive Manufacturing: Materials, Design, Technologies, and Applications / [ed] Milan Brandt, Amsterdam: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2017, p. 373-398Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ceramic products have been manufactured for many decades via conventional techniques such as extrusion, oven sintering, and casting. However, these methods have several inherent disadvantages with regard to the possible shape and structure, which limits their application range. The advent of laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a key enabler in creating ceramic components with considerably greater design freedom. The technology is allowing the creation of ceramic components that not only meet the increasing material requirements of aero/astro applications but also provide new opportunities in terms of the complex structures that can now be produced. Ceramics represents a new frontier for these LAM systems – one with many challenges and research needs; however, the material properties that ceramics offer over polymers and metals make the additive manufacturing of ceramic components an enticing engineering opportunity for aerospace, astronautical and potentially many other technology areas. This chapter presents an overview of the state of the art of ceramic materials in LAM for aerospace and astronautic applications. Section 14.2 explains the fundamentals of ceramic materials and includes examples of their traditional manufacturing methods. Section 14.3 focuses on the application of ceramic materials to the challenging engineering realm of aeronautics and astronautics, accompanied by examples from their main application areas (eg, thermal and ballistic shielding). Section 14.4 goes into depth on LAM, explaining the challenges and implications of laser processing ceramics, the benefits of the approach and examples from the current state of the art. Finally, 14.5 Future developments, 14.6 Conclusions highlight some of the likely future developments in the area and conclude the chapter. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2017
Series
Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials ; 88
Keywords
3D printing, Additive manufacturing, Aeronautics, Astronautics, Ceramics, Laser
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37963 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-08-100433-3.00014-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85009833907 (Scopus ID)9780081004333 (ISBN)9780081004340 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-09-13 Created: 2018-09-13 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
Li, J., Monaghan, T., Nguyen, T. T., Kay, R. W., Friel, R. J. & Harris, R. A. (2017). Multifunctional metal matrix composites with embedded printed electrical materials fabricated by Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing. Composites Part B: Engineering, 113, 342-354
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multifunctional metal matrix composites with embedded printed electrical materials fabricated by Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 113, p. 342-354Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work proposes a new method for the fabrication of multifunctional Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) structures featuring embedded printed electrical materials through Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM). Printed electrical circuitries combining conductive and insulating materials were directly embedded within the interlaminar region of UAM aluminium matrices to realise previously unachievable multifunctional composites. A specific surface flattening process was developed to eliminate the risk of short circuiting between the metal matrices and printed conductors, and simultaneously reduce the total thickness of the printed circuitry. This acted to improve the integrity of the UAM MMC's and their resultant mechanical strength. The functionality of embedded printed circuitries was examined via four-point probe measurement. DualBeam Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling were used to investigate the microstructures of conductive materials to characterize the effect of UAM embedding energy whilst peel testing was used to quantify mechanical strength of MMC structures in combination with optical microscopy. Through this process, fully functioning MMC structures featuring embedded insulating and conductive materials were realised whilst still maintaining high peel resistances of ca. 70 N and linear weld densities of ca. 90%. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kidlington: Pergamon Press, 2017
Keywords
Ultrasonic additive manufacturing, Metal matrix composites, 3D printing, Embedded electrical circuitry, Mechanical testing, Electron microscopy
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37845 (URN)10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.01.013 (DOI)000399630800033 ()2-s2.0-85012096108 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK via the Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing, grant number EP/I033335/2

Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
Masurtschak, S., Friel, R. J. & Harris, R. A. (2017). New concept to aid efficient fibre integration into metal matrices during ultrasonic consolidation. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, 231(7), 1105-1115
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New concept to aid efficient fibre integration into metal matrices during ultrasonic consolidation
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, E-ISSN 2041-2975, Vol. 231, no 7, p. 1105-1115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ultrasonic consolidation has been shown to be a viable metal-matrix-based smart composite additive layer manufacturing process. Yet, high quantity fibre integration has presented the requirement for a method of accurate positioning and fibre protection to maintain the fibre layout during ultrasonic consolidation. This study presents a novel approach for fibre integration during ultrasonic consolidation: channels are manufactured by laser processing on an ultrasonically consolidated sample. At the same time, controlled melt ejection is applied to aid accurate fibre placement and simultaneously reducing fibre damage occurrences. Microscopic, scanning electron microscopic and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analyses are used for samples containing up to 10.5% fibres, one of the highest volumes in an ultrasonically consolidated composite so far. Up to 98% of the fibres remain in the channels after consolidation and fibre damage is reduced to less than 2% per sample. This study furthers the knowledge of high volume fibre embedment via ultrasonic consolidation for future smart material manufacturing. © Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Metal matrix composites, ultrasonic consolidation, laser processing, aluminium
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37846 (URN)10.1177/0954405415592120 (DOI)000402899000001 ()2-s2.0-85020467094 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: EPSRC/IMCRC through grant number EPSRC IMCRC 275

Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-24Bibliographically approved
Goulas, A. & Friel, R. J. (2016). 3D printing with moondust. Rapid prototyping journal, 22(6), 864-870
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D printing with moondust
2016 (English)In: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 864-870Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the main process parameters of laser melting (LM) type additive manufacturing (AM) on multi-layered structures manufactured from JSC-1A Lunar regolith (Moondust) simulant powder. Design/methodology/approach - Laser diffraction technology was used to analyse and confirm the simulant powder material particle sizes and distribution. Geometrical shapes were then manufactured on a Realizer SLM™ 100 using the simulant powder. The laser-processed samples were analysed via scanning electron microscopy to evaluate surface and internal morphologies, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to analyse the chemical composition after processing, and the samples were mechanically investigated via Vickers micro-hardness testing. Findings - A combination of process parameters resulting in an energy density value of 1.011 J/mm2 allowed the successful production of components directly from Lunar regolith simulant. An internal relative porosity of 40.8 per cent, material hardness of 670 ±11 HV and a dimensional accuracy of 99.8 per cent were observed in the fabricated samples. Originality/value - This research paper is investigating the novel application of a powder bed fusion AM process category as a potential on-site manufacturing approach for manufacturing structures/components out of Lunar regolith (Moondust). It was shown that this AM process category has the capability to directly manufacture multi-layered parts out of Lunar regolith, which has potential applicability to future moon colonization. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keywords
Advanced manufacturing technologies, Ceramic multi-Component materials, Laser additive manufacturing, Lunar regolith, On site resource utilization, Space additive manufacturing
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37847 (URN)10.1108/RPJ-02-2015-0022 (DOI)000387560000002 ()2-s2.0-84992195895 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-24Bibliographically approved
Goulas, A., Harris, R. A. & Friel, R. J. (2016). Additive manufacturing of physical assets by using ceramic multicomponent extra-terrestrial materials. Additive Manufacturing, 10, 36-42
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive manufacturing of physical assets by using ceramic multicomponent extra-terrestrial materials
2016 (English)In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 10, p. 36-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) is a range of advanced manufacturing technologies that can fabricate three-dimensional assets directly from CAD data, on a successive layer-by-layer strategy by using thermal energy, typically from a laser source, to irradiate and fuse particles within a powder bed.

The aim of this paper was to investigate the application of this advanced manufacturing technique to process ceramic multicomponent materials into 3D layered structures. The materials used matched those found on the Lunar and Martian surfaces. The indigenous extra-terrestrial Lunar and Martian materials could potentially be used for manufacturing physical assets onsite (i.e., off-world) on future planetary exploration missions and could cover a range of potential applications including: infrastructure, radiation shielding, thermal storage, etc.

Two different simulants of the mineralogical and basic properties of Lunar and Martian indigenous materials were used for the purpose of this study and processed with commercially available laser additive manufacturing equipment. The results of the laser processing were investigated and quantified through mechanical hardness testing, optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, spectrometry, and finally X-ray diffraction.

The research resulted in the identification of a range of process parameters that resulted in the successful manufacture of three-dimensional components from Lunar and Martian ceramic multicomponent simulant materials. The feasibility of using thermal based additive manufacturing with multi-component ceramic materials has therefore been established, which represents a potential solution to off-world bulk structure manufacture for future human space exploration. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Space additive manufacturing, Space 3D printing, On site, Resource utilisation, Mars, Moon
National Category
Ceramics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37848 (URN)10.1016/j.addma.2016.02.002 (DOI)000435752200005 ()2-s2.0-84958754923 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0480-4079