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Arnarsson, A., Nygren, J., Nyholm, M., Torsheim, T., Augustine, L., Bjereld, Y., . . . Bendtsen, P. (2019). Cyberbullying and traditional bullying among Nordic adolescents and their impact on life satisfaction. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyberbullying and traditional bullying among Nordic adolescents and their impact on life satisfaction
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2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cybervictimization in the six Nordic countries and to assess its overlap with traditional bullying. A further aim was to examine potential associations between life satisfaction, on the one hand, and traditional bullying and cyberbullying on the other. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the 2013⁄2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. It included 32,210 boys and girls, aged 11, 13, and 15, living in the six Nordic countries. Results: The prevalence of cyberbullying by both pictures and by messages was around 2% in all the Nordic countries except Greenland. There it was considerably higher. The prevalence of being bullied in a traditional manner varied widely by country. For boys, this type of bullying was most frequent in the youngest age group and then decreased steadily in the older age groups. Girls were on average more likely to be cyberbullied. Cyberbullying was more common among 13- and 15-year-olds than 11-year-olds. Higher family affluence was unrelated to the risk of cyberbullying. However, it was related to traditional bullying and combined forms of bullying. Compared with intact families, cybervictimization was commoner among single-parent families and stepfamilies. Adjusting for age, gender, family affluence, and family structure, those subjected to cyberbullying had lower life satisfaction than those who were not bullied. Conclusions: We found relatively little overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, indicating that the two may be separate phenomena stemming from different mechanisms, at least in the Nordic context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Bullying, cyberbullying, Nordic, adolescents, life satisfaction, family structure, family affluence
National Category
Other Medical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38833 (URN)10.1177/1403494818817411 (DOI)30672390 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060714783 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-04 Created: 2019-02-04 Last updated: 2019-02-04
Rosenberg, D., Schön, U.-K., Nyholm, M., Grim, K. & Svedberg, P. (2017). Shared decision making in community mental health services - an evaluation of three self-reporting instruments. Journal of Mental Health, 26(2), 142-149
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shared decision making in community mental health services - an evaluation of three self-reporting instruments
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 142-149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Despite the potential impact of shared decision making on users satisfaction with care and quality in health care decisions, there is a lack of knowledge and skills regarding how to work with shared decision making among health care providers.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of three instruments that measure varied dimensions of shared decision making, based on self-reports by clients, in a Swedish community mental health context.

Method: The study sample consisted of 121 clients with experience of community mental health care, and involved in a wide range of decisions regarding both social support and treatment. The questionnaires were examined for face and content validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity.

Results: The instruments displayed good face and content validity, satisfactory internal consistency and a moderate to good level of stability in test-retest reliability with fair to moderate construct correlations, in a sample of clients with serious mental illness and experience of community mental health services in Sweden.

Conclusions: The questionnaires are considered to be relevant to the decision making process, user-friendly and appropriate in a Swedish community mental health care context. They functioned well in settings where non-medical decisions, regarding social and support services, are the primary focus. The use of instruments that measure various dimensions of the self-reported experience of clients, can be a key factor in developing knowledge of how best to implement shared decision making in mental health services. © Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2017
Keywords
Recovery, mental illness, questionnaire, shared decision making, reliability, validity
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-31791 (URN)10.1080/09638237.2016.1207223 (DOI)000399610500008 ()27452763 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84979502225 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: The National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen), Sweden

Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Svedberg, P., Nygren, J., Staland Nyman, C. & Nyholm, M. (2016). The validity of socioeconomic status measures among adolescents based on self-reported information about parents occupations, FAS and perceived SES; implication for health related quality of life studies. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 16, Article ID 48.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The validity of socioeconomic status measures among adolescents based on self-reported information about parents occupations, FAS and perceived SES; implication for health related quality of life studies
2016 (English)In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 16, article id 48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Research has shown inconsistencies in results and difficulties in conceptualization of assessment of socioeconomic status (SES) among adolescents. The aim of this study was thus to test the validity of self-reported information on SES in two age-groups (11–13 and 14–16 years old) in an adolescent population and to evaluate its relationship to self-reported health related quality of life (HRQOL). Different measures of SES commonly used in research in relation to HRQOL were tested in this study; parent’s occupations status, family material affluence status (FAS) and perceived SES.

Method

A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 948 respondents (n = 467, 11–13 years old and n  = 481, 14–16 years old) completed questionnaires about SES and HRQOL. The adolescents’ completion rates were used, with chi2-test, to investigate differences between gender and age-group. Correlation was used for convergent validity and ANOVA for concurrent validity.

Results

We found a low completion rate for both fathers’ (41.7 %) and mothers' (37.5 %) occupation status, and a difference in completion rate between gender and age-groups. FAS had the highest completion rate (100 %) compared to parent's occupations status and perceived SES. The convergent validity between the SES-indicators was weak (Spearman correlation coefficient below 0.3), suggesting that the indicators measured different dimensions of SES. Both FAS and perceived SES showed a gradient in mean HRQOL between low and high SES in relation to HRQOL, this was significant only for perceived SES (p < 0.01, both age-groups).

Conclusion

This study indicates the need for considering different approaches to measures of SES among adolescences and when evaluating SES in relation to HRQOL. Further research is needed to investigate sustainable ways to measure SES, delineating the relevance of tangible measures of education, occupation and income in relation to the perceived socioeconomic status in comparison with others in immediate social networks and in society at large.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: BioMed Central, 2016
Keywords
Adolescents, Completion rate, Concurrent validity, Convergent validity health related Quality of Life (HRQOL), Measurement, Socioeconomic status
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-31793 (URN)10.1186/s12874-016-0148-9 (DOI)000375100000001 ()27130331 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84964645579 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: municipality of Halmstad, Länsförsäkringar Halland, Ljungbergska foundation and Region Halland

Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Wiman, V., Lydell, M. & Nyholm, M. (2016). Views of the workplace as a health promotion arena among managers of small companies. Health Education Journal, 75(8), 950-960
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Views of the workplace as a health promotion arena among managers of small companies
2016 (English)In: Health Education Journal, ISSN 0017-8969, E-ISSN 1748-8176, Vol. 75, no 8, p. 950-960Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Several studies have shown that workplace health promotion leads to better health, increased productivity, as well as reduced absenteeism and presenteeism among employees. The objective of this study was to describe how managers in small companies (10–19 employees) perceive their company as an arena for promoting employees’ health.

Method: A sample of 10 managers (four women) was strategically selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with each person. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis focused on both manifest and latent content.

Results: Three main categories emerged from the analysis: the potential to promote employees’ health, responsibility as an employer and the need for external support. An arena for workplace health promotion is created when managers prioritise health at the workplace.

Conclusion: Small companies often lack the knowledge and resources to manage health and safety problems and also have less access to occupational health services. This paper highlights the importance of the views of small company managers as resources for the development of health promotion. © 2016 by Health Education Journal

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2016
Keywords
Health promotion, small companies, Sweden, workplace
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30819 (URN)10.1177/0017896916643355 (DOI)2-s2.0-85000786895 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-04-28 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Hutton, K., Nyholm, M., Nygren, J. & Svedberg, P. (2014). Self-rated mental health and socio-economic background: a study of adolescents in Sweden. BMC Public Health, 14(1), Article ID 394.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-rated mental health and socio-economic background: a study of adolescents in Sweden
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2014 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 394Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Adolescents' mental health is a major public health issue. Previous research has shown that socio-economic factors contribute to the health status of adolescents. The present study explores the association between socio-economic status and self-rated mental health among adolescents.

Methods: Cross sectional data from the Halmstad Youth Quality of Life cohort was collected in a town in Sweden. In all, 948 adolescents (11-13 younger age group and 14-16 older age group) participated. Information on self-rated mental health was collected from the subscale Psychological functioning in the Minneapolis Manchester Quality of Life instrument. The items were summarized into a total score and dichotomized by the mean. Indicators measuring socio-economic status (SES) were collected in a questionnaire using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and additional factors regarding parents' marital status and migration were added. Logistic models were used to analyze the data.

Results: Girls were more likely to rate their mental health below the mean compared to boys. With regard to FAS (high, medium, low), there was a significantly increased risk of self-rated mental health below the mean among younger boys in the medium FAS score OR; 2.68 (95% CI 1.35;5.33) and among older boys in the low FAS score OR; 2.37 (1.02;5.52) compared to boys in the high FAS score. No such trend was seen among girls. For younger girls there was a significant protective association between having parents born abroad and self-rated mental health below mean OR: 0.47 (0.24;0.91).

Conclusions: A complex pattern of associations between SES and self-rated mental health, divergent between age and gender groups, was shown. The total FAS score was only associated with boys' self-rated mental health in both age groups, whereas parents' migratory status influenced only the girls' self-rated mental health. Because of the different association for girls' and boys' self-rated mental health and SES, other factors than SES should also be considered when investigating and exploring the mental health of adolescents in affluent communities. © 2014 Hutton et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: BioMed Central, 2014
Keywords
Adolescents, Self-rated mental health, Socio-economic status, Family affluence scale
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-25215 (URN)10.1186/1471-2458-14-394 (DOI)000336859500001 ()24758209 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84901486949 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

The study was funded by grants to P S and J N from Region Halland, Halmstad Kommun, Ljungbergska foundation, Länsförsäkringar Halland and to J N from the Swedish Research Council.

Available from: 2014-04-30 Created: 2014-04-30 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Svedberg, P., Nygren, J. M., Hutton, K. & Nyholm, M. (2014). Self-reported objective and subjective indicators of socio-economic status and mental health between two adolescent age groups in Sweden. Paper presented at 7th European Public Health Conference, 19-22 November 2014, Glasgow, UK. European Journal of Public Health, 24(Suppl. 2), 31-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-reported objective and subjective indicators of socio-economic status and mental health between two adolescent age groups in Sweden
2014 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 24, no Suppl. 2, p. 31-31Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Research has shown that socio-economic status (SES) contributes to the mental health of adolescents; however the causality of this effect is debated. SES among adolescents is methodologically difficult to assess and SES indicators differ between age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate objective and subjective indicators of SES and their relation to mental health in two adolescent age groups.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on data collected by self- report questionnaires from 11-13 years old n = 457 (younger age group) and 14-16 years old n = 462 (older age group) adolescents at schools in a rural town in south western Sweden. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS) (high, medium, low) and Perceived Wealth (PW) (high, medium, low) were used as measurement for objective and subjective socio-economic wealth. The domain psychological functioning health from the Minneapolis Manchester Quality of Life instrument (MMQL-PF) (continuous variable) was used to measure self-rated mental health.

Results: When measuring SES using the two different scales, the proportion of adolescents in the younger age group stating a low SES was 28.1% using FAS and 12.1% using PW. In the older age group the proportion was 21.4% in FAS and 15.5% in PW. There was a positive significant relation between PW and self-rated mental health in both age groups, by 0.112 (95% CI.0.024; 0.199) in the younger age group and by 0.140 (95% CI.0.051; 0.223) in the older age group. This relation was not seen regarding FAS.

Conclusion: In the search for SES’ relation to mental health, different aspects of adolescents’ socio-economic conditions should be considered. In this study we suggest that the subjective experiences of adolescents regarding the wealth of the family might be a stronger indicator of SES influencing mental health. This might be taken into consideration when planning for public health interventions and effective prevention programs suited for adolescents with lower SES. 

Key message:

  • In the search for SES’ relation to mental health, different aspects of adolescents’ socio-economic conditions should be considered.

© The Author 2014

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014
Keywords
socio-economic status, mental health, adolescent
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33677 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cku151.067 (DOI)
Conference
7th European Public Health Conference, 19-22 November 2014, Glasgow, UK
Available from: 2017-04-05 Created: 2017-04-05 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Nyholm, M. (2013). Exploring dietary patterns, obesity and sources of bias: The Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP). Public Health Nutrition, 16, 631-638
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring dietary patterns, obesity and sources of bias: The Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP)
2013 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 16, p. 631-638Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-21813 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-26 Created: 2013-04-26 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Hutton, K., Nygren, J., Nyholm, M. & Svedberg, P. (2013). Low self-rated mental health among Swedish adolescent boys and its relationship to socioeconomic factors. In: : . Paper presented at 6th European Public Health Conference Health in Europe, Brussels, Belgium, 13–16 November, 2013 (pp. 251-252). Oxford: Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low self-rated mental health among Swedish adolescent boys and its relationship to socioeconomic factors
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background

Adolescents mental health is a major public health concern and studies have shown that socioeconomic factors contribute to the experienced health of adolescents. Girls’ mental health, more than boys’ mental health, is often discussed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-rated mental health and socioeconomic factors among boys and we hypothesized that household wealth influences the association.

Methods

In 2011, a cross-sectional study was conducted at seven junior high schools in a medium sized town in south western Sweden. The data collected was based on a self-administrated questionnaire regarding socioeconomic factors, household wealth and health related quality of life (Minnesota Minneapolis Quality of Life Instrument (MMQL). In all, 235 boys between 11-13 years old and 254 boys between 14-16 years participated. The items from MMQL were summarized into a total score and dichotomized by the median and low self-rated mental health was defined as below median. Logistic regression analysis was used.

Results

Among younger boys no association between low self-rated mental health and socioeconomic factors were seen. Among older boys with divorced parents, an increased risk of low mental health rating was seen OR: 1.83 (95%CI, 1.04;3.23), however when adjusting for household wealth the association disappeared (OR;1.76, CI 0.98;3.15). Also, having one or two parents born outside Sweden implied increased risk of a low self-rated mental health OR: 2.0 (CI; 1.15;3.47), which remained when adjusting for household wealth variables (OR; 2.16 CI; 1.17;3.99). Furthermore, having two or more negative socioeconomic variables increased the risk of low rated mental health (OR;2.60, CI 1.15;5.90) the association remained after adjusting for household wealth (OR;2.38, CI 1.03;5.33).

Conclusions

Boys with divorced parents, boys from migrant backgrounds and boys with several negative socioeconomic factors constituted the identified subgroups at risk. More research in public health is essential to meet the special needs of different age groups and backgrounds among adolescent boys.

Key messages

  • Among older boys (14-16 years old) with divorced parents, an increased risk of low mental health rating was seen, however when adjusting for household wealth the association disappeared.
  • Among older boys (14-16 years old) having two or more negative socioeconomic variables increased the risk of low rated mental health, the association remained after adjusting for household wealth.

© The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013
Series
European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1464-360X ; Vol. 23; Suppl. 1
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-25217 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/ckt124.036 (DOI)
Conference
6th European Public Health Conference Health in Europe, Brussels, Belgium, 13–16 November, 2013
Available from: 2014-04-30 Created: 2014-04-30 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Ljungkrona-Falk, L., Brekke, H. & Nyholm, M. (2013). Swedish nurses encounter barriers when promoting healthy habits in children. Health Promotion International, 29(4), 730-738
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish nurses encounter barriers when promoting healthy habits in children
2013 (English)In: Health Promotion International, ISSN 0957-4824, E-ISSN 1460-2245, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 730-738Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To increase the understanding of difficulties in promoting healthy habits to parents, we explore barriers in health-care provision. The aim of this study is to describe nurses' perceived barriers when discussing with parents regarding healthy food habits, physical activity and their child's body weight. A mixed method approach was chosen. Nurses (n = 76) working at 29 different Child Health Care Centers' in an area in west Sweden were included in the study. Three focus group interviews were conducted and 17 nurses were selected according to maximum variation. Data were categorized and qualitative content analysis was the chosen analysis method. In the second method, data were obtained from a questionnaire distributed to all 76 nurses. The latent content was formulated into a theme: even with encouragement and support, the nurses perceive barriers of both an external and internal nature. The results identified four main barriers: experienced barriers in the workplace-internal and external; the nurse's own fear and uncertainty; perceived obstacles in nurse-parent interactions and modern society impedes parents' ability to promote healthy habits. The nurses' perceived barriers were confirmed by the results from 62 of the nurses who completed the questionnaire. Despite education and professional support, the health professionals perceived both external and internal barriers in promoting healthy habits to parents when implementing a new method of health promotion in primary care. Further qualitative studies are needed to gain deeper understanding of the perceived barriers when promoting healthy habits to parents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013
Keywords
health promotion programmes, barriers, health-related behaviours
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-21979 (URN)10.1093/heapro/dat023 (DOI)000345959300013 ()23633546 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84911922446 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was supported by the Skaraborg Institute, Skövde, Sweden and the Research & Development Centre Skaraborg Primary Care, Sweden.

Available from: 2013-05-02 Created: 2013-05-02 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Wiman, V., Lydell, M. & Nyholm, M. (2012). Workplace health promotion; views from managers of small companies. Paper presented at 5th European Public Health Conference, St Julian's, Malta, 8-10 November, 2012. European Journal of Public Health, 22(Suppl. 2), 129-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workplace health promotion; views from managers of small companies
2012 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, no Suppl. 2, p. 129-129Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Workplace health promotion leads to better health, high morale, increased productivity and reduced absenteeism among employees. The role of leadership is vital when creating strategies for workplace health promotion. Small companies (less than 50 employees) have increased need for health promotion, as they often lack knowledge and resources to manage health and safety problems. Moreover, small companies have less access to occupational health service. The aim of this study was to describe how managers at small companies perceive their company as an arena for health promotion. 

Methods: A sample of ten managers (four females) was strategically selected using maximal variation in terms of branch of industry. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis comprised of both manifest and latent content and triangulation between the authors was used. 

Results: Three main categories emerged from the analysis; sees the workplace as a possible arena, sees the opportunity to promote employees health and sees a need for external support. More in-depth analysis resulted in six subcategories. The latent content of these categories is described by the theme; Health promotion leadership in order to perceive the company as a health promotion arena. A key factor for workplace health promotion was the manager´s view of health promotion as a beneficial factor for the company. Furthermore, the managers expressed that they could promote employees´ health by organizing health promotion activities and promote a positive psychosocial work environment. The findings showed a need for easily accessible external support to assist managers in their work with health promotion. It is essential that the external support contributes with inspiration and knowledge of health promotion activities, for example by highlighting good practice from other small companies. 

Conclusions: Using the manager´s view about the workplace as an arena for promoting health can be a step towards strategies for implementing workplace health promotion. However, for the development of healthy organizations it is necessary to have a comprehensive strategy in which employers, employees and society is pursuing the same goal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-20301 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cks115 (DOI)000310370400312 ()
Conference
5th European Public Health Conference, St Julian's, Malta, 8-10 November, 2012
Note

Poster

Available from: 2013-01-14 Created: 2013-01-07 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4218-4499

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