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Back, J., Johnson, U., Svedberg, P. & Ivarsson, A. (2022). Achievement goals, motivational climate, perceived sport competence and dropout: a prospective study in adolescent soccer. In: : . Paper presented at SVEBI Årskonferens 2021 – Sport in a Changing World, Malmö, Sweden, February 10–11, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achievement goals, motivational climate, perceived sport competence and dropout: a prospective study in adolescent soccer
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46912 (URN)
Conference
SVEBI Årskonferens 2021 – Sport in a Changing World, Malmö, Sweden, February 10–11, 2022
Available from: 2022-06-03 Created: 2022-06-03 Last updated: 2023-01-09Bibliographically approved
Back, J., Johnson, U., Svedberg, P., McCall, A. & Ivarsson, A. (2022). Drop-out from team sport among adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Psychology of Sport And Exercise, 61, Article ID 102205.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drop-out from team sport among adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies
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2022 (English)In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 61, article id 102205Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the last decades, an increased drop-out rate in adolescents’ team sport participation is observed. Given the potential adverse consequences of drop-out from team sport more information about risk factors for drop-out is warranted. The objectives of this systematic review were to (1) synthesise the literature on factors associated with future drop-out from team sport among adolescents and (2) investigate the strength of associations between drop-out and related factors with meta-analysis. The databases Academic Search Elite, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant publications from the earliest reported date until October 8, 2021. Articles were included if: (1) data about drop-out was collected; (2) the focus was on adolescents; (3) the context was team sport and (4) studies were of prospective design. We used the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-randomized Studies (RoBANS) to assess the risk of bias in included studies. A narrative synthesis was conducted according to the reporting guideline of synthesis without meta-analysis. Studies that presented statistical data necessary for the calculation of Hedge’s g effect sizes were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the narrative synthesis. The meta-analysis included 12 of the studies. Altogether, 6304 adolescent team sport players participated in the selected studies. Of those studies, most had a focus on intrapersonal factors relationship with drop-out. The results showed that constructs related to motivation as well as sport experience had the strongest relationships with drop-out. To prevent drop-out from adolescents’ team sport, organisations and clubs are recommended to focus on developing a high-quality motivation climate that facilitates motivation and enjoyment. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Adolescents, Drop-out, Organised sport, Team sport, Sport participation
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46910 (URN)10.1016/j.psychsport.2022.102205 (DOI)000804923600001 ()2-s2.0-85129949325 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: The Swedish Football Association, Halland's Football Association, Skåne's Football Association, and Västergötland's Football Association. 

Available from: 2022-06-03 Created: 2022-06-03 Last updated: 2023-01-09Bibliographically approved
Gredin, V., Back, J., Johnson, U., Svedberg, P., Stenling, A., Solstad, B. & Ivarsson, A. (2022). Exploring psychosocial risk factors for dropout in adolescent female soccer. Science and medicine in football, 6(5), 668-674
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring psychosocial risk factors for dropout in adolescent female soccer
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2022 (English)In: Science and medicine in football, ISSN 2473-3938, E-ISSN 2473-4446, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 668-674Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: We examined the manner in which age, participation in other sports, socioeconomic status, perceived sport competence, achievement goal orientations, and perceived motivational climate may interact to predict the risk of dropout among adolescent female soccer players.

Methods: Self-reported data from 519 female soccer players between 10 and 19 years of age (M = 13.41, SD = 1.77) were analysed using a person-centred approach to uncover the interactions among risk factors and their relative predictability of dropout.

Results: Perceived motivational climate was identified as the main predictor, where relatively lower levels of mastery climate were associated with a higher dropout tendency (absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 12.2% ±6.1% [95% CL]). If combined with relatively lower levels of mastery climate, then relatively lower levels of perceived sport competence were related to higher dropout risks (ARR = 16.5% ±9.5%), whereas, in combination with relatively higher levels of mastery climate, then relatively lower levels of ego-orientated achievement goals were associated with higher dropout rates (ARR = 10.8% ±12.6%).

Conclusions: Our findings afford novel insights into the interactions between, and the relative importance of, various risk factors for dropout in adolescent female soccer. This knowledge may be useful for soccer associations, clubs, and coaches when developing guidelines and strategies that aim to foster young females' sustained participation in organised soccer. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxfordshire: Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
Achievement Goal Theory, participation, sustainability, withdrawal, youth sport
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-47888 (URN)10.1080/24733938.2022.2088843 (DOI)000901840300017 ()36540913 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85144322129 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-17 Created: 2022-08-17 Last updated: 2023-08-21Bibliographically approved
Back, J., Stenling, A., Solstad, B. E., Svedberg, P., Johnson, U., Ntoumanis, N., . . . Ivarsson, A. (2022). Psychosocial Predictors of Drop-Out from Organised Sport: A Prospective Study in Adolescent Soccer. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(24), Article ID 16585.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychosocial Predictors of Drop-Out from Organised Sport: A Prospective Study in Adolescent Soccer
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2022 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 24, article id 16585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years an increased drop-out rate in adolescents’ soccer participation has been observed. Given the potentially adverse consequences of drop-out from soccer, more information about risk factors for drop-out is warranted. In the current study, Classification and Regression Tree (CRT) analysis was used to investigate demographic and motivational factors associated with an increased risk of drop-out from adolescent soccer. The results of this study indicate that older age, experiencing less autonomy support from the coach, less intrinsic motivation, being female, and lower socioeconomic status are factors associated with an increased risk of drop-out. An interpretation of the results of this study is that coaches play a central part in creating a sports context that facilitates motivation and continued soccer participation. Based on the findings of the current study we propose that soccer clubs implement theoretically informed coach education programs to help coaches adopt autonomy-supportive coaching strategies. © 2022 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2022
Keywords
adolescents, drop-out, soccer, sport participation
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-49136 (URN)10.3390/ijerph192416585 (DOI)000902694400001 ()36554464 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85144503667 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: The Swedish Football Association, Halland's Football Association, Skåne's Football Association, and Västergötland's Football Association.

Available from: 2023-01-09 Created: 2023-01-09 Last updated: 2023-08-21Bibliographically approved
Back, J., Josefsson, T., Ivarsson, A. & Gustafsson, H. (2021). Psychological risk factors for exercise dependence. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19(4), 461-472
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological risk factors for exercise dependence
2021 (English)In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 461-472Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main aim of this study was to investigate if exercisers’ personality characteristics were associated with exercise dependence. Specifically, the purpose was to examine if anxiety, obsessive passion, and physical appearance orientation were associated to an increased risk for exercise dependence. Participants were 330 exercisers from exercise groups, sport clubs and university sport science classes in the southwest of Sweden. Data were analysed using CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) analysis. The CHAID analysis indicated that anxiety was the main predictor of exercise dependence. More specifically, 12.7% more exercisers who experienced high levels of anxiety symptoms (i.e. scores above 6), were, in comparison to the exercises experiencing low levels of anxiety, classified as “at risk for exercise dependence”. For exercisers that reported low levels of anxiety symptoms (i.e. scores below 7), obsessive passion for exercise was a positive statistically significant predictor (absolute risk difference = 8.6%). Overall, the results highlight anxiety as a main risk factor behind exercise dependence. Also, the risk of exercise dependence may increase either from obsessive passion or as a coping strategy for anxiety. Furthermore, results may illustrate two types of exercise dependence; “primary” exercise dependence driven mainly by an obsessive passion for exercise and “secondary” exercise dependence where exercise function as a strategy to cope with anxiety. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Taylor & Francis, 2021
Keywords
exercise dependence, anxiety, obsessive passion, appearance orientation
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43199 (URN)10.1080/1612197X.2019.1674902 (DOI)000490899100001 ()2-s2.0-85074342436 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-09-30 Created: 2020-09-30 Last updated: 2023-01-09Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K. & Back, J. (2019). The value of motivational theory to influence active transport behaviors – a Swedish example. In: The IAFOR Conference series 2019: Independence & Interdependence, Programme & Abstract Book. Paper presented at The IAFOR Conference series 2019 – Independence & Interdependence, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, January 3-5, 2019 (pp. 107-107).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The value of motivational theory to influence active transport behaviors – a Swedish example
2019 (English)In: The IAFOR Conference series 2019: Independence & Interdependence, Programme & Abstract Book, 2019, p. 107-107Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cycle commuting have been shown to promote major health effects, studies showing as much as 41% lower overall mortality compared to car or collective transport (Celis-Morales et al 2017). Yet, for many of us, there are significant behavioral barriers in changing our transport behavior. On the positive note, studies have shown that bikes providing electric assistance when pedaling (pedelecs) also have positive effects on cardiovascular health and helps people meet physical activity recommendations. It is possible that pedelecs could facilitate active transport by reducing some perceived behavioral barriers by enhancing autonomous motivation in line with self-determination theory (SDT).   The overall purpose was to examine underlying motives for using the pedelec above passive transport (car, bus). Semi-structured interviews (N=14) were used to study motivational aspects of participation in a community based pedelec project. Qualitative content analysis revealed that motives to choose the pedelec was health reasons (regular exercise), economic reasons (e.g. avoid having two cars), environmental reasons (to reduce environmental impact) and personal values (e.g. related to exercise identity).   These four motivational themes can be related to the tenets of SDT and the significance of autonomous motivation for behavioral regulation. The step from passive to active transport might be challenging, but facilitating use of pedelecs and appropriate communication policy might facilitate such a transition. Application of SDT and addressing the motivational themes found in this study could shed some light on motivational drives for active transport and inform community interventions and policies design to adopt sustainable transport behaviors.

National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39295 (URN)
Conference
The IAFOR Conference series 2019 – Independence & Interdependence, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, January 3-5, 2019
Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2023-01-09Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K. & Back, J. (2018). Motivational perspectives of a community based electric bike project in Sweden. In: Abstract book for the ISBNPA 2018 Annual Meeting in Hong Kong: . Paper presented at Advancing Behaviour Change Science, Hongkong, China, June 3-6, 2018 (pp. 134-135).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivational perspectives of a community based electric bike project in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Abstract book for the ISBNPA 2018 Annual Meeting in Hong Kong, 2018, p. 134-135Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Objective

A community in Sweden runs a project aiming to stimulate citizens to choose active transport to reduce city car traffic, emissions and noise; and to promote residents' health by increased physical activity. Citizens can borrow an electric bike providing electric assistance when pedaling (pedelec) for free for three months to “try and feel”, and are then offered to buy the bike after this period to a reduced price. The project has engaged approximately 500 participants over three years (2015-2017) distributed in three groups per year. Drawing from self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to examine underlying motives for choosing to use the pedelec above passive transport (car, bus) during and after the three month period.  

 Methods

Semi-structured interviews were performed with eight informants who had participated in the project during 2014-2016. These will be complemented with another 8-10 interviews from the 2017 participant groups. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore and describe attitudes, behaviors, goals and barriers regarding informants’ motives to physical activity in general, as well as specifically directed towards using pedelecs. The interviews were complemented with quantitative measures in two of the groups from 2017 before, during and after participation (N=19).

 Results

Analyses revealed four main themes of motivation. The informants chose the pedelec as a means of transport for health reasons (regular exercise), for economic reasons (avoid having two cars, reducing gasoline and parking costs), for environmental reasons (to reduce environmental impact) and for personal values (related to exercise identity and/or environmental-friendly). Those who used the pedelec regularly felt that their fitness improved and that they had more energy in everyday life. Participants also felt that the pedelec facilitated cycling to a larger extent, and in addition to using it for transport for work or school, they also used it for shopping and leisure activities.

 Conclusions

The step from passive to active transport might be challenging, but a pedelec might facilitate such a transition and reduce perceived behavioral barriers. This study could shed some light on how community interventions can be designed to facilitate autonomous motivation towards more sustainable transport behaviors.

Keywords
self-determination, motivation, physical activity, electric bike
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37065 (URN)978-1-7324011-0-5 (ISBN)
Conference
Advancing Behaviour Change Science, Hongkong, China, June 3-6, 2018
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2023-01-09Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K. & Back, J. (2018). Motivational perspectives of a community based electric bike project in Sweden.. In: Abstract book Advancing Behaviour Change Science. International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. Hong kong, China, June 3-6, 2018.: . Paper presented at Advancing Behaviour Change Science. International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. Hong kong, China, June 3-6, 2018..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivational perspectives of a community based electric bike project in Sweden.
2018 (English)In: Abstract book Advancing Behaviour Change Science. International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. Hong kong, China, June 3-6, 2018., 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Objective

A community in Sweden runs a project aiming to stimulate citizens to choose active transport to reduce city car traffic, emissions and noise; and to promote residents' health by increased physical activity. Citizens can borrow an electric bike providing electric assistance when pedaling (pedelec) for free for three months to “try and feel”, and are then offered to buy the bike after this period to a reduced price. The project has engaged approximately 500 participants over three years (2015-2017) distributed in three groups per year. Drawing from self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to examine underlying motives for choosing to use the pedelec above passive transport (car, bus) during and after the three month period.  

 

Methods

Semi-structured interviews were performed with eight informants who had participated in the project during 2014-2016. These will be complemented with another 8-10 interviews from the 2017 participant groups. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore and describe attitudes, behaviors, goals and barriers regarding informants’ motives to physical activity in general, as well as specifically directed towards using pedelecs. The interviews were complemented with quantitative measures in two of the groups from 2017 before, during and after participation (N=19).

 

Results

Analyses revealed four main themes of motivation. The informants chose the pedelec as a means of transport for health reasons (regular exercise), for economic reasons (avoid having two cars, reducing gasoline and parking costs), for environmental reasons (to reduce environmental impact) and for personal values (related to exercise identity and/or environmental-friendly). Those who used the pedelec regularly felt that their fitness improved and that they had more energy in everyday life. Participants also felt that the pedelec facilitated cycling to a larger extent, and in addition to using it for transport for work or school, they also used it for shopping and leisure activities. 

Conclusions

The step from passive to active transport might be challenging, but a pedelec might facilitate such a transition and reduce perceived behavioral barriers. This study could shed some light on how community interventions can be designed to facilitate autonomous motivation towards more sustainable transport behaviors.

Series
International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, June 1, 2018
Keywords
electric bike, motivation, active transport
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39501 (URN)978-1-7324011-0-5 (ISBN)
Conference
Advancing Behaviour Change Science. International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. Hong kong, China, June 3-6, 2018.
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2023-01-09Bibliographically approved
Back, J. (2017). Mechanisms of Exercise Dependence – A person centred approach to study the predictiveability of anxiety, obsessive passion and appearance orientation on exercise dependence. In: Gangyan, S., Cruz, J., & Jaenes, J.C. (Ed.), Sport Psychology: Linking theory to practice. Paper presented at ISSP 14th World Congress, Sevilla, Spain, July 10-14, 2017 (pp. 537-538).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms of Exercise Dependence – A person centred approach to study the predictiveability of anxiety, obsessive passion and appearance orientation on exercise dependence
2017 (English)In: Sport Psychology: Linking theory to practice / [ed] Gangyan, S., Cruz, J., & Jaenes, J.C., 2017, p. 537-538Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Exercise dependence is a maladaptive pattern of exercise with a craving for physical activity that results in extreme exercise that may generate mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. Previous research suggests that individuals with certain personality traits are more prone to develop exercise dependence. However, research on personality traits and exercise dependence is still limited. In the current study, predictive abilities of anxiety, obsessive passion and appearance orientation on exercise dependence were investigated. A longitudinal design was adopted to investigate if personality related factors could predict exercise dependence. The sample consisted of 206 regular exercisers (100 males and 106 females) from various exercise groups, sport clubs and sport science classes in Sweden (Mage = 28,5 years; SD = 9,97). The LPA (Latent Profile Analysis) showed that a model with two profiles provided best fit to the data, and that profile belonging at T1 could predict measures of exercise dependence at T2. Profile 1: “high risk exercisers” reported significantly higher levels of exercise dependence, anxiety, obsessive passion and appearance orientation compared to Profile 2: “low risk exercisers”. This study highlights factors that may characterize people who develop exercise dependence. High-risk exercisers are obsessively passionate about their training and exercise may function as a tool to cope with anxiety. If the individual for some reason is prevented from training, feelings of anxiety and guilt are often experienced. Furthermore, these individuals tend to be self-conscious about how they look and appear to other people. To them, exercise may also work as a way to achieve body ideals. The results of the current study suggest plausible mechanisms of why exercise behaviours become unhealthy and uncontrollable for some exercisers whereas others manage to remain healthy.

Keywords
anxiety, appearance orientation, exercise dependence, passion, physical activity
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35769 (URN)978-84-9148-282-6 (ISBN)
Conference
ISSP 14th World Congress, Sevilla, Spain, July 10-14, 2017
Available from: 2017-12-06 Created: 2017-12-06 Last updated: 2023-01-09Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K. & Back, J. (2017). Projekt elcyklist – ett motivationsperspektiv. In: Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson (Ed.), Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’: . Paper presented at Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden, 22-23 November, 2017 (pp. 39-39). Halmstad: Halmstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Projekt elcyklist – ett motivationsperspektiv
2017 (Swedish)In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson, Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 39-39Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35808 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden, 22-23 November, 2017
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2023-01-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9644-9555

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