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Cooney, M., Shiomi, M., Kochenborger Duarte, E. & Vinel, A. (2023). A Broad View on Robot Self-Defense: Rapid Scoping Review and Cultural Comparison. Robotics, 12(2), Article ID 43.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Broad View on Robot Self-Defense: Rapid Scoping Review and Cultural Comparison
2023 (English)In: Robotics, E-ISSN 2218-6581, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With power comes responsibility: as robots become more advanced and prevalent, the role they will play in human society becomes increasingly important. Given that violence is an important problem, the question emerges if robots could defend people, even if doing so might cause harm to someone. The current study explores the broad context of how people perceive the acceptability of such robot self-defense (RSD) in terms of (1) theory, via a rapid scoping review, and (2) public opinion in two countries. As a result, we summarize and discuss: increasing usage of robots capable of wielding force by law enforcement and military, negativity toward robots, ethics and legal questions (including differences to the well-known trolley problem), control in the presence of potential failures, and practical capabilities that such robots might require. Furthermore, a survey was conducted, indicating that participants accepted the idea of RSD, with some cultural differences. We believe that, while substantial obstacles will need to be overcome to realize RSD, society stands to gain from exploring its possibilities over the longer term, toward supporting human well-being in difficult times. © 2023 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: , 2023
Keywords
dark side of human–robot interaction (HRI), robot crime, robot ethics, robot self-defense, robot violence, technological acceptance
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51234 (URN)10.3390/robotics12020043 (DOI)000983119800001 ()2-s2.0-85153767580 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-07-07 Created: 2023-07-07 Last updated: 2023-07-07Bibliographically approved
Cooney, M. & Sjöberg, J. (2023). Navigating the Current “New World” of Teaching with Technology: A Glimpse into Our Teachers’ Minds. In: Eva Brooks; Jeanette Sjöberg; Anders Kalsgaard Møller; Emma Edstrand (Ed.), Design, Learning, and Innovation: 7th EAI International Conference, DLI 2022, Faro, Portugal, November 21–22, 2022, Proceedings. Paper presented at Design, Learning, and Innovation: 7th EAI International Conference, DLI 2022, Faro, Portugal, November 21–22, 2022 (pp. 135-152). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Navigating the Current “New World” of Teaching with Technology: A Glimpse into Our Teachers’ Minds
2023 (English)In: Design, Learning, and Innovation: 7th EAI International Conference, DLI 2022, Faro, Portugal, November 21–22, 2022, Proceedings / [ed] Eva Brooks; Jeanette Sjöberg; Anders Kalsgaard Møller; Emma Edstrand, Cham: Springer, 2023, p. 135-152Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The COVID-19 pandemic helped spark a surge in innovative usages of technology in education, from robot-based remote graduation ceremonies to immersive learning through extended reality, meetings in fantastical game worlds, automatic examination methods, and flexible learning options such as hybrid classes. It’s been said that we can’t go back to “normal” because this is normal now–but what exactly is today’s “new normal”? The current paper reports on the results of an anonymous online survey conducted with 42 teachers in business, IT, nursing, and education at our university in October 2021, to gain insight into where some teachers on the “front lines” currently stand on the use of technology in education. Some insights included that: More teachers than we had expected were using robotics and extended reality (XR), suggesting that silo effects can exist in education, even at small universities; furthermore, the rates of teachers who had seen such usage seemed close to the rates of teachers who had tried using them, suggesting the usefulness of raising awareness to promote professional digital competence (PDC). Rates for using games and exam tools were lower than expected, despite the availability of game platforms and a growing need to consider the threat of how technology can be misused to cheat in exams, possibly due to teachers’ limited time for pedagogical development. Also, teachers appeared to have strong and differing opinions about learning formats, although a general preference was observed for physical classes and exams, and hybrid teacher meetings. Our aim is that these results will be used by our university’s pedagogical center to support our teachers’ PDC and uses of edtech in the near future. © 2023, ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, ISSN 1867-8211, E-ISSN 1867-822X ; 493
Keywords
edtech, educational robotics, gamification in education, hybrid learning, professional digital competence, XR in education
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities, LeaDS - Learning in a Digitalised Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50402 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-31392-9_11 (DOI)2-s2.0-85161456976 (Scopus ID)978-3-031-31391-2 (ISBN)978-3-031-31392-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Design, Learning, and Innovation: 7th EAI International Conference, DLI 2022, Faro, Portugal, November 21–22, 2022
Available from: 2023-05-02 Created: 2023-05-02 Last updated: 2023-07-06Bibliographically approved
Cooney, M. & Vinel, A. (2022). Magic in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). In: 2022 Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society Workshop (SAIS): . Paper presented at 34th annual workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society (SAIS 2022), Stockholm, Sweden, 13-14 June, 2022. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magic in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI)
2022 (English)In: 2022 Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society Workshop (SAIS), IEEE, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

'Magic' is referred to here and there in the robotics literature, from 'magical moments' afforded by a mobile bubble machine, to 'spells' intended to entertain and motivate children-but what exactly could this concept mean for designers? Here, we present (1) some theoretical discussion on how magic could inform interaction designs based on reviewing the literature, followed by (2) a practical description of using such ideas to develop a simplified prototype, which received an award in an international robot magic competition. Although this topic can be considered unusual and some negative connotations exist (e.g., unrealistic thinking can be referred to as magical), our results seem to suggest that magic, in the experiential, supernatural, and illusory senses of the term, could be useful to consider in various robot design contexts, also for artifacts like home assistants and autonomous vehicles-thus, inviting further discussion and exploration. © 2022 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-49814 (URN)10.1109/SAIS55783.2022.9833054 (DOI)000855561800006 ()2-s2.0-85136103109 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-7126-8 (ISBN)978-1-6654-7127-5 (ISBN)
Conference
34th annual workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society (SAIS 2022), Stockholm, Sweden, 13-14 June, 2022
Projects
KKS SafeSmartEmergency Vehicle Traffic Light Pre-emption in Cities – EPIC
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVinnovaELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2023-01-12 Created: 2023-01-12 Last updated: 2023-10-05Bibliographically approved
Cooney, M. & Sjöberg, J. (2022). Playful AI Prototypes to Support Creativity and Emotions in Learning. In: Eva Brooks; Jeanette Sjöberg; Anders Kalsgaard Møller (Ed.), Design, Learning and innovation: 6th EAI International Conference, DLI 2021 Virtual Event, December 10-11 2021, Proceedings (pp. 129-140). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Playful AI Prototypes to Support Creativity and Emotions in Learning
2022 (English)In: Design, Learning and innovation: 6th EAI International Conference, DLI 2021 Virtual Event, December 10-11 2021, Proceedings / [ed] Eva Brooks; Jeanette Sjöberg; Anders Kalsgaard Møller, Cham: Springer, 2022, p. 129-140Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

How will learning “look” in the future? Everyone learns–and we do so in a creative and emotional way. However, learners’ creativity and emotions are often not explicitly included in the design process when exploring how technology can be used to provide new learning opportunities, which could result in shallow learning. One way to support such learning with technology could be playfulness. The current paper reports on some of our ongoing experiences in recent years using a playful design perspective to develop three educational Artificial Intelligence (AI) prototypes. Tackling applications intended to facilitate freedom, ease, and engagement in learning, the prototypes comprise an intelligent tutoring system, an automatic display tool, and a hand-waving detector. In closing, some lessons learned are shared to inform subsequent designs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2022
Series
Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, ISSN 1867-8211 ; 435
Keywords
Educational AI, AI prototyping, Computational creativity, Artificial emotions, Playful learning, EdTech
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities, LeaDS - Learning in a Digitalised Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46824 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-06675-7_10 (DOI)2-s2.0-85131925806 (Scopus ID)978-3-031-06674-0 (ISBN)978-3-031-06675-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-05-30 Created: 2022-05-30 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Kochenborger Duarte, E., Shiomi, M., Vinel, A. & Cooney, M. (2022). Robot Self-defense: Robot, Don't Hurt Me, No More. In: HRI '22: Proceedings of the 2022 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction. Paper presented at HRI '22 – the 2022 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, March 7-10, 2022 (pp. 742-745). IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robot Self-defense: Robot, Don't Hurt Me, No More
2022 (English)In: HRI '22: Proceedings of the 2022 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, IEEE Press, 2022, p. 742-745Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Would it be okay for a robot to hurt a human, if by doing so it could protect someone else? Such ethical questions could be vital to consider, as the market for social robots grows larger and robots become increasingly prevalent in our surroundings. Here we introduce the topic of “robot self-defense”, which involves the use of force by a robot in response to violence, to protect a human in its care. To explore this topic, we conducted a preliminary analysis of the literature, as well as brainstorming sessions, which led us to formulate an idea about how people will perceive robot self-defense based on the perceived risk of loss. Additionally, we propose a study design to investigate how the general public will perceive the acceptability of a robot using self- defense techniques. As part of this, we describe some hypotheses based on the assumption that the perceived acceptability will be affected by both the entities involved in a violent situation and the amount of force that is applied. The proposed scenarios will be used in a future survey to evaluate participants’ perception of a social robot using self-defense techniques under varying circumstances, toward stimulating ideation and discussion on how robots will be able to help people to live better lives. © 2022 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2022
Keywords
robot self-defense, acceptability, robot ethics, self-defense, violence
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46452 (URN)2-s2.0-85140737841 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-0731-1 (ISBN)978-1-6654-0732-8 (ISBN)
Conference
HRI '22 – the 2022 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, March 7-10, 2022
Projects
Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities – SafeSmartEmergency Vehicle Traffic Light Pre-emption in Cities – EPIC
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVinnovaELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Funding: JST CREST Grant Number JPMJCR18A1, Japan, and from the Swedish Knowledge Foundation, the Swedish Innovation Agency (VINNOVA), and the ELLIIT Strategic Research Network.

Available from: 2022-03-12 Created: 2022-03-12 Last updated: 2023-01-12Bibliographically approved
Kochenborger Duarte, E., Shiomi, M., Vinel, A. & Cooney, M. (2022). Robot Self-defense: Robots Can Use Force on Human Attackers to Defend Victims. In: IEEE RO-MAN 2022: 31st IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Social, Asocial, and Antisocial Robots. Paper presented at 31st IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN 2022, 29 August - 2 September, 2022 (pp. 1606-1613). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robot Self-defense: Robots Can Use Force on Human Attackers to Defend Victims
2022 (English)In: IEEE RO-MAN 2022: 31st IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Social, Asocial, and Antisocial Robots, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2022, p. 1606-1613Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Could a social robot use force to prevent violence directed toward humans in its care?-Might crime be eradicated, or conversely could excessive use of force proliferate and human dignity become trampled beneath cold robotic wheels? Such speculation is one part of a larger, increasingly important question of how social robots will be expected to behave in our societies, as robotic technologies develop and become increasingly widespread. Here, to gain some insight into this topic of "robot self-defense", we proposed a simplified heuristic based on perceived risk of loss to predict acceptability, and conducted a user survey with 304 participants, who watched eight animated videos of robots and humans in a violent altercation. The results indicated that people largely accept the idea that a humanoid robot can use force on attackers to help others. Furthermore, self-defense was perceived as more acceptable when the appearance of the defender was humanoid rather than mechanical, and when the force disparity between attacker and defender was high. The immediate suggestion is that it could be beneficial to re-examine common assumptions that a robot should never harm or risk harming humans, and to discuss and consider the possibilities for robot self-defense. © 2022 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2022
Series
IEEE RO-MAN proceedings, ISSN 1944-9445, E-ISSN 1944-9437
Keywords
Force, Social robots, Humanoid robots, Wheels, Mobile robots, Videos
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-49167 (URN)10.1109/RO-MAN53752.2022.9900814 (DOI)000885903300227 ()2-s2.0-85140719505 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-8859-1 (ISBN)978-1-6654-0680-2 (ISBN)
Conference
31st IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN 2022, 29 August - 2 September, 2022
Funder
VinnovaELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

We gratefully acknowledge support from JST CREST Grant Number JPMJCR18A1, Japan, and from the Swedish Knowledge Foundation for the “Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities – SafeSmart” project (2019–2023), the Swedish Innovation Agency (VINNOVA) for the “Emergency Vehicle Traffic Light Pre-emption in Cities – EPIC” project (2020–2022), and the ELLIIT Strategic Research Network.

Available from: 2023-01-11 Created: 2023-01-11 Last updated: 2023-10-05Bibliographically approved
Cooney, M., Järpe, E. & Vinel, A. (2022). “Robot Steganography”: Opportunities and Challenges. In: Ana Paula Rocha; Luc Steels; Jaap van den Herik (Ed.), Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: ICAART: . Paper presented at ICAART 2022: 14th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence, Online, Feb. 3-5, 2022 (pp. 200-207). Setúbal: SciTePress
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Robot Steganography”: Opportunities and Challenges
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: ICAART / [ed] Ana Paula Rocha; Luc Steels; Jaap van den Herik, Setúbal: SciTePress, 2022, p. 200-207Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Robots are being designed to communicate with people in various public and domestic venues in a perceptive, helpful, and discreet way. Here, we use a speculative prototyping approach to shine light on a new concept of robot steganography (RS): that a robot could seek to help vulnerable populations by discreetly warning of potential threats: We first identify some potentially useful scenarios for RS related to safety and security– concerns that are estimated to cost the world trillions of dollars each year–with a focus on two kinds of robots, a socially assistive robot (SAR) and an autonomous vehicle (AV). Next, we propose that existing, powerful, computer-based steganography (CS) approaches can be adopted with little effort in new contexts (SARs), while also pointing out potential benefits of human-like steganography (HS): Although less efficient and robust than CS, HS represents a currently-unused form of RS that could also be used to avoid requiring a computer to receive messages, detection by more technically advanced adversaries, or a lack of alternative connectivity (e.g., if a wireless channel is being jammed). Some unique challenges of RS are also introduced, that arise from message generation, indirect perception, and effects of perspective. Finally, we confirm the feasibility of the basic concept for RS, that messages can be hidden in a robot’s behaviors, via a simplified, initial user study, also making available some code and a video. The immediate implication is that RS could potentially help to improve people’s lives and mitigate some costly problems, as robots become increasingly prevalent in our society–suggesting the usefulness of further discussion, ideation, and consideration by designers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Setúbal: SciTePress, 2022
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46453 (URN)10.5220/0010820300003116 (DOI)000774749000020 ()978-989-758-547-0 (ISBN)
Conference
ICAART 2022: 14th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence, Online, Feb. 3-5, 2022
Projects
Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2022-03-12 Created: 2022-03-12 Last updated: 2023-10-05Bibliographically approved
Nowaczyk, S., Resmini, A., Long, V., Fors, V., Cooney, M., Duarte, E. K., . . . Dougherty, M. (2022). Smaller is smarter: A case for small to medium-sized smart cities. Journal of Smart Cities and Society, 1(2), 95-117
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smaller is smarter: A case for small to medium-sized smart cities
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Smart Cities and Society, ISSN 2772-3577, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 95-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Smart Cities have been around as a concept for quite some time. However, most examples of Smart Cities (SCs) originate from megacities (MCs), despite the fact that most people live in Small and Medium-sized Cities (SMCs). This paper addresses the contextual setting for smart cities from the perspective of such small and medium-sized cities. It starts with an overview of the current trends in the research and development of SCs, highlighting the current bias and the challenges it brings. We follow with a few concrete examples of projects which introduced some form of “smartness” in the small and medium cities context, explaining what influence said context had and what specific effects did it lead to. Building on those experiences, we summarise the current understanding of Smart Cities, with a focus on its multi-faceted (e.g., smart economy, smart people, smart governance, smart mobility, smart environment and smart living) nature; we describe mainstream publications and highlight the bias towards large and very large cities (sometimes even subconscious); give examples of (often implicit) assumptions deriving from this bias; finally, we define the need of contextualising SCs also for small and medium-sized cities. The aim of this paper is to establish and strengthen the discourse on the need for SMCs perspective in Smart Cities literature. We hope to provide an initial formulation of the problem, mainly focusing on the unique needs and the specific requirements. We expect that the three example cases describing the effects of applying new solutions and studying SC on small and medium-sized cities, together with the lessons learnt from these experiences, will encourage more research to consider SMCs perspective. To this end, the current paper aims to justify the need for this under-studied perspective, as well as to propose interesting challenges faced by SMCs that can serve as initial directions of such research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2022
Keywords
Smart cities, small- and medium-sized cities
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-47260 (URN)10.3233/scs-210116 (DOI)
Funder
VinnovaKnowledge Foundation
Available from: 2022-06-21 Created: 2022-06-21 Last updated: 2022-09-06Bibliographically approved
Sjöberg, J. & Cooney, M. (2022). The “New World” of Teaching—Thoughts from our Teachers in the "Front Lines". In: : . Paper presented at NU (Nätverk och Utveckling) 2022, Stockholm, Sverige, 15-17 juni, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The “New World” of Teaching—Thoughts from our Teachers in the "Front Lines"
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Spring 2020, the world of teaching changed suddenly to use more digital and online tools; now in 2021, there is a move back toward ”normal” campus-based learning--but it's been said that we can’t go back to "normal" because this is normal now: Teachers around the world have been experimenting ever more with inchoate technologies like Mixed Reality tools (comprising Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality) (e.g. Rokhsaritalemi et al, 2020), robots (e.g. Zhong et al, 2020), and gaming apps like Gather.Town that can support feelings of immersion, engagement and social presence. New exam tools are coming out. Additionally, teachers are exploring hybrid setups that allow people to attend physically or remotely, based on their needs (e.g. Coates et al, 2020). Given the lack of assurances and clarity regarding how teaching with technology will look like in the near future, it seems vital to explore such possibilities, in order to excel, stand out, and stay competitive. Moreover, it might not be sufficient to hear only what managers and scholars think; we want to hear what everyday teachers on the front lines think. Thus, here, we turn our gaze inward, on our own teachers at our university: what are we doing with such technologies in our teaching, and where do we want to go? To gain insight, we sent out a short survey, receiving 42 responses from all four schools at our university. The responses indicated a few of our teachers are using new technologies like MR, robots, and gaming apps for fields like physics, marine science, and psychology, where a perceived lack of three elements--competence, opportunities, and understanding of benefits—is suggested as a challenge. Use of automated exam tools is highly limited. Additionally, our teachers do not agree on learning formats. Slightly over half of teachers favor physical classes and hybrid teacher meetings, with a conservative trend (many think students should be forced in one way or another). Most teachers say they have tried hybrid classes; more are for it than against, but the ones who are against it seem very strongly against it; the challenge of focus was mentioned. The aim with sharing our results is to shed light on possibilities for this new world of teaching that looms before us, to stimulate ideas and discussions. 

National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities, LeaDS - Learning in a Digitalised Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-47911 (URN)
Conference
NU (Nätverk och Utveckling) 2022, Stockholm, Sverige, 15-17 juni, 2022
Available from: 2022-08-23 Created: 2022-08-23 Last updated: 2022-09-05Bibliographically approved
Englund, C., Erdal Aksoy, E., Alonso-Fernandez, F., Cooney, M. D., Pashami, S. & Åstrand, B. (2021). AI Perspectives in Smart Cities and Communities to Enable Road Vehicle Automation and Smart Traffic Control. Smart Cities, 4(2), 783-802
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AI Perspectives in Smart Cities and Communities to Enable Road Vehicle Automation and Smart Traffic Control
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2021 (English)In: Smart Cities, E-ISSN 2624-6511, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 783-802Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Smart Cities and Communities (SCC) constitute a new paradigm in urban development. SCC ideates on a data-centered society aiming at improving efficiency by automating and optimizing activities and utilities. Information and communication technology along with internet of things enables data collection and with the help of artificial intelligence (AI) situation awareness can be obtained to feed the SCC actors with enriched knowledge. This paper describes AI perspectives in SCC and gives an overview of AI-based technologies used in traffic to enable road vehicle automation and smart traffic control. Perception, Smart Traffic Control and Driver Modelling are described along with open research challenges and standardization to help introduce advanced driver assistance systems and automated vehicle functionality in traffic. To fully realize the potential of SCC, to create a holistic view on a city level, the availability of data from different stakeholders is need. Further, though AI technologies provide accurate predictions and classifications there is an ambiguity regarding the correctness of their outputs. This can make it difficult for the human operator to trust the system. Today there are no methods that can be used to match function requirements with the level of detail in data annotation in order to train an accurate model. Another challenge related to trust is explainability, while the models have difficulties explaining how they come to a certain conclusions it is difficult for humans to trust it. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2021
Keywords
smart cities, artificial intelligence, perception, smart traffic control, driver modeling
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-44272 (URN)10.3390/smartcities4020040 (DOI)000668714200001 ()2-s2.0-85119570196 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2018-05001; 2019-05871Knowledge FoundationSwedish Research Council, 2016-03497
Note

Funding: The research leading to these results has partially received funding from the Vinnova FFI project SHARPEN, under grant agreement no. 2018-05001 and the Vinnova FFI project SMILE III, under the grant agreement no. 2019-05871. The funding received from the Knowledge Foundation (KKS) in the framework of “Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities–SafeSmart” project (2019–2023) is gratefully acknowledged. Finally, the authors thanks the Swedish Research Council (project 2016-03497) for funding their research.

Available from: 2021-05-11 Created: 2021-05-11 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4998-1685

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