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Hildebrand, Kristina
Publications (10 of 38) Show all publications
Hildebrand, K. (2019). Beverly Kennedy. Journal of International Arthurian Society, 7(1), 22-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beverly Kennedy
2019 (English)In: Journal of International Arthurian Society, E-ISSN 2196-9353, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: , 2019
National Category
Specific Literatures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40817 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-29 Created: 2019-10-29 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved
Hildebrand, K. (2019). Characters of Colour in the Whedonverse. In: : . Paper presented at Dublin 2019 – An Irish Worldcon, Dublin, Ireland, August 15-19, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characters of Colour in the Whedonverse
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Early on, the works produced by Joss Whedon and writers associated with him were recognised as feminist. This pertains not only to the prominence of female characters, but to the emphasis on co-operation and power-sharing that appear in many of the works. However, there were, also early, concerns about the portrayal of people of colour. I will here consider the entirety of Whedon’s oeuvre, whether he has been writer, producer, or director.

Whedon’s works do not feature many characters of colour; characters played by actors of colour might also be presented as white, thus further limiting the number of openly presented characters of colour. The portrayals of those characters of colour that do appear in his work are also not unproblematic. One particularly problematic instance of this, which I will focus on here, is the depiction of people of colour (especially but not exclusively women) as expected to exhibit strong loyalty to a white person (especially but not exclusively men).

Characters of colour, regardless of prominence, often appear as subordinate to a white character, whether this is due to a formal chain of command or an informal hierarchy. Examples of this appear in Agents of ShieldFireflyDollhouse, and Angel, to mention a few. Obviously, the hierarchy is more or less formalised in these texts, but it is generally clear to the viewers even when informal. The moral quality of the characters of colour is repeatedly judged by how loyal they remain to the white person above them in the hierarchy; this judgement may be openly referred to in the text or consist of how the audience is expected to perceive them and their fortunes, or lack thereof, in the arc of the plot.

As viewers, we tend to accept the hierarchies inherent in the plot, whether formal or informal; we are presented with a leader and a group of followers, who might also have an internal hierarchy. We are invited to judge the performance of the leader, including on how well the followers follow them, and to expect, if we approve of the leader, to see loyalty from the followers. Nevertheless, the demands of loyalty from the characters of colour tend to go beyond the normal expectation that they carry out orders and offer input, if necessary, and often includes emotional and psychologial support. This support is generally not extended in the other direction, making it a power imbalance rather than mutual care, with the less privileged characters taking on the labour of making white characters feel better. This paper will discuss some instances of this, and how simply including more characters of colour does not in and of itself solve the long-noted issues of race in Whedon’s work.

Keywords
Joss Whedon, race
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40547 (URN)
Conference
Dublin 2019 – An Irish Worldcon, Dublin, Ireland, August 15-19, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Hildebrand, K. (2019). "I love nat to be constreyned to love" - Launcelot and Sexual Vulnerability. In: : . Paper presented at Malory at 550: Old and New, Acadia University, Wolfville, Canada, August 8-10, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"I love nat to be constreyned to love" - Launcelot and Sexual Vulnerability
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

While we tend to think of rape as something that happens to female characters, Malory's text does, in fact, contain numerous male characters who suffer attempts to coerce them into sex. This happens to Bors de Ganis, and indeed, to Arthur himself. The most regular victim of this is Launcelot, who is repeatedly in danger of being forced to have sex with various women, and is, of course, in fact drugged and raped.

Launcelot seems to attract these women through his fame and prowess, and his attachment to Guinevere frequently arouses jealousy. However, if we take into consideration rape as a crime of power more than of sexual attraction, another image of Launcelot's situation appears. This reading suggests that the women in question desire power over Launcelot - and the common threat to kill him if he will not acquiesce rather strengthens that suggestion - and this desire puts him in a uniquely vulnerable position. As they are women, they cannot be dealt with through his martial prowess and vanquished in battle; their very defenselessness causes Launcelot's vulnerability. This paper investigates how Launcelot's masculinity, based, as masculinity in Malory generally is, on prowess and the steadfast love for a specific woman, paradoxically places him in what is traditionally a feminine position - that of vulnerability to violence, including sexual violence.

Keywords
Malory, rape
National Category
Specific Literatures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40546 (URN)
Conference
Malory at 550: Old and New, Acadia University, Wolfville, Canada, August 8-10, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Hildebrand, K. (2019). The Matter of Britain: Roman Scotland and the British Empire. In: : . Paper presented at International Medievalisms Conference, Maynooth University, Kildare, Ireland, June 27-28, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Matter of Britain: Roman Scotland and the British Empire
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In 1757, the Englishman Charles Bertram published, in Copenhagen, a text and map of supposed medieval origins, which showed new information on the extent of Roman Britain, particularly in Scotland. This text, and particularly the map, introduced a previously unknown Roman province which covered large parts of southern Scotland, as well as roads and stations extending into this area. It was, of course, not genuine.

Nevertheless, this new information was eagerly embraced by many antiquaries and historians. In the aftermath of the Jacobite risings, any evidence that the union of Scotland and England had ancient origins was welcome, as it implied that this union was, in a sense, natural, and had existed in a warmly admired Roman era, on which the emerging British Empire was keen to model itself.

The text comprises many aspects of international medievalism and intentional misuse of a medieval past. This paper discusses how the forgery engages the relationship between England and Scotland after the Union, but also the position of Bertram as an Englishman in exile and his desire for a nostalgically remembered England.

Keywords
medievalism, Roman Britain, nationalism
National Category
General Literature Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40544 (URN)
Conference
International Medievalisms Conference, Maynooth University, Kildare, Ireland, June 27-28, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Hildebrand, K. (2018). "As fayre an handid man": Malory's figurative language. International Journal of Language Studies, 12(4), 61-74
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"As fayre an handid man": Malory's figurative language
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Language Studies, ISSN 2157-4898, E-ISSN 2157-4901, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 61-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Figurative language in Malory is not very varied, but is strongly connected to chivalry and the community standards that uphold it. This paper deals briefly with set figurative phrases, but focuses on similes and some other figurative phrases, especially ‘out of measure’ and phrases involving hands, as examples of this. The figurative language used has a number of functions: the similes are not original or intended to be so, but instead connect the depiction of chivalry to other chivalric texts; the phrases concerned with measure reminds the reader if the standards of the chivalric community, and the phrases involving hands retain a connection to the literal hands of the knight characters, bringing the violence perpetrated by a knight's hands into focus. The figurative language of Malory, while not as diverse and varied as we might expect were this a modern text, fulfils literary functions that are essential to this chivalric romance. © International Journal of Language Studies 2016

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ipswich: EBSCO Publishing, 2018
Keywords
Malory, Le Morte d'Arthur, figurative language, violence, animal similes, out of measure, hands
National Category
Languages and Literature
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37716 (URN)
Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-10-26Bibliographically approved
Hildebrand, K. (2018). Bertram and Nennius: sources, editions, forgeries. In: : . Paper presented at Arthurian Legends in Wales and Beyond, Centre for Arthurian Studies, Bangor, United Kingdom, 28 June, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bertram and Nennius: sources, editions, forgeries
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Charles Bertram is best known for his Britannicarum Gentium Historiæ Antiquæ Scriptores Tres, published in 1757. This contains two genuine chronicles, Gildas' and Nennius,' and Bertram's forgery of a chronicle by Richard of Cirencester, and while not having had an extensive print run, still exists in some libraries, including the Centre for Arthurian Studies at Bangor.

The few studies that exist of Bertram's text focus on the forgery, but I owuld here like to look at one of the other two texts: that of Nennius. It seems clear that the inclusion of those two texts was intended to add credibility to the forgery, but considering that Bertram choose to publish Nennius's text again in 1758, it would seem to have meant more to him than a useful façade for his forgery. He provides it with a preface discussing its origin and sources, which indicates the extent of his interest.

From his letters and his forgery, it seems clear that Bertram is always more interested in Roman Britain than in medieval Britain: his main interest in medieval texts is where they transmit knowledge of the Roman era. The Middle Ages are interesting only as a time when the texts of classical authors later lost were still to be found in monastic libraries, and when Roman remains were more visible, and in better repair, than they were in his time. Yet he was invested enough in Nennius to publish the text twice, at some expense to himself.

His preface discusses the origins of Nennius' text, and its later fates in the hands of editors. It concerns itself specifically with what is Nennius' genuine text and what are later additions - a concern which produces some amusement, considering Bertram's own forgery. In this paper, I investigate Bertram's approach to Nennius, and why this text, so far removed from the Roman sources he primarily focused on, still fascinated him.

Keywords
Charles Bertram, Nennius, Latin, editions
National Category
Specific Literatures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37717 (URN)
Conference
Arthurian Legends in Wales and Beyond, Centre for Arthurian Studies, Bangor, United Kingdom, 28 June, 2018
Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Hildebrand, K. (2018). Fragile masculinity and beleaguered womanhood: the construction of white gender in some Swedish asatru groups. In: : . Paper presented at International Medieval Congress, 2-5 July, 2018, Leeds, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fragile masculinity and beleaguered womanhood: the construction of white gender in some Swedish asatru groups
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

While most Swedish asatru groups are explicit in their support of diversity, there is a significant fringe movement which embraces at least some white supremacist views. Ethnicity cannot be disconnected from gender, and these groups also promote a quasi-feminism which focuses solely on the protection of white womanhood from men of colour. This paper focuses on the intersection of racism, sexism, and religious faith in this fringe of asatru, and on the construction of white gender identity in opposition to a perceived threat from other ethnic groups.

Keywords
white supremacists, asatru, gender
National Category
Other Humanities General Literature Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37718 (URN)
Conference
International Medieval Congress, 2-5 July, 2018, Leeds, UK
Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Hildebrand, K. (2018). Medieval dancing in modern movies. In: The Middle Ages in the Modern World: . Paper presented at The Middle Ages in the Modern World, 21-24 November, 2018, Rome, Italy (pp. 12-12).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Medieval dancing in modern movies
2018 (English)In: The Middle Ages in the Modern World, 2018, p. 12-12Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For much medieval dancing, we must rely on images and the occasional, not detailed description. However, starting in the 15th century, we get dance choreographies written down. The dances manifest power, dignity, and courtly behaviour; despite the vigourously athletic steps in many dances, the dancer had to maintain decorum. The dances are largely egalitarian, in that men and women have the same steps and often take turns leading, and low on touch, with generally no more physical contact than hands being held. There are both set choreographies and those that allow for improvisation, but all are intended to showcase the social and cultural capital of the dancers. In modern TV series and movies depicting the Middle Ages and Renaissance, this function of dancing is in most cases entirely abandoned, in favour of some of the social functions of traditional styles of dancing today: physical contact and distinct gender roles. Medieval dance is presented as involving physical contact, with more explicitly sexual connotations, and with a leading male partner and a passively led, but often overtly seductive, female partner. Some of this is undoubtedly due to choreographers with no training in dance history beyond early ballet in the 18th century, but as there are choreographers and dancers specialising in early dance, who are not consulted, there is clearly also a choice involved. In this paper, I would like to trace the effects of that choice, and how it comes to portray medieval cultural acts such as dancing as more gendered and more heavily sexualised than they were.

Keywords
dance, The Tudors, The Borgias, medievalism
National Category
Performing Art Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38513 (URN)
Conference
The Middle Ages in the Modern World, 21-24 November, 2018, Rome, Italy
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Hildebrand, K. (2018). The Other Cornwall Girl: Morgause in Twentieth-Century English Literature. Journal of International Arthurian Society, 6(1), 25-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Other Cornwall Girl: Morgause in Twentieth-Century English Literature
2018 (English)In: Journal of International Arthurian Society, E-ISSN 2196-9353, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 25-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Morgause is an understudied character in Arthurian scholarship. In Malory, she is relatively positively presented as a queen, as a mother of knights and as a sexually active woman; she is always seen from these perspectives, which define her as a character. In modern portrayals, there is no novel with Morgause as a main character, but she appears frequently as a secondary one. The focus is on her sexuality, which is sometimes contrasted against Morgaine le Fay’s. Morgause’s sexual independence is frequently condemned and used to depict her as a negative character, or even the villain of the piece

Abstract [fr]

Morgause est un personnage négligé par la critique arthurienne. Chez Malory, elle est présentée de manière plutôt positive en tant que reine, mère de chevaliers et femme sexuellement active: elle est toujours présentée sous cet angle-là, qui la définit en tant que personnage. Dans les représentations modernes, il n’y a aucun roman avec Morgause comme protagoniste, mais elle apparaît fréquemment comme personnage secondaire. L’accent est mis sur sa sexualité, qui est parfois opposée à celle de sa sœur la fée Morgane. L’indépendance sexuelle de Morgause est fréquemment condamnée et utilisée pour la peindre comme un personnage négatif ou même comme l’antagoniste.

Abstract [de]

Morgause ist ein wenig erforschter Charakter im Studium der Artusliteratur. Sie wird in Malory als Königin, Mutter der Ritter und sexuell aktive Frau relativ positiv dargestellt. Dies sind zudem diejenigen Perspektiven, aus denen sie gesehen wird und die ihren Charakter definieren. Es gibt keinen modernen Roman mit Morgause als Hauptfigur, wenngleich sie häufig als Nebenfigur erscheint. Im Mittelpunkt steht ihre Sexualität, die manchmal mit Morgaine le Fay kontrastiert wird. Morgauses sexuelle Unabhängigkeit wird häufig verurteilt und dazu benutzt, sie als eine negative Figur oder sogar den Bösewicht des Stückes darzustellen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2018
Keywords
Morgause, sexuality, Sir Thomas Malory, T. H. White, Mary Stewart, Gillian Bradshaw, Marion Zimmer Bradley, Fay Sampson
National Category
Languages and Literature
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37950 (URN)10.1515/jias-2018-0003 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved
Hildebrand, K. (2018). The two Elaines and their fathers: Malory’s (dis)obedient daughters. In: : . Paper presented at Arthurian Women. Mothers, Lovers and Others, Nordic Branch of the International Arthurian Society, Trondheim, Norway, 13-14 September, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The two Elaines and their fathers: Malory’s (dis)obedient daughters
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Malory’s two Elaines, of Carbonek and of Astolat, are generally noted for their love for Lancelot, in both cases unrequited and in one case fatal. However, I am interested here in their positions as daughters, and how their sexuality is explicitly portrayed as under patriarchal control.

The sexuality of both Elaines is under the control of their fathers, and, to some extent, other male family members. However, as daughters they are dissimilar: Elaine of Carbonek is obedient to patriarchal control, Elaine of Astolat disobedient.

In the case of Elaine of Carbonek, she is explicitly told to seduce the drugged Lancelot, in order to conceive Galahad. Having her partner selected by her father, without much consultation of her own desires, is, of course, not an exceptional situation in a text written in 1469, the only exceptional circumstances being the absence of a wedding. While the intercourse is fornication, and in Lancelot’s case, rape, these aspects are ignored in favour of the greater good served by Galahad’s conception.

Elaine of Astolat, on the other hand, makes the choice to approach Lancelot with a request to be his wife, and, on being refused, wants to be his lover. Lancelot’s responds with horror at the thought of abusing his hosts’ hospitality by having sex with the virgin daughter of the house. Here, too, patriarchal control over the daughter’s (and sister’s) sexuality is obvious: Lancelot, while a faithful lover to Guinevere, to which he can hardly admit, seems not so much to reject Elaine of Astolat for his own reasons, but genuinely distressed at the thought of how he would treat her male family members by acquiescing.

How, then are the actions of the two daughter – one obedient, one disobedient – portrayed? Elaine of Carbonek appears in the text as a perfect daughter: obedient, faithful to Lancelot, even willing to challenge Guinevere for him. She gives birth to a son who becomes the best knight in the world; while his lineage from Lancelot – and, through him, from Jesus – is clearly part of his natural ability as a knight, Malory’s text largely subscribes to good children coming from morally pure mothers. The lack of a morally pure mother results in a morally corrupt child; Elaine of Carbonek, as the mother of Galahad, must be completely pure. The rape of Lancelot, who never consents to sex with Elaine, is either seen as irrelevant or blamed on Elaine’s father.

Elaine of Astolat, on the other hand, dies for her unrequited love for Lancelot. It has been argued by Reynolds that her death should not be seen as a good death, as she defends her right to think of Lancelot even on her deathbed. She is the disobedient daughter, willing to offer herself as lover to a man who will not marry her, subverting the whole patriarchal system of women given in exchange between men. Her death implies that her love is excessive, and that independence can be fatal.

Keywords
Malory, gender
National Category
Languages and Literature
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38512 (URN)
Conference
Arthurian Women. Mothers, Lovers and Others, Nordic Branch of the International Arthurian Society, Trondheim, Norway, 13-14 September, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
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