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Häggström Westberg, K., Wilhsson, M., Svedberg, P., Nygren, J. M., Morgan, A. & Nyholm, M. (2019). Optimism as a Candidate Health Asset: Exploring Its Links with Adolescent Quality of Life in Sweden. Child Development, 90(3), 970-984
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimism as a Candidate Health Asset: Exploring Its Links with Adolescent Quality of Life in Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 970-984Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims to understand the role that optimism could play in the context of a health asset approach to promote adolescent health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Adolescents (n = 948), between 11 and 16 years old from a medium-sized rural town in Sweden, answered questionnaires measuring optimism, pessimism, and HRQOL. The findings indicate a significant decrease in optimism and a significant increase in pessimism between early and mid adolescence. The study has allowed us to present associational evidence of the links between optimism and HRQOL. This infers the potential of an optimistic orientation about the future to function as a health asset during adolescence and by implication may provide additional intervention tools in the planning of health promotion strategies. © 2017 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35034 (URN)10.1111/cdev.12958 (DOI)000477640100026 ()28922470 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065044168 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2020-04-29Bibliographically approved
Wilhsson, M., Svedberg, P., Carlsson, I.-M., Högdin, S. & Nygren, J. (2017). Handling Demands of Success Among Girls and Boys in Primarly School: A Conceptual Model. Journal of School Nursing, 33(4), 316-325
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Handling Demands of Success Among Girls and Boys in Primarly School: A Conceptual Model
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2017 (English)In: Journal of School Nursing, ISSN 1059-8405, E-ISSN 1546-8364, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 316-325Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stress among adolescents in Western societies is becoming an issue of increasing concern, and the global trend of adolescents’ health shows a gradual deterioration that is independent of national differences and increases with age. The aim of this study was to explore the main concern of adolescents and about how they cope with demands in everyday life. Participants were 14–16 years old, and data were collected from three sources. A constructivist grounded theory was used as a method for generating a model of the adolescents’ description of how they cope with demands in their everyday lives. The main concern described by participants in this study was to strive to be successful and to succeed in the present and throughout their lives. We conclude that differences between girls and boys, in terms of coping with demands in their everyday lives, are important to consider in the development of health promotion initiatives targeted at adolescents. © The Author(s) 2016

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
adolescents, stress, coping, demand, gender, school nursing
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-31727 (URN)10.1177/1059840516654743 (DOI)000406074800009 ()27311316 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85025177566 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: municipality of Halmstad, Länsförsäkringar Halland and Ljungbergska foundation

Available from: 2016-08-09 Created: 2016-08-09 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Wilhsson, M., Svedberg, P., Högdin, S. & Nygren, J. M. (2017). Strategies of Adolescent Girls and Boys for Coping With School-Related Stress. Journal of School Nursing, 33(5), 374-382
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategies of Adolescent Girls and Boys for Coping With School-Related Stress
2017 (English)In: Journal of School Nursing, ISSN 1059-8405, E-ISSN 1546-8364, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 374-382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stress among adolescents in Western societies is becoming an issue of increasing concern of adolescent’s health. The aim of this study was to gain greater knowledge about how girls and boys perceive and cope with school-related stress. Participants were 14- to 15-year-old adolescents from a medium-sized municipality in southern Sweden. The data were collected from focus group interviews. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The findings show that adolescents ‘‘prioritizing the future or the present by making choices, finding their own private sphere to relax, and recovering with family and friends.’’ There were gender differences in how these strategies were used. The findings could be used for initiating and planning health promotion interventions in school with focus on supporting girls’ and boys’ equal terms to cope with school-related stress in present and for the future and to give equal condition for future studies and opportunities in life. © The Author(s) 2016

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
adolescent, school-related stress, gender, well-being, school nursing
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-32176 (URN)10.1177/1059840516676875 (DOI)000411073700006 ()2-s2.0-85029446880 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: Municipality of Halmstad, Länsförsäkringar Halland & Ljungbergska foundation

Available from: 2016-10-10 Created: 2016-10-10 Last updated: 2017-11-20Bibliographically approved
Wilhsson, M., Svedberg, P., Högdin, S. & Nygren, J. M. (2016). Girls and boys strategies to handle and cope with school-related stress. Paper presented at The 9th European Public Health Conference, Vienna, Austria, 9-12 November, 2016. European Journal of Public Health, 26(Suppl. 1), 221-221
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Girls and boys strategies to handle and cope with school-related stress
2016 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no Suppl. 1, p. 221-221Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

A trend of increased stress and deteriorating mental health of adolescents is a global challenge (Currier et al, 2012). Research shows that many adolescents report high levels of stress associated with an increased focus on school performance (Moknes et al, 2014). These demands generally have a stronger impact on girl’s health (Låftman & Modig, 2013) due to context and social construction of norms, values and beliefs about femininity and masculinity (Connell, 2002; Butler, 1999). The aim was to get a deeper understanding of girls and boys perceptions of how they handle demands and school-related stress.

Methods

This study has an explorative design and was analyzed by qualitative content analysis described by Graneheim and Lundman (2004). The participants were 42 adolescents 15 years old, interviewed in five focus groups, dived by gender from five randomly selected schools. Two additional gender mixed focus groups with 14 adolescents 15 years old, were recruited from two of the randomly selected schools.

Results

The results show that girls and boys handle school-related stress by using similar strategies, but in different ways. Girls express that they have to prioritize to deselect activities they use to do to handle demands from school, and boys prioritize their own activities to obtain strength to cope with demands. Girls often think about their future while boys more often live in present time, and don’t worry so much about the future. Girls receive social support and recovery from friends and family, while boys do various activities with their friends and family to get energy.

Conclusions

This study shows that girls and boys used different strategies to handle demand and school-related stress. The results are based on adolescent’s experiences and could therefore be an important foundation for interventions that promote adolescents capabilities to cope with increasing demands and to handle school-related stress.

Key messages:

  • This study shows that girls and boys perceived and used different strategies to handle demand and school-related stress

  • The result is an important foundation for interventions that promote adolescents capabilities to cope with increasing demands and to handle school-related stress

© The Author 2016.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016
Keywords
Health, Adolescent, school-related stress
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33679 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/ckw170.038 (DOI)000398600402123 ()
Conference
The 9th European Public Health Conference, Vienna, Austria, 9-12 November, 2016
Available from: 2017-04-05 Created: 2017-04-05 Last updated: 2020-05-08Bibliographically approved
Wilhsson, M., Svedberg, P., Högdin, S. & Nygren, J. (2016). Handling demands on success among girls and boys in primarly school – a conceptual model. In: : . Paper presented at 5th International Conference on Pediatric Nursing and Healthcare, Cologne, Germany, 11-12 July, 2016 (pp. 65-65). Los Angeles: Omics Publishing Group, 6(2 (Suppl))
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Handling demands on success among girls and boys in primarly school – a conceptual model
2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Stress among adolescents in Western societies is becoming an issue of increasing concern and the global trend of adolescents’ health shows a gradual deterioration that is independent of national differences and increases with age. Research shows that many adolescents report high levels of stress, associated with a change in expectations about performance and an increased focus on school results.

Purpose/methods: The aim of this study was to explore the main concern of adolescents to get a deeper knowledge on how they cope with demands in everyday life. Grounded theory was used as a method to generate a model.

Results: The core category “striving to be successful and to succeed” explains participants’ main concern in their everyday lives as a continuous process aiming for success in the present and to succeed throughout their lives. The category is what the participants describe as a race against time and can be divided into the two conceptual categories “struggling with time” and “separating life into different worlds”, pronouncing how they struggle and cope with their main concern in order to obtain wellbeing. Our results show a difference between how girls and boys cope with their demands.

Conclusions: We show that girls and boys used different strategies to cope with stress in their everyday life. The results are based on adolescent’s experiences and are therefore an important contribution for initiating interventions aimed at promoting adolescents mental health from a gender perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Los Angeles: Omics Publishing Group, 2016
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-31728 (URN)10.4172/2161-0665.C1.022 (DOI)
Conference
5th International Conference on Pediatric Nursing and Healthcare, Cologne, Germany, 11-12 July, 2016
Available from: 2016-08-09 Created: 2016-08-09 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Wilhsson, M. (2016). Ungdomars strävan mot att lyckas och nå framgång i livet – skolan som hälsofrämjande arena. (Doctoral dissertation). Halmstad: Halmstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ungdomars strävan mot att lyckas och nå framgång i livet – skolan som hälsofrämjande arena
2016 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syfte: Avhandlingens övergripande syfte var att öka kunskapen om perspektiv på ungdomars hälsa som utgångspunkt för att utveckla hälsofrämjande insatser i skolan.

Metod: Studie I hade en kvantitativ beskrivande tvärsnittsdesign. Datamaterialet inhämtades från 948 ungdomar (11-15 år) som analyserades med multivariat logistik regressionsanalys. Studie II hade en kvalitativ utforskande design. Datamaterialet inhämtades från 117 ungdomar (14-17 år) och analyserades med grundad teori. Studie III hade en kvalitativ beskrivande design. Datamatmaterialet inhämtades från 42 ungdomar (14-15 år) och analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Studie IV hade en kvalitativ beskrivande design. Datamaterialet inhämtades från 27 intressenter och analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

Resultat: Ungdomarna strävar mot att lyckas och att bli framgångsrika i nuet och i framtiden. En strävan som för ungdomarna upplevs som en kamp om sin tid, en kamp som de hanterar genom att använda sig av olika strategier för att balansera skolarbete och fritid. Flickors strävan handlar om att nå framgång i skolan för att bli självständig i framtiden. För pojkarna innebär framgång att bli framgångsrika inom någon av sina fritidsaktiviteter så som sport, som visar deras fysiska styrka. Framgång i nuet är av betydelse för pojkarna till skillnad från flickorna som ser på sin framgång i ett längre perspektiv. Det hälsofrämjande arbetet bör inrikta sig på att stödja ungdomars känsla av sammanhang och stärka optimism redan tidigt i tonåren samt synliggöra organisatoriska och kontextuella strukturer och normer som påverkar flickors och pojkars hälsa och livsstil.

Konklusion:Sammanfattningsvis visar avhandlingen att perspektiv på ungdomars hälsa bör förstås på olika nivåer i samhället och också inkluderar perspektiv på kön. Vidare bör faktorer som är av betydelse för ungdomars livsstil diskuteras utifrån ett salutogent perspektiv och det hälsofrämjande arbetet i skolan bör utveckla insatser med kontextuella och könsspecifika utgångspunkter för att främja flickors och pojkars hälsa och livsstil.

Abstract [en]

Aim: The overall aim of the dissertation was to gain greater knowledge about perspectives on adolescent´s health as a basis for developing actions to promote health in schools.

Methods: Study I had a quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design, in which the data was collected from 948 adolescent (11-15 years old) and analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. Study II had a qualitative, investigative design, in which the data was collected from 117 adolescent (14-17 years old) and analyzed with Grounded Theory methodology. Study III had a qualitative, descriptive design, in which the data was collected from 42 adolescent (14-16 years old) and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Study IV had a qualitative, descriptive design, in which the data was collected from 27 stakeholders and analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

Results: The adolescent aspire to make out and be successful both in the present and the future. This aspiration is experienced by the adolescent as a struggle about time, a struggle that they cope with by using various strategies to balance schoolwork and leisure. The girls’ aspiration is to achieve success in school in order to be independent in the future. Success, for the boys, entails being successful in one of their leisure activities such as sport, which demonstrates their physical strength. Success is of importance for the boys in the present, while on the other hand the girls view their success in a longer time perspective. The focus in health promotion should be aimed at supporting the adolescent´s sense of coherence, at strengthening their optimism early in their teenage years as well as making more visible the organizational and contextual structures and norms that affect the health and lifestyles of girls and boys.

Conclusions: In summary, the dissertation shows that perspectives on adolescent’s health should be understood at different levels in society and include a gender perspective. Furthermore, factors that are important for adolescent’s lifestyle should be discussed from a salutogenic perspective and the health promotion performed in schools should develop actions that have contextual and gender-specific points of departure in order to enhance the health and lifestyles of girls and boys.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2016. p. 80
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 31
Keywords
Adolescent, optimism, school-related stress, health promotion, sense of coherence, Ungdomar, optimism, skolrelaterad stress, hälsofrämjande arbete, känsla av sammanhang
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34283 (URN)978-91-87045-64-6 (ISBN)978-91-87045-65-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-16, Beartlingsalen, Hus J (Visionen), Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-06-28 Created: 2017-06-21 Last updated: 2020-03-20Bibliographically approved
Wilhsson, M., Svedberg, P., Högdin, S. & Nygren, J. (2013). Halmstad project – a participatory intervention to promote children's mental health. In: 21st International Conference on Health Promoting Hospitals and Health Services: Abstract book. Paper presented at 21st International Conference on Health Promoting Hospitals and Health Services (HPH), Gothenburg, Sweden, May 23-24, 2013 (pp. 123-123). Copenhagen: WHO-CC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Halmstad project – a participatory intervention to promote children's mental health
2013 (English)In: 21st International Conference on Health Promoting Hospitals and Health Services: Abstract book, Copenhagen: WHO-CC , 2013, p. 123-123Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen: WHO-CC, 2013
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-24185 (URN)
Conference
21st International Conference on Health Promoting Hospitals and Health Services (HPH), Gothenburg, Sweden, May 23-24, 2013
Available from: 2013-12-17 Created: 2013-12-17 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Wilhsson, M., Svedberg, P., Högdin, S. & Nygren, J. (2013). Halmstadprojektet – en deltagarstyrd intervention för att främja barns psykiska hälsa. In: : . Paper presented at Barnrättsdagarna i Örebro, Örebro, Sverige, 16-17 april, 2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Halmstadprojektet – en deltagarstyrd intervention för att främja barns psykiska hälsa
2013 (Swedish)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-21985 (URN)
Conference
Barnrättsdagarna i Örebro, Örebro, Sverige, 16-17 april, 2013
Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Wilhsson, M., Svedberg, P. & Nygren, J. M. A stakeholder perspective on adolescents' needs for support to cope with school-related stress.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A stakeholder perspective on adolescents' needs for support to cope with school-related stress
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background; Adolescents’ experiences of stress have increased in recent decades and is associated with an increase of psychosomatic symptoms and poorer academic achievement. Identification of ways to support adolescents’ handling of school related stress is a major challenge to promote their health and academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to describe the stakeholder’s perspectives on services that are needed for supporting adolescents in secondary school when coping with school-related stress.

Methods; Representatives from the school health service and school management organization (n=23) from five secondary schools and parents (n=4) were recruited by snowball sampling. Interviews were analyzed by qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach.  

Results; The study highlight different aspects of stakeholders’ perceptions of what is needed to support adolescents who experience school-related stress. Described are actions such as highlighting and changing organizational and contextual structures and developing the dialogue between the school and the home. Other described actions are to support adolescents’ abilities to plan and visualizing how time is used and to strengthen their adolescents’ belief in their own abilities.

Conclusions; Our findings could be used in schools for developing interventions from a salutogenic approach to promote adolescents’ health in the present and for the future.

Keywords
secondary school adolescent, coping, school-related stress
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34385 (URN)
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. / As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2017-06-28 Created: 2017-06-28 Last updated: 2020-03-20Bibliographically approved
Häggström Westerberg, K., Wilhsson, M., Svedberg, P., Nygren, J. M., Antony, M. & Nyholm, M.Exploring the role of optimism as a protective factor for adolescent quality of life.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the role of optimism as a protective factor for adolescent quality of life
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study attempts to understand the role that optimism could play in the context of a health asset approach to promote (and protect) adolescent health related quality of life (HRQOL).  Two hypotheses were formulated, a) there is an association between adolescents’ self-rated optimism and pessimism and their HRQOL, (b) age, gender and socio-demographic characteristics influence this association. We explore optimism and pessimism as a bi-dimensional construct and its impact on HRQOL among adolescents in two age groups (11-13 years and 14-16 years). Adolescents answered a self-report questionnaire consisting of two validated scales for measuring HRQOL and the concepts of optimism and pessimism. This study has shown that optimism is an important protective factor for HRQOL and low levels of pessimism were also seen to be protective of HRQOL in both age groups.  This infers the potential of an optimistic orientation about future goals might function as a health asset during adolescence that could be useful in the planning of health promotion strategies.

Keywords
Health related quality of life, Transition to adulthood, Adolescence, Optimism, Pessimism, Family structure
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34386 (URN)
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. / As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2017-06-28 Created: 2017-06-28 Last updated: 2020-03-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8647-8299

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