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Lindberg, S. (2019). Gamification for Self-Directed Learning in Higher Education. In: EDULEARN19 Proceedings: . Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN19), Palma, Spain, 1-3 July, 2019 (pp. 1764-1773). The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gamification for Self-Directed Learning in Higher Education
2019 (English)In: EDULEARN19 Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, p. 1764-1773Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on how gamification was used to promote Self-Directed Learning (SDL) in a course at a Swedish university. SDL is a strategy to lifelong learning [1], and essential in today's fast-changing society. However, it is challenging to achieve in higher education due to an emphasis on extrinsic motivation, and a tradition of the teacher being in control. Gamification is the use of game elements in non-game contexts [2] and has been used in educational contexts to motivate and engage students. Based on six years experience of teaching a gamified course, this paper seeks to answer the question: How can gamification support Self-Directed Learning in higher education?

Self-directed learners continue to learn after the formal education has ended, which is essential in most professions today. The concept was described by Garrison [1] as having three dimensions: self-management (control), self-monitoring (responsibility) and motivation. This paper focuses on SDL as one perspective on learning, exploring the possibility for using gamification to support SDL.

The paper reports on the experiences from the past six years of teaching a gamified course for first-year interaction design undergraduate students. A total of 253 students have taken the course, which implements several game elements: points, levels, choice, boss, collaboration, player status, and feedback. The students' experiences have been evaluated in several ways: the university’s standard summative evaluation form, since 2015 also a summative oral evaluation, and during 2016 and 2017 oral evaluations were also performed halfway through the course. The experiences from teaching the course are analysed using the three dimensions of SDL.

For example, self-management is supported by the use of choice and the transparency of the player status page. In this case, the students were able to strategically choose some of their assignments, based on their level of ambition, through the overview of their current points. Self-monitoring is for example supported by the transparency of the reward structure and frequent external feedback; in this case, the point system and associated profile page.

Furthermore, the reward structure, levels, choice, bosses, and the overall novelty of the concept supported motivation. The challenge in SDL is to internalise extrinsic motivation [1], and in this case the overall strong grades of the students, and their continued motivation to participate in course activities show that this was at least partly successful. In this case, the challenge was how to balance the game elements in order to achieve SLD, yet still maintain the structure of formal education.

We formulate four ways in which gamification can support SDL: feedback can support all three dimensions of SDL and is one of the essential game elements in higher education; game elements can be used to direct students towards critical thinking activities, and thus support self-monitoring; choice can be used to support self-management, but is the most difficult to design; and intrinsic motivation can be supported by using appropriate reward structures and frequent feedback. 

References:

[1] Garrison, D.R., Self-directed learning: Toward a comprehensive model. Adult education quarterly, 1997. 48(1): p. 18-33.

[2] Deterding, S. et al. From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification. in Proceedings of the 15th international academic MindTrek conference: Envisioning future media environments. 2011.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019
Series
EDULEARN Proceedings, ISSN 2340-1117
Keywords
gamification, higher education, learning, self-directed learning
National Category
Pedagogy Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40365 (URN)10.21125/edulearn.2019.0507 (DOI)978-84-09-12031-4 (ISBN)
Conference
11th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN19), Palma, Spain, 1-3 July, 2019
Available from: 2019-08-07 Created: 2019-08-07 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, S. (2019). Schizophrenia and Design: The Expectation Gaps with a Vulnerable User Group. interactions, 26(4), 70-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Schizophrenia and Design: The Expectation Gaps with a Vulnerable User Group
2019 (English)In: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 70-73Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [en]

In this forum we celebrate research that helps to successfully bring the benefits of computing technologies to children, older adults, people with disabilities, and other populations that are often ignored in the design of mass-marketed products. --- Juan Pablo Hourcade, Editor

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019
Keywords
interaction design, schizophrenia, user participation, participatory design, vulnerable, sensitive, challenges, opportunities
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40364 (URN)10.1145/3337775 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068445388 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-07 Created: 2019-08-07 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, S., Jormfeldt, H. & Bergquist, M. (2019). Unlocking design potential: Design with people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Informatics for Health and Social Care, 44(1), 31-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unlocking design potential: Design with people diagnosed with schizophrenia
2019 (English)In: Informatics for Health and Social Care, ISSN 1753-8157, E-ISSN 1753-8165, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 31-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the expansion of e-health systems to more diverse and heterogeneous contexts and user groups, it is increasingly important to include users in design. Designers recognize the benefits of user participation, but including users with lowered cognitive and social abilities can be difficult. This paper intends to answer how these users can participate in the design of e-health systems. We conducted a case study with stakeholder interviews and design workshops with users diagnosed with schizophrenia to identify and overcome the challenges for participation. From the stakeholder interviews, we identified challenges relating to social interaction, technical experience, cognitive ability, and loss of individuality. We designed workshops that addressed these challenges and identify five strategies for unlocking the design potential of the participants: (1) work together with concrete materials and examples; (2) maintain a positive focus; (3) accept all ideas; (4) maintain and require realism; and (5) use previous interaction. We conclude that, when supported appropriately, it is possible to involve people diagnosed with schizophrenia. We also highlight the difficulty for someone not self-experienced to understand contexts as challenging and sensitive as this, and thus the value of user participation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Case study, design, participation, schizophrenia, strategy
National Category
Interaction Technologies Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34901 (URN)10.1080/17538157.2017.1363762 (DOI)28853962 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028544974 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, S. (2018). Ethics of User Involvement in Sensitive Design Situations. (Doctoral dissertation). Halmstad: Halmstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethics of User Involvement in Sensitive Design Situations
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

While this era of digital technology brings great possibilities for improving the lives of many people with digital healthcare services, the design of these services in turn present challenges that are ethical in nature. Participatory Design (PD) values user involvement in design from a democratic, empowerment and ethical perspective. However, the design of digital healthcare services constitutes sensitive design situations, that is, situations that have the potential to negatively impact the participants. As a consequence, participation in these design situations involves risks, causing ethical dilemmas. The ethical dilemmas that designers face in sensitive design situations are situated, dynamic, diverse, unpredictable, and occur in-action. Yet, it is a complex field with little in situ support for designers who intend to involve users in sensitive design situations, and high complexity and risk increase the need to understand ethics in these situations. Consequently, this thesis intends to answer the question: How can users be involved in sensitive design situations?

The research question has emerged from the study of two design projects and is addressed through a Design Research (DR) approach. Both projects aimed at designing Digital Peer Support (DPS); one designs DPS for children between 8-12 cured from cancer, and the other designs DPS for people diagnosed with schizophrenia. The DR approach enables the study of de facto design situations in the two design projects. The thesis consists of a collection of five papers and a cover paper.

The results show that, in sensitive design situations it can be challenging to uphold the fundamental ethical commitments of PD: that participation is a democratic right, the user is the expert, design should enhance, and design is situated. Based on the empirical study, I propose four principles for ethics in sensitive design situations that aim to support the upholding of these ethical commitments: (I) the principle of enhancement; (II) the principle of acknowledgement; (III) the principle of advocacy; and (IV) the principle of accommodation.

The research contributes to the discourse on ethics in PD by expanding the understanding of ethical values of user involvement. Ethical guidelines must be dynamic and responsive, and participation should be carried out using methods for continuous critical reflection. The research contributes to practice by providing practical guidance for those who intend to involve users in sensitive design situations, ethical review boards who review PD, and for training of future PD researchers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2018. p. 202
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 45
Keywords
ethics, participatory design, user involvement, design research, children, schizophrenia, cancer, sensitive, vulnerable, design, participation, principles, digital peer support
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36396 (URN)978-91-87045-92-9 (ISBN)978-91-87045-93-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-04-10, Wigforssalen, Visionen, Högskolan i Halmstad, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-03-08 Created: 2018-03-08 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, S. (2018). Wickedness in Design for People Diagnosed with Schizophrenia. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 30(1), 47-77, Article ID 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wickedness in Design for People Diagnosed with Schizophrenia
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167, E-ISSN 1901-0990, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 47-77, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the digitisation of society, e-health technology increasingly supports new design situations that extend those traditional to Information Systems, and therefore need to be better understood. In design for complex, new and sensitive design situations, it is not possible to apply known methods and solutions without a deeper situational understanding. These design situations are fraught with wicked problems that are contradictory and complex. This paper intends to answer how the wickedness of the design situation when designing e-health technology for people diagnosed with schizophrenia can be understood and what consequences the design situation has for the design process. The paper presents a grounded theory analysis of stakeholder interviews and focus group interviews with people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Four wicked problems are identified: struggle of dependence, contradiction of social interaction, contradiction of trust and counteracting improvement behaviour. The problems are interrelated and have consequences for the design, acceptance, use and user involvement in design of e-health technology for people diagnosed with schizophrenia. The paper also shows the viability of using grounded theory for studying and describing situational wickedness. © Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 2018.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aalborg: I R I S Association, 2018
Keywords
e-health, wicked problems, wickedness, schizophrenia, grounded theory, design
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Information Systems Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38651 (URN)2-s2.0-85049948489 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Wärnestål, P., Svedberg, P., Lindberg, S. & Nygren, J. M. (2017). Effects of Using Child Personas in the Development of a Digital Peer Support Service for Childhood Cancer Survivors. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(5), Article ID e161.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Using Child Personas in the Development of a Digital Peer Support Service for Childhood Cancer Survivors
2017 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 19, no 5, article id e161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Peer support services have the potential to support children who survive cancer by handling the physical, mental, and social challenges associated with survival and return to everyday life. Involving the children themselves in the design process allows for adapting services to authentic user behaviors and goals. As there are several challenges that put critical requirements on a user-centered design process, we developed a design method based on personas adapted to the particular needs of children that promotes health and handles a sensitive design context.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of using child personas in the development of a digital peer support service for childhood cancer survivors.

METHODS: The user group's needs and behaviors were characterized based on cohort data and literature, focus group interviews with childhood cancer survivors (n=15, 8-12 years), stakeholder interviews with health care professionals and parents (n=13), user interviews, and observations. Data were interpreted and explained together with childhood cancer survivors (n=5) in three explorative design workshops and a validation workshop with children (n=7).

RESULTS: We present findings and insights on how to codesign child personas in the context of developing digital peer support services with childhood cancer survivors. The work resulted in three primary personas that model the behaviors, attitudes, and goals of three user archetypes tailored for developing health-promoting services in this particular use context. Additionally, we also report on the effects of using these personas in the design of a digital peer support service called Give Me a Break.

CONCLUSIONS: By applying our progressive steps of data collection and analysis, we arrive at authentic child-personas that were successfully used to design and develop health-promoting services for children in vulnerable life stages. The child-personas serve as effective collaboration and communication aids for both internal and external purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Toronto: J M I R Publications, Inc., 2017
Keywords
cancer, childhood, participation, peer, service design, survivor, user experience
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35033 (URN)10.2196/jmir.7175 (DOI)28526663 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019932388 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2018-10-29Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, S., Svedberg, P., Bergquist, M. & Nygren, J. M. (2017). Evaluating Digital Peer Support for Children Cured from Cancer. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 33(8), 664-676
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating Digital Peer Support for Children Cured from Cancer
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 664-676Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article describes a case study of the challenges that emerged from a formative evaluation process with the purpose of evaluating a digital peer support (DPS) service for children between 8 and 12 cured from cancer. The evaluation of DPS for children is particularly challenging. While the literature on evaluation with children is extensive, challenges such as risk assessment that become prevalent in the evaluation of DPS are not highlighted. This case study analyzes how the DPS service was evaluated over the course of two usability tests, a two-week diary study, a focus group interview, and a survey. Challenges relating to ethics, trust, risk assessment, and recruitment emerged during the evaluation process. We identify key strategies to handle these challenges: progression, proxies, and reflection. Performing a multistage evaluation process with progressing sensitivity allowed control of some of the complexities of the context in order to balance the degree of the children’s involvement with the degree of sensitivity. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
evaluation, digital peer support, children, participation, case study, strategy
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34700 (URN)10.1080/10447318.2017.1278892 (DOI)000407146200006 ()2-s2.0-85011298615 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareSwedish Childhood Cancer FoundationKnowledge FoundationVINNOVA
Available from: 2017-08-10 Created: 2017-08-10 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Nygren, J. M., Lindberg, S., Wärnestål, P. & Svedberg, P. (2017). Involving Children With Cancer in Health Promotive Research: A Case Study Describing Why, What, and How. JMIR Research Protocols, 6(2), Article ID e19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Involving Children With Cancer in Health Promotive Research: A Case Study Describing Why, What, and How
2017 (English)In: JMIR Research Protocols, ISSN 1929-0748, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 6, no 2, article id e19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Participatory research approaches have been introduced to meet end-users’ needs in the development of health promotion interventions among children. However, whereas children are increasingly involved as passive informants in particular parts of research, they are rarely involved as partners, equal to adult researchers, throughout the research process. This is especially prominent in the context of child health where the child is commonly considered to be vulnerable or when the research concerns sensitive situations. In these cases, researchers and gatekeepers to children’s involvement base their resistance to active involvement of children on potential adverse effects on the accuracy or quality of the research or on ethical or moral principles that participation might harm the child. Thus most research aimed at developing health promotion interventions for children in health care is primarily based on the involvement of parents, caregivers, and other stakeholders.

Objective: The objective of this paper is to discuss reasons for involving children in health promotive research and to explore models for children’s participation in research as a basis for describing how researchers can use design methodology and participatory approaches to support the participation and contribution of children in a vulnerable context.

Methods: We developed and applied a model for children's participation in research to the development of a digital peer support service for children cancer survivors. This guided the selection of appropriate research and design methodologies (such as interviews, focus groups, design sessions, and usability evaluation) for involving the children cancer survivors (8-12 years) in the design of a digital peer support service.

Results: We present a model for what children’s participation in research means and describe how we practically implemented this model in a research project on children with cancer. This paper can inform researchers in their planning of strategies for children’s participation and ensure future development of health promotion interventions for children is based on their perspectives.

Conclusions: Challenges in reaching a suitable degree of participation during a research project involve both creating opportunities for children to have genuine influence on the research process and organizing this involvement so that they feel they understand what they are involved in and why. To achieve this, it is essential to enable children to be involved in research over time to gain confidence in the researchers and to develop children’s abilities to make decisions throughout the research processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Toronto, ON: JMIR Publications, Inc., 2017
Keywords
children, participation, involvement, research
National Category
Health Sciences Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33659 (URN)10.2196/resprot.7094 (DOI)000395837900011 ()28174150 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnowledge FoundationSwedish Research Council Formas
Note

Funding: Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, the Knowledge Foundation, and the Swedish Research Council Formas.

Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, S. (2017). Wickedness in Design of e-Health Systems for People Diagnosed with Schizophrenia. In: Susanne Stigberg, Joackim Karlsen, Harald Holone, Cathrine Linnes (Ed.), Nordic Contributions in IS Research: 8th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2017, Halden, Norway, August 6–8, 2017, Proceedings. Paper presented at 8th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2017, Halden, Norway, August 6–8, 2017 (pp. 125-139). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wickedness in Design of e-Health Systems for People Diagnosed with Schizophrenia
2017 (English)In: Nordic Contributions in IS Research: 8th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2017, Halden, Norway, August 6–8, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Susanne Stigberg, Joackim Karlsen, Harald Holone, Cathrine Linnes, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 125-139Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the digitisation of society, e-health systems support new contexts that are different from traditional Information Systems contexts, and therefore need to be better understood. In design for complex, new and sensitive contexts, it is not possible to apply known methods and solutions without deeper contextual understanding. The paper intends to answer how the wickedness of the design context when designing digital services for people diagnosed with schizophrenia can be understood – a context that is contradictory and complex, that is, a wicked design context. The paper presents a grounded theory analysis of stakeholder interviews and focus group interviews with people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Four wicked problems are identified: struggle of dependence, contradiction of social interaction, contradiction of trust and counteracting improvement behaviour. The paper also shows the viability of the use of grounded theory for uncovering and describing contextual wickedness. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2017
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348, E-ISSN 1865-1356 ; 294
Keywords
e-Health, Wicked problems, Wickedness, Schizophrenia, Grounded theory, Design
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34702 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-64695-4_10 (DOI)2-s2.0-85028351320 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-64694-7 (ISBN)978-3-319-64695-4 (ISBN)
Conference
8th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2017, Halden, Norway, August 6–8, 2017
Available from: 2017-08-10 Created: 2017-08-10 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, S., Wärnestål, P., Nygren, J. & Svedberg, P. (2014). Designing digital peer support for children: design patterns for social interaction. In: IDC '14 Proceedings of the 2014 conference on Interaction design and children: . Paper presented at 13th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (IDC 2014), Aarhus, Denmark, 17-20 June, 2014 (pp. 47-56). [S.l.]: ACM Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing digital peer support for children: design patterns for social interaction
2014 (English)In: IDC '14 Proceedings of the 2014 conference on Interaction design and children, [S.l.]: ACM Press, 2014, p. 47-56Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Children who have survived a life-threatening disease like cancer benefit from social support from other children with a similar background. However, these children are often geographically dispersed and have little opportunity to meet. We investigate the design and development of Digital Peer Support Services (DPS), which may overcome this problem. Peer support is a kind of social support that brings together peers with similar experiences to help their adjustment to a disease. The aim of this paper is to develop design patterns for social interaction that can be implemented in a DPS for children surviving cancer. We conducted four sets of design workshops with children, from which emerged clusters relating to peer support and friendship that were broken down into triads. From these, six design patterns for social interaction were developed. The patterns delineate different aspects of social interaction for children and are illustrated with examples from DPS prototypes and concepts. The patterns are organized into a hierarchy, comprising the beginning of a design pattern language for social interaction for children. An essential aspect of the patterns is providing users with transparency and control of the extent to which their social interaction is public or private. Copyright © 2014 ACM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
[S.l.]: ACM Press, 2014
Keywords
Design Patterns, Children, Social Interaction, Digital Peer Support Service, Interaction design
National Category
Information Systems Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-25644 (URN)10.1145/2593968.2593972 (DOI)2-s2.0-84903773827 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-2272-0 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (IDC 2014), Aarhus, Denmark, 17-20 June, 2014
Projects
CHIPS
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasKnowledge FoundationVINNOVASwedish Research Council
Note

Research funding: the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Research Council Formas, the Swedish Childhood Cancer Society, the Knowledge Foundation & the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (Vinnova)

Available from: 2014-06-16 Created: 2014-06-16 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Projects
Peer support intervention for improved mental health in children [2012-27_Formas]; Halmstad University; Publications
Einberg, E.-L., Nygren, J., Svedberg, P. & Enskär, K. (2016). ‘Through my eyes’: health-promoting factors described by photographs taken by children with experience of cancer treatment. Child Care Health and Development, 42(1), 76-86
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8596-2027

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