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Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Gkouskos, D., Lindberg, S. & Weberg, O. (2023). Exploring Digital Self-Triage Design in Healthcare Center Smartphone Applications for Anxiety: A Design Critique. International Journal of Design in Society, 17(2), 17-42
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring Digital Self-Triage Design in Healthcare Center Smartphone Applications for Anxiety: A Design Critique
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Design in Society, ISSN 2325-1328, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 17-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mental health issues are on the rise, and more healthcare resources are needed to address existing needs. The digitalization of mental health care can enable easier access to much-needed treatment. Still, little is known about how to successfully design digitalized health care, especially from a human–computer interaction perspective, even though digital mental healthcare options are currently available for healthcare seekers. The purpose of this article is to explore how currently available digital care apps are designed, outline design strategies used, and identify opportunities for improvement. In this article, we use design patterns from five digital healthcare center mobile applications in a design critique approach to explore digitalized self-triage journeys that are available to users in Sweden. We showcase the diverse design solutions through pre-patterns identified from digitalized self-triage steps of prelogin, selecting your health issue, answering questions, and filing a case. We then discuss identified design challenges in relation to (1) calibrating appropriate expectations, (2) health literacy requirements, (3) transparency of information, and (4) expected risk-taking behaviors. We end with implications for future design-oriented research to complement clinical, financial, and technological perspectives on digital mental healthcare centers and implications that can improve the design of digital self-triage for mental health applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Champaign, IL: Common Ground Research Networks, 2023
Keywords
Digital Triage, Digital Self-triage, Digital Mental Health Care, Design Patterns for Digital Mental Health Care, Design Patterns for Anxiety Care, Design Critique
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
Health Innovation, IDC
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51865 (URN)10.18848/2325-1328/cgp/v17i02/17-42 (DOI)
Projects
CAISRHEALTH
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20200208 01H
Available from: 2023-10-27 Created: 2023-10-27 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved
Koutsikouri, D., Hylving, L., Lindberg, S. & Bornemark, J. (2023). Seven Elements of Phronesis: A Framework for Understanding Judgment in Relation to Automated Decision-Making. In: Tung X. Bui (Ed.), Proceedings of the 56th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: . Paper presented at 56th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2023), Virtual, Online, 3-6 January, 2023 (pp. 5292-5301). IEEE Computer Society, 56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seven Elements of Phronesis: A Framework for Understanding Judgment in Relation to Automated Decision-Making
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the 56th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences / [ed] Tung X. Bui, IEEE Computer Society, 2023, Vol. 56, p. 5292-5301Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This conceptual paper aims to explore judgment in the context of automated decision-making systems (ADS). To achieve this, we adopt a modern version of Aristotle’s notion of phronesis to understand judgment. We delineate seven elements of judgment which provide insights into what humans are better at, and what AI is better at in relation to automated decision-making. These elements are sources of knowledge that guide action including not-knowing, emotions, sensory perception, experience, intuition, episteme, and techne. Our analysis suggests that most of these attributes are not transferable to AI systems, because judgment in human decision-making requires the integration of all which involves considering the contextual and affective resources of phronesis, and the competence to make value judgments. The paper contributes to unpack human judgment capacities and what needs to be cultivated to achieve ‘good’ AI systems that serves humanity as well as guiding future information systems researchers to explore human-AI judgment further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2023
Series
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, ISSN 2572-6862 ; 56
Keywords
Artificial intelligence, Judgment, Phronesis, Automated Decision-making
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50547 (URN)9780998133164 (ISBN)
Conference
56th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2023), Virtual, Online, 3-6 January, 2023
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2023-06-07 Created: 2023-06-07 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved
Hylving, L. & Lindberg, S. (2022). Ethical Dilemmas and Big Data: The Case of the Swedish Transport Administration. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 18(1), Article ID 21.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethical Dilemmas and Big Data: The Case of the Swedish Transport Administration
2022 (English)In: International Journal of Knowledge Management, ISSN 1548-0666, E-ISSN 1548-0658, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using big data in organizations has the potential to improve innovation, accuracy, and efficiency. Big data is also connected with risks for both the organization and society at large. It is therefore vital to improve our understanding of the potential consequences of implementing and using big data. The researchers studied the Swedish Transport Administration to understand their attitude towards implementing big data to predict, for example, the need for road maintenance. The analysis identified four moral dilemmas that the organization deals with in connection to big data. The researchers discuss these dilemmas from the perspective of practical wisdom. Practical wisdom is manifested in context-dependent actions connected to open-mindedness, reflection and judgment. It can be summed up as “the reasonable thing to do” in a unique situation where “not-knowing” is a helpful resource when making wise decisions. This paper seeks to shed light on the importance of practical wisdom when implementing big data. Copyright © 2022, IGI Global.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2022
Keywords
Management of Technology and Innovation, Computer Science Applications, Management Information Systems
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-45994 (URN)10.4018/ijkm.290021 (DOI)000836696600007 ()2-s2.0-85118307834 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2021-11-30 Created: 2021-11-30 Last updated: 2023-08-21Bibliographically approved
Hylving, L., Koutsikouri, D., Bornemark, J. & Lindberg, S. (2022). Ratio and Intellectus: Towards a Conceptual Framework for Understanding Human and Artificial Intelligence. In: ICIS 2022 Proceedings: . Paper presented at International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), ICIS 2022, Copenhagen, Denmark, 9-14 December, 2022. Association for Information Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ratio and Intellectus: Towards a Conceptual Framework for Understanding Human and Artificial Intelligence
2022 (English)In: ICIS 2022 Proceedings, Association for Information Systems, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper uses the pre-renaissance philosopher Nicolas Cusanus (1401-1464) and his concepts of ratio (calculating rationality) and intellectus (a relation to not-knowing) to assist in understanding the differences between human and artificial intelligence. The intention is to contribute to the ongoing discussions and debate pertaining to AI implementation and use, arguing that philosophy can be of ample use when it comes to understanding different types of intelligence in the digital world. The presented conceptual framework outlines the human and the artificial intelligence in terms of their characteristics in relation to Cusa’s ratio and intellectus. This helps to apprehend the different forms of intelligence and, more specifically, their strengths and how they operate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Information Systems, 2022
Keywords
Human Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence, Ratio, Intellectus
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-48973 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), ICIS 2022, Copenhagen, Denmark, 9-14 December, 2022
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, 360119
Available from: 2022-12-20 Created: 2022-12-20 Last updated: 2023-02-15Bibliographically approved
Hylving, L. & Lindberg, S. (2021). Practical Wisdom and Big Data Dilemmas: The Case of the Swedish Transport Administration. In: Proceedings of the 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: . Paper presented at 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai, Hawaii, United States of America, 5-8 January, 2021 (pp. 5120-5129).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Practical Wisdom and Big Data Dilemmas: The Case of the Swedish Transport Administration
2021 (English)In: Proceedings of the 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2021, p. 5120-5129Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Using big data in organizations has the potential to improve innovation, accuracy, and efficiency. Big data is also connected with risks for both the organization and society at large. It is therefore important to improve our understanding of potential consequences of implementing and using big data. We studied the Swedish Transport Administration to understand their attitude towards implementing big data for prediction of, for example, the need for road maintenance. The analysis identified four moral dilemmas that the organization deals with in connection to big data. We discuss these dilemmas from the perspective of practical wisdom. Practical wisdom is manifested in context-dependent actions connected to open-mindedness, reflection and judgment. It can be summed up as “the reasonable thing to do” in a unique situation where “not-knowing” is a helpful resource when making wise decisions. This paper seeks to shed light on the importance of practical wisdom when implementing big data.© 2021 IEEE Computer Society. All rights reserved. 

Keywords
Judgement, Big Data-Analytics and Decision-making, practical wisdom, big data dilemmas
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43322 (URN)10.24251/HICSS.2021.623 (DOI)2-s2.0-85108332656 (Scopus ID)978-0-9981331-4-0 (ISBN)
Conference
54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai, Hawaii, United States of America, 5-8 January, 2021
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2020-10-20 Created: 2020-10-20 Last updated: 2021-12-22Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, S. (2019). Gamification for Self-Directed Learning in Higher Education. In: EDULEARN19 Proceedings: . Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN19), Palma, Spain, 1-3 July, 2019 (pp. 1764-1773). The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gamification for Self-Directed Learning in Higher Education
2019 (English)In: EDULEARN19 Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, p. 1764-1773Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on how gamification was used to promote Self-Directed Learning (SDL) in a course at a Swedish university. SDL is a strategy to lifelong learning [1], and essential in today's fast-changing society. However, it is challenging to achieve in higher education due to an emphasis on extrinsic motivation, and a tradition of the teacher being in control. Gamification is the use of game elements in non-game contexts [2] and has been used in educational contexts to motivate and engage students. Based on six years experience of teaching a gamified course, this paper seeks to answer the question: How can gamification support Self-Directed Learning in higher education?

Self-directed learners continue to learn after the formal education has ended, which is essential in most professions today. The concept was described by Garrison [1] as having three dimensions: self-management (control), self-monitoring (responsibility) and motivation. This paper focuses on SDL as one perspective on learning, exploring the possibility for using gamification to support SDL.

The paper reports on the experiences from the past six years of teaching a gamified course for first-year interaction design undergraduate students. A total of 253 students have taken the course, which implements several game elements: points, levels, choice, boss, collaboration, player status, and feedback. The students' experiences have been evaluated in several ways: the university’s standard summative evaluation form, since 2015 also a summative oral evaluation, and during 2016 and 2017 oral evaluations were also performed halfway through the course. The experiences from teaching the course are analysed using the three dimensions of SDL.

For example, self-management is supported by the use of choice and the transparency of the player status page. In this case, the students were able to strategically choose some of their assignments, based on their level of ambition, through the overview of their current points. Self-monitoring is for example supported by the transparency of the reward structure and frequent external feedback; in this case, the point system and associated profile page.

Furthermore, the reward structure, levels, choice, bosses, and the overall novelty of the concept supported motivation. The challenge in SDL is to internalise extrinsic motivation [1], and in this case the overall strong grades of the students, and their continued motivation to participate in course activities show that this was at least partly successful. In this case, the challenge was how to balance the game elements in order to achieve SLD, yet still maintain the structure of formal education.

We formulate four ways in which gamification can support SDL: feedback can support all three dimensions of SDL and is one of the essential game elements in higher education; game elements can be used to direct students towards critical thinking activities, and thus support self-monitoring; choice can be used to support self-management, but is the most difficult to design; and intrinsic motivation can be supported by using appropriate reward structures and frequent feedback. 

References:

[1] Garrison, D.R., Self-directed learning: Toward a comprehensive model. Adult education quarterly, 1997. 48(1): p. 18-33.

[2] Deterding, S. et al. From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification. in Proceedings of the 15th international academic MindTrek conference: Envisioning future media environments. 2011.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019
Series
EDULEARN Proceedings, ISSN 2340-1117
Keywords
gamification, higher education, learning, self-directed learning
National Category
Pedagogy Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40365 (URN)10.21125/edulearn.2019.0507 (DOI)978-84-09-12031-4 (ISBN)
Conference
11th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN19), Palma, Spain, 1-3 July, 2019
Available from: 2019-08-07 Created: 2019-08-07 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, S. (2019). Schizophrenia and Design: The Expectation Gaps with a Vulnerable User Group. interactions, 26(4), 70-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Schizophrenia and Design: The Expectation Gaps with a Vulnerable User Group
2019 (English)In: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 70-73Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [en]

In this forum we celebrate research that helps to successfully bring the benefits of computing technologies to children, older adults, people with disabilities, and other populations that are often ignored in the design of mass-marketed products. --- Juan Pablo Hourcade, Editor

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019
Keywords
interaction design, schizophrenia, user participation, participatory design, vulnerable, sensitive, challenges, opportunities
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40364 (URN)10.1145/3337775 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068445388 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-07 Created: 2019-08-07 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, S., Jormfeldt, H. & Bergquist, M. (2019). Unlocking design potential: Design with people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Informatics for Health and Social Care, 44(1), 31-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unlocking design potential: Design with people diagnosed with schizophrenia
2019 (English)In: Informatics for Health and Social Care, ISSN 1753-8157, E-ISSN 1753-8165, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 31-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the expansion of e-health systems to more diverse and heterogeneous contexts and user groups, it is increasingly important to include users in design. Designers recognize the benefits of user participation, but including users with lowered cognitive and social abilities can be difficult. This paper intends to answer how these users can participate in the design of e-health systems. We conducted a case study with stakeholder interviews and design workshops with users diagnosed with schizophrenia to identify and overcome the challenges for participation. From the stakeholder interviews, we identified challenges relating to social interaction, technical experience, cognitive ability, and loss of individuality. We designed workshops that addressed these challenges and identify five strategies for unlocking the design potential of the participants: (1) work together with concrete materials and examples; (2) maintain a positive focus; (3) accept all ideas; (4) maintain and require realism; and (5) use previous interaction. We conclude that, when supported appropriately, it is possible to involve people diagnosed with schizophrenia. We also highlight the difficulty for someone not self-experienced to understand contexts as challenging and sensitive as this, and thus the value of user participation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Case study, design, participation, schizophrenia, strategy
National Category
Interaction Technologies Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34901 (URN)10.1080/17538157.2017.1363762 (DOI)000456172100003 ()28853962 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028544974 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, S. (2018). Ethics of User Involvement in Sensitive Design Situations. (Doctoral dissertation). Halmstad: Halmstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethics of User Involvement in Sensitive Design Situations
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

While this era of digital technology brings great possibilities for improving the lives of many people with digital healthcare services, the design of these services in turn present challenges that are ethical in nature. Participatory Design (PD) values user involvement in design from a democratic, empowerment and ethical perspective. However, the design of digital healthcare services constitutes sensitive design situations, that is, situations that have the potential to negatively impact the participants. As a consequence, participation in these design situations involves risks, causing ethical dilemmas. The ethical dilemmas that designers face in sensitive design situations are situated, dynamic, diverse, unpredictable, and occur in-action. Yet, it is a complex field with little in situ support for designers who intend to involve users in sensitive design situations, and high complexity and risk increase the need to understand ethics in these situations. Consequently, this thesis intends to answer the question: How can users be involved in sensitive design situations?

The research question has emerged from the study of two design projects and is addressed through a Design Research (DR) approach. Both projects aimed at designing Digital Peer Support (DPS); one designs DPS for children between 8-12 cured from cancer, and the other designs DPS for people diagnosed with schizophrenia. The DR approach enables the study of de facto design situations in the two design projects. The thesis consists of a collection of five papers and a cover paper.

The results show that, in sensitive design situations it can be challenging to uphold the fundamental ethical commitments of PD: that participation is a democratic right, the user is the expert, design should enhance, and design is situated. Based on the empirical study, I propose four principles for ethics in sensitive design situations that aim to support the upholding of these ethical commitments: (I) the principle of enhancement; (II) the principle of acknowledgement; (III) the principle of advocacy; and (IV) the principle of accommodation.

The research contributes to the discourse on ethics in PD by expanding the understanding of ethical values of user involvement. Ethical guidelines must be dynamic and responsive, and participation should be carried out using methods for continuous critical reflection. The research contributes to practice by providing practical guidance for those who intend to involve users in sensitive design situations, ethical review boards who review PD, and for training of future PD researchers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2018. p. 202
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 45
Keywords
ethics, participatory design, user involvement, design research, children, schizophrenia, cancer, sensitive, vulnerable, design, participation, principles, digital peer support
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36396 (URN)978-91-87045-92-9 (ISBN)978-91-87045-93-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-04-10, Wigforssalen, Visionen, Högskolan i Halmstad, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-03-08 Created: 2018-03-08 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, S. (2018). Wickedness in Design for People Diagnosed with Schizophrenia. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 30(1), 47-77, Article ID 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wickedness in Design for People Diagnosed with Schizophrenia
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167, E-ISSN 1901-0990, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 47-77, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the digitisation of society, e-health technology increasingly supports new design situations that extend those traditional to Information Systems, and therefore need to be better understood. In design for complex, new and sensitive design situations, it is not possible to apply known methods and solutions without a deeper situational understanding. These design situations are fraught with wicked problems that are contradictory and complex. This paper intends to answer how the wickedness of the design situation when designing e-health technology for people diagnosed with schizophrenia can be understood and what consequences the design situation has for the design process. The paper presents a grounded theory analysis of stakeholder interviews and focus group interviews with people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Four wicked problems are identified: struggle of dependence, contradiction of social interaction, contradiction of trust and counteracting improvement behaviour. The problems are interrelated and have consequences for the design, acceptance, use and user involvement in design of e-health technology for people diagnosed with schizophrenia. The paper also shows the viability of using grounded theory for studying and describing situational wickedness. © Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 2018.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aalborg: I R I S Association, 2018
Keywords
e-health, wicked problems, wickedness, schizophrenia, grounded theory, design
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Information Systems Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38651 (URN)2-s2.0-85049948489 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Projects
Peer support intervention for improved mental health in children [2012-00027_Formas]; Halmstad University; Publications
Einberg, E.-L., Nygren, J., Svedberg, P. & Enskär, K. (2016). ‘Through my eyes’: health-promoting factors described by photographs taken by children with experience of cancer treatment. Child Care Health and Development, 42(1), 76-86
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8596-2027

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