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Ingrell, J., Johnson, U. & Ivarsson, A. (2020). Achivement goals in youth sport and the infleunce of coach, peers and parents: A longitudinal study. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 15(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achivement goals in youth sport and the infleunce of coach, peers and parents: A longitudinal study
2020 (English)In: Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, ISSN 1988-5202, E-ISSN 1988-5202, Vol. 15, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The first purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine achievement goals in youth sport. The second purpose was to examine the within-person effects of perceived motivational climates by coaches, peers, and parents on achievement goal orientation. Participants were 78 young student-athletes, representing a variety of sports. The student-athletes completed a multi-section questionnaire, six times over a three-year period, assessing the study variables. Multilevel modelling analysis revealed that both task orientation and ego orientation decreased for this age group over the three-year period. Furthermore, perceived task-involving peer climate was significantly and positively related to task orientation, and perceived ego-involving coach climate was significantly and positively related to ego orientation. The results from this study provides insights regarding developmental changes in achievement goals and the importance of certain social agents in that specific developmental stage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Alicante: , 2020
Keywords
Achievement goals, Coaches, Longitudinal, Parents, Peers
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41092 (URN)10.14198/jhse.2020.153.09 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-03
Ekengren, J., Stambulova, N., Johnson, U., Carlsson, I.-M. & Ryba, T. (2019). Composite vignettes of Swedish male and female professional handball players’ career paths. Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, 22(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composite vignettes of Swedish male and female professional handball players’ career paths
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2019 (English)In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to describe gender-specific career paths of Swedish professional handball players. A reanalysis of Ekengren et al. (2018) career interviews with nine male and nine female players led to creating two composite vignettes using the athletes’ own words, accounted for typical features in the male and female players’ career paths. Seven themes were identified in the analysis of the men’s transcripts and eight themes derived from the women’s transcripts. Further, the themes of both vignettes were aligned with career stages described in our previous study (Ekengren et al. 2018). The male players’ vignette is interpreted as a performance narrative congruent with elite handball culture that promotes performance success and profitable professional contracts. The female players’ vignette is more holistic, embracing handball, studies, motherhood, and how they ought to be as Swedish women. Recommendations for future research are provided. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Career development, creative analytical practice, cultural praxis of athletes’ careers, gender, handball, vignettes
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39272 (URN)10.1080/17430437.2019.1599201 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, F2015-0018
Note

Other funders: The Swedish Research Council for Sport Science, Swedish Handball Federation & Halmstad University

Available from: 2019-04-25 Created: 2019-04-25 Last updated: 2019-10-16
Johnson, U., Parker, J., Ivarsson, A., Andersen, M. & Svetoft, I. (2019). Connection in the Fresh Air: A Study on the Benefits of Participation in an Electronic Tracking Outdoor Gym Exercise Programme. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8(1), 61-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Connection in the Fresh Air: A Study on the Benefits of Participation in an Electronic Tracking Outdoor Gym Exercise Programme
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2019 (English)In: Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, ISSN 1800-8755, E-ISSN 1800-8763, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 61-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to explore whether a six-week intervention, based on participation in outdoor exercise, including activity-tracking devices and combined with individual consulting sessions, can both increase physical activity and yield positive changes in physiological and psychological health measures. A total of six participants, with a mean age of 41.2 (range 33-50 years), completed the ten-week study and the six-week intervention. The full study consisted of a four-week control/baseline and a six-week intervention period in which each participant acted as their own controls. Continuous measures of physical activity data were collected using a wrist-worn activity sensor during the ten-week study, along with pre- and post-measures of cardiovascular fitness, upper-body strength, BMI, general health, and motivation to exercise. The intervention consisted of a resistance-training programme for an outdoor gym and three motivational interviewing sessions. Eff ect sizes (percentage) for changes pre- to post-training were calculated. The results, because of the small sample size, are presented as individual cases, but the group, as a whole, showed average increases from baseline (pre-) to post-measures in strength (maximum row; 15.33%), time to exhaustion (3.58%), number of steps per day (4%), and autonomous motivation (12%) and average decreases in body weight (-1.08%), fat percentage (-7.58%), strength (chest; -2.5%), and stress symptoms (-2.17%). Th e six-week intervention programme showed promising results regarding physical activity changes. This study contributes to the limited evidence of the impact of resistance training programmes using outdoor gyms, electronic tracker, and motivational interviewing on physical activity outcomes. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Podgorica: Montenegrin Sports Academy, 2019
Keywords
physical activity, physiological health, psychological well-being, computerized exercise inter-vention, motivational interviewing
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40504 (URN)10.26773/mjssm.190309 (DOI)000458745000009 ()2-s2.0-85063783510 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Intelligient Outdoor Exercise (IOE)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 240006
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-11-12
Ingrell, J., Johnson, U. & Ivarsson, A. (2019). Developmental changes in burnout perceptions among student-athletes: An achievement goal perspective. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17(5), 509-520
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental changes in burnout perceptions among student-athletes: An achievement goal perspective
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 509-520Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined (a) the developmental trajectories of student-athlete burnout perceptions and (b) the within-person relationship between achievement goals and burnout perceptions. A three-year and six-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 78 student-athletes (30 young women and 48 young men, Mage at T1 = 12.7 years, SD = 0.44), attending a sport compulsory school. The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire were used. The results from multilevel growth models revealed that burnout perceptions increased for this age group over the three-year period. Furthermore, task orientation was significantly and negatively related to a reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. The results from this study underline the advantage of considering developmental processes when studying burnout. Furthermore, by focusing on the within-person effect of achievement goals, this study provides findings that support a motivational approach to the longitudinally study of burnout propensity among young student-athletes. The current study suggests that sport school staff should be aware of their student-athletes’ burnout perceptions and that these could change over time. Results also highlights that task-oriented goals might help decrease burnout perceptions, specifically reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. © 2018 International Society of Sport Psychology

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
achievement goals, adolescents, burnout, school sport, student-athlete
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36308 (URN)10.1080/1612197X.2017.1421679 (DOI)2-s2.0-85040984492 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-16 Created: 2018-02-16 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Parker, J., Ivarsson, A., Johnson, U., Svetoft, I., Andersen, M., Schough, C., . . . Warpman, S. (2019). Is self-determined motivation associated with the effects of an intervention aimed to increase physical activity and exercise levels? An 80-day follow-up. In: Abstract book for the ISBNPA 2019 Annual Meeting in Prague: . Paper presented at International Society of Behavior Nutrition and Physical Activity 2019 Annual Meeting, Prague, Czech Republic, 4-7 June, 2019 (pp. 488-488). International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is self-determined motivation associated with the effects of an intervention aimed to increase physical activity and exercise levels? An 80-day follow-up
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2019 (English)In: Abstract book for the ISBNPA 2019 Annual Meeting in Prague, International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2019, p. 488-488Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Objective: State-of-the-art technologies, for instance smart watches and smartphones, have the potential to positively influence physical activity and exercise in sedentary populations. Psychological factors, such as self-determined (SD) motivation, might influence the impact state-of-the-art technologies have on level of physical activity and exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate if self-determined motivation influences an intervention on both physical activity (PA) and exercise in a sedentary population.

Methods: 16 participants (men = 5, women = 11) with a self-reported low level of PA over the last year and predominantly sedentary jobs volunteered to participate in the study. PA data (steps and exercise time) were collected over an 80-day period using a wrist-worn accelerometer (Apple-watch and iPhone). Motivation was measured with the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2. At the start of the study, each participant completed the questionnaire and received their Apple-watches. Data analysis: All PA and exercise data were recorded through the Apple-watch and via Health App. Data for PA (steps) and exercise time were then extracted and aggregated to daily totals. Statistical analysis: Group means and standard deviations were calculated. A linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between exercise time, PA, and SD, the R2 value effect size (ES) was used to estimate the magnitude of the differences. All data analyses were performed in MatLab (software, R2016b).

Results/findings: SD motivation (3.9±0.9) had a medium (R2 = 0.09) but not statistically significant (p = .26) effect on the amount of moderate to high-intensity exercise time (33.3±39.6 minutes) during the 80-day period. There was no statistically significant effect (R2 = 0.003, p = .84) of SD on PA (12953±7717 steps).

Conclusions: Given the small sample size, achieving a medium effect size has meaningful significance despite not achieving statistical significance. This result suggests that self-determined motivation effects the amount of daily exercise but not PA in a sedentary population. Combining technology and other strategies (e.g., motivational interviewing, coaching) to promote behavior change is promising, and these interventions should include theoretically derived behavior change techniques and take level of SD motivation into account.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2019
Keywords
Self-determined motivation, Physical activity
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39689 (URN)978-1-7324011-1-2 (ISBN)
Conference
International Society of Behavior Nutrition and Physical Activity 2019 Annual Meeting, Prague, Czech Republic, 4-7 June, 2019
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-08-02Bibliographically approved
Parker, J., Ivarsson, A., Johnson, U., Svetoft, I., Andersen, M., Schough, C., . . . Warpman, S. (2019). Is self-determined motivation associated with the effects of an intervention aimed to increase physical activity and exercise levels? An 80-day follow-up. Paper presented at Conference: International Society of Behavior Nutrition and Physical Activity 2019 Annual Meeting, Prague, Czech Republic, June 4-7, 2019. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is self-determined motivation associated with the effects of an intervention aimed to increase physical activity and exercise levels? An 80-day follow-up
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: State-of-the-art technologies, for instance smart watches and smartphones, have the potential to positively influence physical activity and exercise in sedentary populations. Psychological factors, such as self-determined (SD) motivation, might influence the impact state-of-the-art technologies have on level of physical activity and exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate if self-determined motivation influences an intervention on both physical activity (PA) and exercise in a sedentary population.

Methods: 16 participants (men = 5, women = 11) with a self-reported low level of PA over the last year and predominantly sedentary jobs volunteered to participate in the study. PA data (steps and exercise time) were collected over an 80-day period using a wrist-worn accelerometer (Apple-watch and iPhone). Motivation was measured with the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2. At the start of the study, each participant completed the questionnaire and received their Apple-watches. Data analysis: All PA and exercise data were recorded through the Apple-watch and via Health App. Data for PA (steps) and exercise time were then extracted and aggregated to daily totals. Statistical analysis: Group means and standard deviations were calculated. A linear regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between exercise time, PA, and SD, the R2 value effect size (ES) was used to estimate the magnitude of the differences. All data analyses were performed in MatLab (software, R2016b).

Results/findings: SD motivation (3.9±0.9) had a medium (R2 = 0.09) but not statistically significant (p = .26) effect on the amount of moderate to high-intensity exercise time (33.3±39.6 minutes) during the 80-day period. There was no statistically significant effect (R2 = 0.003, p = .84) of SD on PA (12953±7717 steps).

Conclusions: Given the small sample size, achieving a medium effect size has meaningful significance despite not achieving statistical significance. This result suggests that self-determined motivation effects the amount of daily exercise but not PA in a sedentary population. Combining technology and other strategies (e.g., motivational interviewing, coaching) to promote behavior change is promising, and these interventions should include theoretically derived behaviour change techniques and take level of SD motivation into account.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: BioMed Central, 2019
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41082 (URN)
Conference
Conference: International Society of Behavior Nutrition and Physical Activity 2019 Annual Meeting, Prague, Czech Republic, June 4-7, 2019
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-04
Johnson, U. & Andersen, M. (2019). On the Swedish road of becoming a professional practitioner in sport and exercise psychology: Students view's, hopes, dreams and worries. The Sport psychologist, 33(1), 75-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Swedish road of becoming a professional practitioner in sport and exercise psychology: Students view's, hopes, dreams and worries
2019 (English)In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The field of sport and exercise psychology (SEP) has experienced a steady growth, and the professional practice and training of students has evolved over that time. Based on 2 past studies, the purpose was to describe a 2015 cohort of SEP students’ hopes, dreams, and worries about the future. The authors performed a thematic content analysis of essays from undergraduate students based on cohorts from 1995, 2005, and 2015. The results showed that the most recent students expressed more worries about the current situation in relation to perceptions about the future of their potential professional practice than the past groups. Four tendencies for the future emerged: continued development of applied sport psychology, increased interdisciplinary exchange and integration, inclusion of exercise and health as a vital part of the field, and increased acceptance of cultural variations. Implications for future professional practice and training in SEP are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2019
Keywords
education, employment, future status, professionalization, training
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41090 (URN)10.1123/tsp.2017-0137 (DOI)000460511300008 ()2-s2.0-85063748727 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-04Bibliographically approved
Johnson, U., Parker, J. & Ivarsson, A. (2019). Perceived challenges during participation in a six month outdoor gym exercise program: Participants reflections. In: : . Paper presented at The 15th European Congress of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Münster, Germany, July 15-20, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived challenges during participation in a six month outdoor gym exercise program: Participants reflections
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background and objective: Research has demonstrated positive associations between park-based outdoor gyms and physical activity (Rung et al., 2011). Few studies have evaluated potential challenges with outdoor gyms on physical activity, especially interventions using smartphone Apps (Johnson et al., 2019). The purpose was to study the participant’s perceived challenges during participation in a six-month outdoor gym program.

Methods: Ten participants (age = 50.3, SD = 9.2), with low levels of physical activity were interviewed at the end of the six-month intervention (male = 2; female =8). At the start of the intervention participants received a smartwatch and the “ParkStark” exercise app, along with an individual motivational interviewing coaching sessions.

Results/findings: A thematic content analysis of the interview data generated three core themes of perceived challenges experienced during the intervention: negative life event stressors, problems managing the smartwatch and an exercise app, and, lack of motivation. The results indicated both structural and personal challenges, likely to have a negative effect on the adherence to the intervention protocol.

Conclusions: It is important to develop simple and user-friendly communication systems. When designing outdoor gyms, it is recommended to organize opportunity for continuous communication with significant others to facilitate motivation and adherence for sustainable exercise.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41083 (URN)
Conference
The 15th European Congress of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Münster, Germany, July 15-20, 2019
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-09
Ingrell, J., Larneby, M., Johnson, U. & Hedenborg, S. (2019). Student-athletes beliefs about athletic ability: A longitudinal and mixed method gender study. Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, 10, 117-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Student-athletes beliefs about athletic ability: A longitudinal and mixed method gender study
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 10, p. 117-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this paper is to study and discuss student-athletes’ beliefs about athletic ability. Specifically, the aim is to analyze and problematize athletic ability longitudinally and with a gender perspective as it is perceived, discussed, and valued by student-athletes. A three-year and six-wave study was conducted on 78 student-athletes (30 females and 48 males; Mage at T1 = 12.7, SD = 0.44) attending a compulsory school with a sport profile. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 of the student-athletes (16 female and 11 male) during their second and third school year. Based on a parallel mixed-data analysis with cross-talks and meta-inferences, the two main results of this study are as follows: (1) entity beliefs increase and incremental beliefs decrease during the three-year period, and (2) gender add a further understanding of the student-athletes’ beliefs about athletic ability. 

The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the potential influence of the socialization processes on beliefs of athletic ability, and suggestions for future research are provided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö universitet, 2019
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41091 (URN)
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-04Bibliographically approved
Ivarsson, A., Johnson, U., Karlsson, J., Börjesson, M., Hägglund, M., Andersen, M. & Waldén, M. (2018). Elite female footballers’ stories of sociocultural factors, emotions, and behaviours prior to anterior cruciate ligament injury. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elite female footballers’ stories of sociocultural factors, emotions, and behaviours prior to anterior cruciate ligament injury
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study was to examine how players’ perceptions of sociocultural factors and intra- and interpersonal aspects of sporting experiences may have influenced the emotions, cognitions, and behaviours of elite female soccer players prior to the occurrence of ACL injuries. The research questions guiding the study were: (a) how did female elite soccer players perceive that their psychosocial experiences were related to their cognitive, physiological, and emotional states prior to their ACL injuries, and (b) how did the players feel their perceived states influenced their behaviours prior to injury occurrence. The participants consisted of the total population of female players (N = 18) competing in the Swedish women’s elite league, who incurred a total ACL tear during the 2012 season. Using a semi-structured interview guide, all players were interviewed post-season. We represented the data using a storytelling approach of aggregated creative nonfiction. The aggregated stories showed sociocultural rules and expectations of overtraining and placing pressure on athletes to play even if they were not physically or psychologically fit. Responding to pressures with potentially risk-increasing behaviours might raise the probability of becoming injured through a number of pathways. Team managers, coaches, and members of the medical team are recommended to develop environments that stimulate the players to engage in adaptive stress-recovery and risk-decreasing behaviours.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
anterior cruciate ligament, athletic injuries, elite athletes, female athletes, psychosocial factors, soccer
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36646 (URN)10.1080/1612197X.2018.1462227 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-04-19 Created: 2018-04-19 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0990-4842

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