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Ingrell, J., Johnson, U. & Ivarsson, A. (2018). Developmental changes in burnout perceptions among student-athletes: An achievement goal perspective. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental changes in burnout perceptions among student-athletes: An achievement goal perspective
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This study examined (a) the developmental trajectories of student-athlete burnout perceptions and (b) the within-person relationship between achievement goals and burnout perceptions. A three-year and six-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 78 student-athletes (30 young women and 48 young men, Mage at T1 = 12.7 years, SD = 0.44), attending a sport compulsory school. The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire were used. The results from multilevel growth models revealed that burnout perceptions increased for this age group over the three-year period. Furthermore, task orientation was significantly and negatively related to a reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. The results from this study underline the advantage of considering developmental processes when studying burnout. Furthermore, by focusing on the within-person effect of achievement goals, this study provides findings that support a motivational approach to the longitudinally study of burnout propensity among young student-athletes. The current study suggests that sport school staff should be aware of their student-athletes’ burnout perceptions and that these could change over time. Results also highlights that task-oriented goals might help decrease burnout perceptions, specifically reduced sense of accomplishment and sport devaluation. © 2018 International Society of Sport Psychology

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
achievement goals, adolescents, burnout, school sport, student-athlete
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36308 (URN)10.1080/1612197X.2017.1421679 (DOI)2-s2.0-85040984492 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-16 Created: 2018-02-16 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Ivarsson, A., Johnson, U., Karlsson, J., Börjesson, M., Hägglund, M., Andersen, M. & Waldén, M. (2018). Elite female footballers’ stories of sociocultural factors, emotions, and behaviours prior to anterior cruciate ligament injury. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elite female footballers’ stories of sociocultural factors, emotions, and behaviours prior to anterior cruciate ligament injury
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study was to examine how players’ perceptions of sociocultural factors and intra- and interpersonal aspects of sporting experiences may have influenced the emotions, cognitions, and behaviours of elite female soccer players prior to the occurrence of ACL injuries. The research questions guiding the study were: (a) how did female elite soccer players perceive that their psychosocial experiences were related to their cognitive, physiological, and emotional states prior to their ACL injuries, and (b) how did the players feel their perceived states influenced their behaviours prior to injury occurrence. The participants consisted of the total population of female players (N = 18) competing in the Swedish women’s elite league, who incurred a total ACL tear during the 2012 season. Using a semi-structured interview guide, all players were interviewed post-season. We represented the data using a storytelling approach of aggregated creative nonfiction. The aggregated stories showed sociocultural rules and expectations of overtraining and placing pressure on athletes to play even if they were not physically or psychologically fit. Responding to pressures with potentially risk-increasing behaviours might raise the probability of becoming injured through a number of pathways. Team managers, coaches, and members of the medical team are recommended to develop environments that stimulate the players to engage in adaptive stress-recovery and risk-decreasing behaviours.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
anterior cruciate ligament, athletic injuries, elite athletes, female athletes, psychosocial factors, soccer
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36646 (URN)10.1080/1612197X.2018.1462227 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-04-19 Created: 2018-04-19 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Ekengren, J., Stambulova, N., Johnson, U. & Carlsson, I.-M. (2018). Exploring career experiences of Swedish professional handball players: Consolidating firsthand information into an empirical career model. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring career experiences of Swedish professional handball players: Consolidating firsthand information into an empirical career model
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The study was aimed at developing the empirical career model of Swedish professional handball players by means of exploring their career experiences in athletic and non-athletic developments through the lens of the holistic athletic career model. Eighteen Swedish professional handball players (nine men and nine women), who had recently terminated or were finishing their careers took part in semi-structured interviews about their careers from the beginning to the end with an interest in both athletic and non-athletic developments. Thematic analysis initially focused on identifying the handball career structure (i.e. stages and sub-stages). Then, the interviews were analysed inductively to identify shared themes in the players’ experiences relevant to each career stage. These themes were incorporated in the relevant stages, and the empirical career model of Swedish professional handball players (further – the empirical model) was finalised. The empirical model describes careers of Swedish handball players as having four athletic stages – initiation, development (with three sub-stages), mastery (with four sub-stages), and discontinuation – complemented by players’ psychological, psychosocial, academic/vocational, and financial developments. Each stage is also aligned with age markers and contains themes describing players’ career experiences from the holistic perspective. The empirical model contributes to contextualised career research and serves as a basis for developing career-long psychological support services in Swedish handball including player/coach/parent education organised by the Swedish Handball Federation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
athletic career, empirical career model, handball, holistic developmental perspective
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37469 (URN)10.1080/1612197X.2018.1486872 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, F2015-0018
Note

Funding: the Swedish Research Council for Sport Science, Swedish Handball Federation, and Halmstad University.

Available from: 2018-07-03 Created: 2018-07-03 Last updated: 2018-07-05
Kilic, Ö., Johnson, U., Kerkhoffs, G. M., Rosier, P. & Gouttebarge, V. (2018). Exposure to physical and psychosocial stressors in relation to symptoms of common mental disorders among European professional football referees: A prospective cohort study. BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, 4(1), Article ID e000306.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to physical and psychosocial stressors in relation to symptoms of common mental disorders among European professional football referees: A prospective cohort study
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2018 (English)In: BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, E-ISSN 2055-7647, Vol. 4, no 1, article id e000306Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives The study aim was to explore the association of physical and psychosocial stressors (severe injuries, surgeries, recent life events, social support) with one-season onset of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among European professional football referees. Methods An observational prospective cohort study over a follow-up period of one season (2015-2016) was conducted among professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden. Based on physical and psychosocial stressors as well as symptoms of CMD, an electronic questionnaire in English and French was set up and distributed by eight football federations involved. Results The prevalence of symptoms of CMD ranged from 5.9% for distress to 19.2% for eating disorders. A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree of satisfaction about social support were significantly related to the occurrence of symptoms of CMD with an OR of 2.63 and an OR of 1.10, respectively. Conclusion A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree on satisfaction about social support were found to be significantly associated with the onset of symptoms of CMD among European professional football referees. Referees suffering from severe injuries were nearly three times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Referees who reported a low satisfaction of social support were significantly more likely to report symptoms of eating disorder. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Epidemiology, Football, Mental disorders, Referees, Substance-related disorders
National Category
Psychiatry Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38705 (URN)10.1136/bmjsem-2017-000306 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050392869 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Ivarsson, A., Stambulova, N. & Johnson, U. (2018). Injury as a career transition: Experiences of a Swedish elite handball player. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(4), 365-381
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Injury as a career transition: Experiences of a Swedish elite handball player
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 365-381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This single-subject case study adopted a narrative approach and focused on two objectives: (a) to explore an athlete’s career development, including the impact of injuries, and (b) to explore that athlete’s injury experiences in detail. The participant was a 26-year-old former elite handball player who had experienced two major anterior cruciate ligament injuries during his career. To guide the research process from the formulation of its objectives to the interpretation of the participant’s narratives, we followed the narrative-oriented inquiry framework. To collect the participant’s stories, a low-structured interview guide consisting of open questions and requests for information about the participant’s handball career and injury experiences was used. The holistic content analysis allowed us to conceptualise injuries as career transition processes embedded in the athlete’s career development. Moreover, the participant’s narratives made it possible to identify four phases of injury transition and the distinct psychological content (demands, resources, barriers, and coping strategies) relevant to each of the four phases. Based on the results of the study, we anticipate that athletes, sport psychology consultants, coaches, and members of sport medicine teams can benefit from greater awareness of the specific demands and barriers relevant to each phase of the injury transition process. This knowledge can be further used to facilitate the development of adequate resources and coping strategies to help injured athletes navigate the rehabilitation process and successfully return to active sport involvement. © 2016 International Society of Sport Psychology

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
athlete career development, athletic injury, handball, narratives, single-subject case study, transition
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-31912 (URN)10.1080/1612197X.2016.1242149 (DOI)2-s2.0-84991035213 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-01 Created: 2016-09-01 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Clement, D., Ivarsson, A., Tranaeus, U., Johnson, U. & Stenling, A. (2018). Investigating the influence of intra-individual changes in perceived stress symptoms on injury risk in soccer. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 28(4), 1461-1466
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the influence of intra-individual changes in perceived stress symptoms on injury risk in soccer
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1461-1466Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research has shown that high levels of stress and stress responsivity can increase the risk of injuries. However, most of the research that has supported this notion has focused on between-person relationships, ignoring the relationships at the within-person level. As a result, the objective of this study was to investigate if within-person changes in perceived stress symptoms over a 1-month time period could predict injury rates during the subsequent 3 months. A prospective design with two measurement points (Time 1—at the beginning of the season and Time 2—1 month into the season) was utilized. A total of 121 competitive soccer players (85 males and 36 females; Mage = 18.39, SD = 3.08) from Sweden and the United States completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (KPDS) and a demographic sheet at Time 1. The KPDS was also completed at Time 2, and all acute injuries that occurred during the subsequent 3-month period were recorded. A Bayesian latent change scores model was used to determine whether within-person changes in stress symptoms could predict the risk of injury. Results revealed that there was a credible positive effect of changes in stress symptoms on injury rates, indicating that an increase in reported stress symptoms was related to an increased risk for injury. This finding highlights the importance of creating caring and supportive sporting environments and relationships and teaching stress management techniques, especially during the earlier portion of competitive seasons, to possibly reduce the occurrence of injuries. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2018
Keywords
athletes, psychological predictors, sport injury, stress management
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36307 (URN)10.1111/sms.13048 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041201109 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-16 Created: 2018-02-16 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K., Johnson, U. & Lindwall, M. (2018). Short report: moderations in exercise motivation – gender and age moderates the relations of motivation quality and exercise behavior. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, 6(1), 93-103
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short report: moderations in exercise motivation – gender and age moderates the relations of motivation quality and exercise behavior
2018 (English)In: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, E-ISSN 2164-2850, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Self-determined motivation has been found to be an important predictor of exercise behavior. Findings on gender and age differences are however mixed and previous research has called for studies to examine gender and age as potential moderating factors as they might influence how motivation quality affects exercise behavior.

Methods: Embedded in a controlled trial of a digital intervention aiming to promote exercise motivation, this study examined specific (longitudinal) pathways related to motivation quality, psychological need satisfaction and exercise behavior within the self-determination theory (SDT) process model in a sample of 318 adult employees. The participants completed web-based versions of Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale, Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire three times during a six weeks period.

Results: Moderation analyses revealed significant gender and age differences in the associations of motivation quality, basic psychological needs and exercise behavior over time. Several paths in the SDT-process model, linking psychological needs and motivation quality to exercise behavior, were moderated by gender and age. The stipulated mechanisms between exercise, motivation and psychological need satisfaction in the SDT-processmodel revealed to be stronger for women than for men, and stronger for older adults than for younger and middle-aged adults. The effect of amotivation on exercise was also significantly moderated by age in the full sample, by positively predicting light exercise for younger adults.

Conclusions: Future recommendations are related to the examination of potential differences in opportunities of autonomy support in the social context based on factors such as gender and age, and also to further examine these factors as potential moderators instead of statistically controlling them as default.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
motivation, self-determination, gender, age, moderation
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38227 (URN)10.1080/21642850.2018.1462706 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2018-10-26Bibliographically approved
Tranaeus, U., Ivarsson, A. & Johnson, U. (2018). Stress and injuries in elite sport. In: Reinhard Fuchs, Markus Gerber (Ed.), Handbuch Stressregulation und Sport: (pp. 451-466). Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress and injuries in elite sport
2018 (English)In: Handbuch Stressregulation und Sport / [ed] Reinhard Fuchs, Markus Gerber, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2018, p. 451-466Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The chapter begins with an overview of research on psychological risk factors, “predictors”, for injury outcome focusing on competitive and elite sport populations. Based on this presentation, a summary of psychological studies with a special attention on prevention of injury outcome will be highlighted. The final part of the chapter sets the rehabilitation phase in the centre, specifically emphasising personal and situational factors influencing athletes’ injury reactions including return to sport aspects. © 2017 Springer International Publishing AG

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2018
Series
Springer Reference Psychologie
Keywords
Intervention, Prevention, Rehabilitation, Return-to-sport, Risk factors
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35128 (URN)10.1007/978-3-662-49322-9_22 (DOI)978-3-662-49321-2 (ISBN)978-3-662-49322-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K., Johnson, U. & Lindwall, M. (2018). Zooming in on the Effects: a Controlled Trial on Motivation and Exercise Behaviour in a Digital Context. Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), 37(1), 250-262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Zooming in on the Effects: a Controlled Trial on Motivation and Exercise Behaviour in a Digital Context
2018 (English)In: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 250-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is a description of a short-term digital exercise intervention based on the theoretical framework self-determination theory and tested in a controlled trial. The sample consisted of 318 adult women (n = 279) and men (n = 40) aged 23–67 years (M = 46.7; SD = 9.4) participating in a digital step contest provided by their employer. All participants completed study baseline measures via validated web-based versions of the following instruments: Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale, Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. These measures were repeated twice, 3 weeks (post-intervention) and 6 weeks (follow-up) after study baseline. The experimental group had access to the intervention platform for three weeks. Data were analysed by analyses of covariance and mediation variable analysis. Results showed the intervention to affect exercise level and intensity as well as basic psychological need satisfaction and behavioural regulations. Intervention effects on amotivation post-intervention were found to mediate total exercise behaviour at follow-up. Moderation analyses showed intervention effects on light exercise to be stronger for those participants engaging in moderate or high levels of light activities at study baseline. Also, the effect on identified regulation was stronger for those with low levels of identified regulation at study baseline. This study adds to the knowledge on exercise motivation based on short-term intervention effects on level and intensity of exercise and physical activity. The use of mediating and moderating analyses uncover processes underlying the main intervention effects. Findings are discussed in relation to self-determination theory and previous research. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2018
Keywords
Exercise Intervention Mediation Moderation Self-determination
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-32123 (URN)10.1007/s12144-016-9508-1 (DOI)2-s2.0-84988942781 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Funded by Halmstad University, University of Gothenburg and the Swedish KK-foundation.

Available from: 2016-10-02 Created: 2016-10-02 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K., Ivarsson, A., Johnson, U. & Lindwall, M. (2017). Effects of a digital intervention program on motivational regulation patterns in an exercise context: A latent transition analysis of the “motivational soup”. In: Gangyan, S., Cruz, J. & Jaenes, J.C. (Ed.), Sport Psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the XIV ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology. Paper presented at ISSP 14th World Congress of Sport Psychology, Sevilla, Spain, 2017, July 10-14, 2017 (pp. 319-320). Sevilla: International Society of Sport Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a digital intervention program on motivational regulation patterns in an exercise context: A latent transition analysis of the “motivational soup”
2017 (English)In: Sport Psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the XIV ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] Gangyan, S., Cruz, J. & Jaenes, J.C., Sevilla: International Society of Sport Psychology , 2017, p. 319-320Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Within the self-determination theory of motivation the concept “motivational soup” refers to motivational regulations forming profiles of accumulated drives towards behavior. Few studies have examined the probability of intervention effects to change such motivational profiles over time, knowledge that might inform future program design to promote sustainable exercise motivation. Participants (N=318) were 279 women and 40 men, aged 23-67 years (Mage=46.7; SD=9.4) consisting of adult members of a web-based step contest provided by their employers. Of the 166 individuals randomly assigned to the experimental group, 85 logged in to the digital intervention platform at least once and were considered treated as intended. This group had access to a web-based digital exercise motivation intervention based on SDT for three weeks. The trial had three measure points; T1 baseline, T2 (3 weeks) and a follow up T3 (6 weeks). To investigate the potential effect of the intervention on the odds of participants to change motivational profiles between T1 and T3 we used Latent Transition Analysis. The intervention had positive main effects on exercise level. A four profile solution showed good quality of classification into the separate profiles (entropy = .92). The profiles were labeled high-high (n=262), high-low (n=26), low-high (n=8), and low-low (n=12), where the label high reflected a more autonomous regulation pattern (missing n=10). Participants in the autonomous profile at T1 had high probabilities of remaining there at T3, but slightly lower probability in the control (82%) than the intervention (95%) condition. Participants in the control condition also had a statistically significant increased probability to belong to the profile with a decreased level autonomy T3 (high-low profile) (OR=4.0, p=.008).These results indicate that this digital exercise motivation intervention can increase the likelihood for participants to sustain autonomous motivation profiles over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sevilla: International Society of Sport Psychology, 2017
Keywords
motivational soup, latent transition analysis, exercise, self-determination, motivational profiles, intervention
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34970 (URN)978-84-9148-282-6 (ISBN)
Conference
ISSP 14th World Congress of Sport Psychology, Sevilla, Spain, 2017, July 10-14, 2017
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-09-15 Created: 2017-09-15 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0990-4842

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