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Pettersson, Håkan
Publications (10 of 95) Show all publications
Karimi, M., Heurlin, M., Limpert, S., Jain, V., Mansouri, E., Zeng, X., . . . Pettersson, H. (2019). Nanowire photodetectors with embedded quantum heterostructures for infrared detection [Letter to the editor]. Infrared physics & technology, 2019(96), 209-212
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanowire photodetectors with embedded quantum heterostructures for infrared detection
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2019 (English)In: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 2019, no 96, p. 209-212Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Nanowires offer remarkable opportunities for realizing new optoelectronic devices because of their unique fundamental properties. The ability to engineer nanowire heterostructures with large bandgap variations is particularly interesting for technologically important broadband photodetector applications. Here we report on infrared photodetectors based on arrays of InP nanowires with embedded InAsP quantum discs. We demonstrate a strongly reduced dark current in the detector elements by compensating the unintentional n-doping in the nominal intrinsic region of the InP nanowires by in-situ doping with Zn, a crucial step towards realizing high-performance devices. The optimized array detectors show a broad spectral sensitivity at normal incidence for wavelengths from visible to far-infrared up to 20 μm, promoted by both interband and intersubband transitions. Optical simulations show that the unexpected normal incidence response at long wavelengths is due to non-zero longitudinal modes hosted by the nanowires. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Nanowires, Infrared photodetectors, Quantum discs, Intersubband photodetectors
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38531 (URN)10.1016/j.infrared.2018.11.009 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057545191 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2018-12-11
Aghaeipour, M. & Pettersson, H. (2018). Enhanced broadband absorption in nanowire arrays with integrated Bragg reflectors. Nanophotonics, 7(5), 819-825
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced broadband absorption in nanowire arrays with integrated Bragg reflectors
2018 (English)In: Nanophotonics, E-ISSN 2192-8614, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 819-825Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A near-unity unselective absorption spectrum is desirable for high-performance photovoltaics. Nanowire arrays are promising candidates for efficient solar cells due to nanophotonic absorption resonances in the solar spectrum. The absorption spectra, however, display undesired dips between the resonance peaks. To achieve improved unselective broadband absorption, we propose to enclose distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) in the bottom and top parts of indium phosphide (InP) nanowires, respectively. We theoretically show that by enclosing only two periods of In0.56Ga0.44As/InPDBRs, an unselective 78% absorption efficiency (72% for nanowires without DBRs)is obtained at normal incidence in the spectral range from 300 nm to 920 nm. Under oblique light incidence, the absorption efficiency is enhanced up to about 85% at an incidence angle of 50º. By increasing the number of DBR periods from two to five, the absorption efficiency is further enhanced up to 95% at normal incidence. In this work we calculated optical spectra for InP nanowires, but the results are expected to be valid for other direct band gap III-V semiconductor materials. We believe that our proposed idea of integrating DBRs in nanowires offers great potential for high-performance photovoltaic applications. ©2018 Håkan Pettersson et al., published by De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: De Gruyter Open, 2018
Keywords
light trapping, distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), nanowires, photovoltaics
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35885 (URN)10.1515/nanoph-2017-0101 (DOI)2-s2.0-85045636459 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

Funding: NanoLund, the Swedish Research Council (VR), the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF), and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2018-10-29Bibliographically approved
Chalangar, E., Machhadani, H., Lim, S.-H., Karlsson, K. F., Nur, O., Willander, M. & Pettersson, H. (2018). Influence of morphology on electrical and optical properties of graphene/Al-doped ZnO-nanorod composites. Nanotechnology, 29(41), Article ID 415201.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of morphology on electrical and optical properties of graphene/Al-doped ZnO-nanorod composites
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2018 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 29, no 41, article id 415201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development of future 3D-printed electronics relies on the access to highly conductive inexpensive materials that are printable at low temperatures (<100 C). The implementation of available materials for these applications are, however, still limited by issues related to cost and printing quality. Here, we report on the simple hydrothermal growth of novel nanocomposites that are well suited for conductive printing applications. The nanocomposites comprise highly Al-doped ZnO nanorods grown on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The ZnO nanorods play the two major roles of (i) preventing GNPs from agglomerating and (ii) promoting electrical conduction paths between the graphene platelets. The effect of two different ZnO-nanorod morphologies with varying Al-doping concentration on the nanocomposite conductivity and the graphenedispersity are investigated. Time-dependent absorption, photoluminescence and photoconductivity measurements show that growth in high pH solutions promotes a better graphene dispersity, higher doping levels and enhanced bonding between the graphene and the ZnO nanorods. Growth in low pH solutions yields samples characterized by a higher conductivity and a reduced number of surface defects. These samples also exhibit a large persistent photoconductivity attributed to an effective charge separation and transfer from the nanorods to the graphene platelets. Our findings can be used to tailor the conductivity of novel printable composites, or for fabrication of large volumes of inexpensive porous conjugated graphene-semiconductor composites. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018
Keywords
grapheme, nanocomposites, nanorods, persistent photoconductivity, printing, zinc oxide
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38250 (URN)10.1088/1361-6528/aad3ec (DOI)000440632800001 ()30015332 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85051665865 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-02 Created: 2018-11-02 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Karimi, M., Heurlin, M., Limpert, S., Jain, V., Zeng, X., Geijselaers, I., . . . Pettersson, H. (2018). Intersubband Quantum Disc-in-Nanowire Photodetectors with Normal-Incidence Response in the Long-Wavelength Infrared [Letter to the editor]. Nano letters (Print), 18(1), 365-372
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intersubband Quantum Disc-in-Nanowire Photodetectors with Normal-Incidence Response in the Long-Wavelength Infrared
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2018 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 365-372Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Semiconductor nanowires have great potential for realizing broadband photodetectors monolithically integrated with silicon. However, the spectral range of such detectors has so far been limited to selected regions in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared. Here, we report on the first intersubband nanowire heterostructure array photodetectors exhibiting a spectrally resolved photoresponse from the visible to long-wavelength infrared. In particular, the infrared response from 3-20 mm is enabled by intersubband transitions in low-bandgap InAsP quantum discs synthesized axially within InP nanowires. The intriguing optical characteristics, including unexpected sensitivity to normal incident radiation, are explained by excitation of the longitudinal component of optical modes in the photonic crystal formed by the nanostructured portion of the detectors. Our results provide a generalizable insight into how broadband nanowire photodetectors may be designed, and how engineered nanowire heterostructures open up new fascinating opportunities for optoelectronics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Keywords
Nanowires, infrared photodetectors, quantum discs, intersubband photodetectors, photonic crystals
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35916 (URN)10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04217 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Jain, V., Heurlin, M., Karimi, M., Hussain, L., Aghaeipour, M., Nowzari, A., . . . Pettersson, H. (2017). Bias-dependent spectral tuning in InP nanowire-based photodetectors. Nanotechnology, 28(11), Article ID 114006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bias-dependent spectral tuning in InP nanowire-based photodetectors
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2017 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 28, no 11, article id 114006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanowire array ensembles contacted in a vertical geometry are extensively studied and considered strong candidates for next generations of industrial scale optoelectronics. Key challenges in this development deal with optimization of the doping profile of the nanowires and the interface between nanowires and transparent top contact. Here we report on photodetection characteristics associated with doping profile variations in InP nanowire array photodetectors. Bias-dependent tuning of the spectral shape of the responsivity is observed which is attributed to a Schottky-like contact at the nanowire-ITO interface. Angular dependent responsivity measurements, compared with simulated absorption spectra, support this conclusion. Furthermore, electrical simulations unravel the role of possible self-gating effects in the nanowires induced by the ITO/SiOx wrap-gate geometry. Finally, we discuss possible reasons for the observed low saturation current at large forward biases.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2017
Keywords
nanowires, nanowire arrays, IR photodetectors, solar cells, nanophotonics
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-32769 (URN)10.1088/1361-6528/aa5236 (DOI)000395937500001 ()2-s2.0-85014564717 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Aghaeipour, M., Pistol, M.-E. & Pettersson, H. (2017). Comparative study of absorption efficiency of inclined and vertical InP nanowires. In: A. Freundlich, L. Lombez, M. Sugiyama (Ed.), Physics, Simulation, and Photonic Engineering of Photovoltaic Devices VI: . Paper presented at Conference on Physics, Simulation, and Photonic Engineering of Photovoltaic Devices VI, San Francisco, CA, USA, Jan. 30-Feb. 1, 2017. Bellingham, WA: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 10099, Article ID UNSP 100990S.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative study of absorption efficiency of inclined and vertical InP nanowires
2017 (English)In: Physics, Simulation, and Photonic Engineering of Photovoltaic Devices VI / [ed] A. Freundlich, L. Lombez, M. Sugiyama, Bellingham, WA: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2017, Vol. 10099, article id UNSP 100990SConference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Geometrically designed III-V nanowire arrays are promising candidates for optoelectronics due to their possibility to excite nanophotonic resonances in absorption spectra. Strong absorption resonances can be obtained by proper tailoring of nanowire diameter, length and pitch. Such enhancement of the light absorption is, however, accompanied by undesired resonance dips at specific wavelengths. In this work, we theoretically show that tilting of the nanowires mitigates the absorption dips by exciting strong Mie resonances. In particular, we derive a theoretical optimum inclination angle of about 30 degrees at which the inclined nanowires gain 8% in absorption efficiency compared to vertically standing nanowires in a spectral region matching the intensity distribution of the sun. The enhancement is due to engineering the excited modes inside the nanowires regarding the symmetry properties of the nanowire/light system without increasing the absorbing material. We expect our results to be important for nanowire-based photovoltaic applications. © 2017 SPIE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bellingham, WA: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2017
Series
Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; 10099
Keywords
Inclined nanowire arrays, Absorption, Mie modes, Nanophotonics, Photovoltaics
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35615 (URN)10.1117/12.2249840 (DOI)000404908300017 ()2-s2.0-85019643025 (Scopus ID)978-1-5106-0640-1 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Physics, Simulation, and Photonic Engineering of Photovoltaic Devices VI, San Francisco, CA, USA, Jan. 30-Feb. 1, 2017
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

Funding: NanoLund, the Swedish Research Council (VR), the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF), and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Aghaeipour, M., Pistol, M.-E. & Pettersson, H. (2017). Considering Symmetry Properties of InP Nanowire/Light Incidence Systems to Gain Broadband Absorption. IEEE Photonics Journal, 9(3), Article ID 4501310.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Considering Symmetry Properties of InP Nanowire/Light Incidence Systems to Gain Broadband Absorption
2017 (English)In: IEEE Photonics Journal, ISSN 1097-5764, E-ISSN 1943-0655, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 4501310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Geometrically designed III-V nanowire arrays are promising candidates for disruptive optoelectronics due to the possibility of obtaining a strongly enhanced absorption resulting from nanophotonic resonance effects. With normally incident light on such vertical nanowire arrays, the absorption spectra exhibit peaks that originate from excitation of HE1m waveguide modes in the constituent nanowires. However, the absorption spectra typically show dips between the absorption peaks. Conventionally, such weak absorption has been counteracted by either making the nanowires longer or by decreasing the pitch of the array, both alternatives effectively increasing the volume of absorbing material in the array. Here, we first study two approaches for compensating the absorption dips by exciting additional Mie resonances: 1) oblique light incidence on vertical InP nanowire arrays and 2) normal light incidence on inclined InP nanowire arrays. We then show that branched nanowires offer a novel route to achieve broadband absorption by taking advantage of simultaneous excitations of Mie resonances in the branches and guided HE1m modes in the stem. Finite element method calculations show that the absorption efficiency is enhanced from 0.72 for vertical nanowires to 0.78 for branched nanowires under normal light incidence. Our work provides new insight for the development of novel efficient photovoltaics with high efficiency and reduced active material volume.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: IEEE, 2017
Keywords
Nanophotonics, nanowire arrays, absorption, guided modes, Mie resonances, photovoltaics
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35599 (URN)10.1109/JPHOT.2017.2690313 (DOI)000400414300001 ()2-s2.0-85018356671 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Hussain, L., Karimi, M., Berg, A., Jain, V., Borgström, M. T., Gustafsson, A., . . . Pettersson, H. (2017). Defect-induced infrared electroluminescence from radial GaInP/AlGaInP quantum well nanowire array light- emitting diodes. Nanotechnology, 28(48), Article ID 485205.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defect-induced infrared electroluminescence from radial GaInP/AlGaInP quantum well nanowire array light- emitting diodes
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2017 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 28, no 48, article id 485205Article in journal (Refereed) [Artistic work] Published
Abstract [en]

Radial GaInP/AlGaInP nanowire array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are promising candidates for novel high-efficiency solid state lighting due to their potentially large strain-free active emission volumes compared to planar LEDs. Moreover, by proper tuning of the diameter of the nanowires, the fraction of emitted light extracted can be significantly enhanced compared to that of planar LEDs. Reports so far on radial growth of nanowire LED structures, however, still point to significant challenges related to obtaining defect-free radial heterostructures. In this work, we present evidence of optically active growth-induced defects in a fairly broad energy range in vertically processed radial GaInP/AlGaInP quantum well nanowire array LEDs using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. In particular, we demonstrate strong infrared electroluminescence in a spectral range centred around 1 eV (1.2 μm) in addition to the expected red light emission from the quantum well. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence studies reveal a patchy red light emission with clear spectral features along the NWs, most likely induced by variations in QW thickness, composition and barriers. Dark areas are attributed to infrared emission generated by competing defect-assisted radiative transitions, or to trapping mechanisms involving non-radiative recombination processes. Possible origins of the defects are discussed. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing Ltd., 2017
Keywords
radial core-shell nanowires, light-emitting diode, GaInP LED, nanowire LED, infrared emission, defect-induced emission
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35497 (URN)10.1088/1361-6528/aa913c (DOI)000415052500002 ()2-s2.0-85033687191 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Karimi, M., Heurlin, M., Samuelson, L., Borgström, M. T. T. & Pettersson, H. (2017). Infrared Photodetectors Based on Nanowire Arrays – Towards Far Infrared Region. In: : . Paper presented at ICOPAP 2017 : 19th International Conference on Optoelectronics, Photonics and Applied Physics, October 23-24, 2017. WASET
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infrared Photodetectors Based on Nanowire Arrays – Towards Far Infrared Region
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Nanowire semiconductors are promising candidates for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, photodetectors and lasers due to their quasi-1D geometry and large surface to volume ratio. The functional wavelength range of NW-based detectors is typically limited to the visible/near-infrared region. In this work, we present electrical and optical properties of novel IR photodetectors based on large square millimeter ensembles (>1million) of vertically processed semiconductor heterostructure nanowires (NWs) grown on InP substrates which operates in longer wavelengths. InP NWs comprising single or multiple (20) InAs/InAsP QDics axially embedded in an n-i-n geometry, have been grown on InP substrates using MOVPE. The NWs are contacted in vertical direction by ALD deposition of 50 nm SiO2 as an insulating layer followed by sputtering of ITO and evaporation of Ti and Au as top contact layer. In order to extend the sensitivity range to the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength regions, the intersubband transition within conduction band of InAsP QDisc is suggested. We present first experimental indications of intersubband photocurrent in NW geometry and discuss important design parameters for realization of intersubband detectors. Key advantages with the proposed design include large degree of freedom in choice of materials compositions, possible enhanced optical resonance effects due to periodically ordered NW arrays and the compatibility with silicon substrates. We believe that our novel detector design offers the route towards monolithic integration of compact and sensitive III-V NW long wavelength detectors with Si technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WASET, 2017
Keywords
Intersubband photodetector, Infrared, Nanowire, Quantum Disc
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35496 (URN)
Conference
ICOPAP 2017 : 19th International Conference on Optoelectronics, Photonics and Applied Physics, October 23-24, 2017
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Jain, V., Heurlin, M., Barrigon, E., Bosco, L., Nowzari, A., Schroff, S., . . . Pettersson, H. (2017). InP/InAsP Nanowire-Based Spatially Separate Absorption and Multiplication Avalanche Photodetectors. ACS Photonics, 4(11), 2693-2698
Open this publication in new window or tab >>InP/InAsP Nanowire-Based Spatially Separate Absorption and Multiplication Avalanche Photodetectors
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2017 (English)In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 4, no 11, p. 2693-2698Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are key components in optical communication systems due to their increased photocurrent gain and short response time as compared to conventional photodetectors. A detector design where the multiplication region is implemented in a large band gap material is desired to avoid detrimental Zener tunneling leakage currents, a concern otherwise in smaller band gap materials required for absorption at 1.3/1.55 μm. Self-assembled III-V semiconductor nanowires offer key advantages such as enhanced absorption due to optical resonance effects, strain-relaxed heterostructures, and compatibility with mainstream silicon technology. Here, we present electrical and optical characteristics of single InP and InP/InAsP nanowire APD structures. Temperature-dependent breakdown characteristics of p+-n-n+ InP nanowire devices were investigated first. A clear trap-induced shift in breakdown voltage was inferred from I-V measurements. An improved contact formation to the p+-InP segment was observed upon annealing, and its effect on breakdown characteristics was investigated. The band gap in the absorption region was subsequently varied from pure InP to InAsP to realize spatially separate absorption and multiplication APDs in heterostructure nanowires. In contrast to the homojunction APDs, no trap-induced shifts were observed for the heterostructure APDs. A gain of 12 was demonstrated for selective optical excitation of the InAsP segment. Additional electron-beam-induced current measurements were carried out to investigate the effect of local excitation along the nanowire on the I-V characteristics. Simulated band profiles and electric field distributions support our interpretation of the experiments. Our results provide important insight for optimization of avalanche photodetector devices based on III-V nanowires. © 2017 American Chemical Society

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017
Keywords
avalanche photodetectors, nanowires, punch-through, SAM APDs
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36687 (URN)10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00389 (DOI)000415786300010 ()2-s2.0-85034033359 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyCarl Tryggers foundation Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Note

The authors acknowledge financial support from NanoLund, the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technological Development, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, the Ljungberg Foundation, the Carl Trygger Foundation, and the Swedish Energy Agency. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 641023 (NanoTandem) and under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 656208.

Available from: 2018-04-26 Created: 2018-04-26 Last updated: 2018-06-14Bibliographically approved
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