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Ryan, P., Evers, N., Smith, A. & Andersson, S. (2019). Local horizontal network membership for accelerated global market reach. International Marketing Review, 36(1), 6-30
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local horizontal network membership for accelerated global market reach
2019 (English)In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 6-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain how some born global firms can leverage the rich social capital in their local (home country) horizontal network for accelerated international market entry and growth. Horizontal networks warrant separate attention from their vertical counterparts, which, along with those focussed on external international contexts, dominate most network studies in the realm of born global research.

Design/methodology/approach – The study utilises a multi-level qualitative approach in the study of a multi-firm population of animators in Ireland that, due to the small domestic market for their product, needed to pursue global customers from inception. The case study domain was purposely selected as a critical exemplar of a local horizontal network operating in a highly globalised industry. The authors collected data through in-depth interviews with 16 company founders. This primary interview data were complemented by interviews with staff at the apposite industry association and triangulated with secondary data on the local and global industry conditions, members’ international successes and awards.

Findings – The results demonstrate how active membership of a local horizontal network can be leveraged for the acquisition of international market knowledge and customers for born global ventures. This arises from the sharing of collective market knowledge and communal global customer information within the network to mutual benefit.

Originality/value – Although limited by the specific conditions in this highly globalised, non-competitiveindustry context, this study is unique in that it finds that cooperative interpersonal and inter-firm relationships embedded in a local horizontal social network, and mediated in part by an institutional support actor, emerge as important levers for a born global’s accelerated acquisition of foreign market knowledge and of global customers. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
Keywords
International marketing, Social capital, Intermediaries, Horizontal networks, Local networks
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38788 (URN)10.1108/IMR-03-2017-0061 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057023602 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2019-01-24Bibliographically approved
Andersson, S., Evers, N. & Gliga, G. (2018). Entrepreneurial marketing and born global internationalisation in China. Qualitative Market Research, 21(2), 202-231
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial marketing and born global internationalisation in China
2018 (English)In: Qualitative Market Research, ISSN 1352-2752, E-ISSN 1758-7646, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 202-231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This study aims to explore the entrepreneurial marketing (EM) behaviour of Swedish born globals entering the Chinese market through their international networks. Drawing from the network theory of small firm internationalisation, this study is positioned in the domain of EM, and thus captures the relevance of EM behaviour to explain how born globals internationalise through their networks.

Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative case study approach of two Swedish born global companies active in the Chinese market is used. The network theory helps analyse the data in the three phases of firm internationalisation processes.

Findings: The study shows the importance of networks for the enactment of EM for born globals. The study traces the evolution of network development in the market entry process of born globals and highlights the importance of aligning network leverage with contextual factors for market performance.

Research limitations/implications: The generalisation of the findings is limited due to the exploratory nature of the study and the size of the research sample.

Practical implications: Management of different types of networks is essential in the entry process and further growth of born globals in the Chinese market. In addition, born globals operating in psychically distant and complex institutionally contexts can especially gain support from intermediary networks.

Originality/value: This study extends knowledge of international entrepreneurship by demonstrating that born global managers can enact EM behaviour by leveraging networks to gain rapid entry into the Chinese market. It further highlights the role of firms’ networks in the EM activities in their internationalisation. The conceptual underpinnings of EM and network theory provide greater understanding of how born globals enter and grow their psychically distant markets.

 © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
China, Sweden, Networks, Entrepreneurial marketing, Born globals
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36684 (URN)10.1108/QMR-11-2016-0115 (DOI)2-s2.0-85045656945 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-04-26 Created: 2018-04-26 Last updated: 2018-04-27Bibliographically approved
Andersson, S., Evers, N., Chen, X. & Zhang, Y. (2017). Business and Social Networking for Rapid SME Market Entry and Development in China. In: Natasha Evers (Ed.), : . Paper presented at The 21st McGill International Entrepreneurship conference, Galway, Ireland, Aug. 30th - Sept. 1st, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business and Social Networking for Rapid SME Market Entry and Development in China
2017 (English)In: / [ed] Natasha Evers, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article explores how the firm’s business and social relationships influence how adolescent Swedish born globals and Born Again Globals develop their customer base following post market entry into China. Using the network perspective and extant research on Chinese Guanxi, this study shows how Swedish manufacturing exporters leverage their network relationships in different phases the internationalisation process, in term of the extension, penetration and integration upon entry and post-market entry into China. A qualitative case study approach of three Swedish manufacturing adolescent born global and born again firms, on the Chinese market is employed. A framework developed from a network perspective is used to analyze the data. The study demonstrates the importance, and the degrees of impact, of business and social networks in market and post market entry into China. Business networks emerge as most important in the first part of the market entry process and when networks were integrated between China and other markets. However, social relationships had greater impact in facilitating the firm’s commitment of resources and its market penetration into China. The study also shows that business and social networks were interpreted as synonymous in the Chinese business context, in that social relationships (Guanxi) were considered just as important as business relationships from the Chinese perspective. Hence managing social dimensions of the relationship (Guanxi) were just as important as the business dimensions when conducting relationships with their Chinese customer and business partners.

Keywords
Networks, Market entry, China, Born Globals, Post-market entry, Guanxi, Internationalization
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34884 (URN)
Conference
The 21st McGill International Entrepreneurship conference, Galway, Ireland, Aug. 30th - Sept. 1st, 2017
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-09-05 Created: 2017-09-05 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Ryan, P., Evers, N., Smith, A. & Andersson, S. (2017). Cartoon Network: Rapid Internationalisation for Born Global Members of a Community of Practice. In: : . Paper presented at Entrepreneurship Research: Past, Present & Future, May 10-12, 2017, Paris, France (pp. 1-35).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cartoon Network: Rapid Internationalisation for Born Global Members of a Community of Practice
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper demonstrates how active membership of a particular form of social horizontal network, in the form of a Community of Practice (CoPs) can bring about the creation and accelerated international development of born global ventures serving the global digital animation industry. Community of Practice has been well established as a form of social network and a component of social learning theory (Lave & Wenger 1991). In this study we use a ‘novel’ highly globalized research context - the Irish indigenous digital animation production industry. Through shared passion and interest for cartoon animation, this paper explores the role of community of practice in the creation and international development of Irish Born Global digital animation ventures.

Keywords
Born Globals, Social networks, Community of Practice, International entrepreneurship
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33871 (URN)
Conference
Entrepreneurship Research: Past, Present & Future, May 10-12, 2017, Paris, France
Note

Title in conference program: Communities of Practice -A Creator and Accelerator of Born Global Digital Animation Ventures

Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
Ryan, P., Evers, N., Andersson, S. & Smith, A. (2017). Cartoon Network: Rapid Internationalisation for Born Global Members of a Community of Practice. In: : . Paper presented at EIBA 2017 Milan Conference: International Business in the Information Age - 43rd European International Business Academy Conference, Milan, Italy, December 14-16, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cartoon Network: Rapid Internationalisation for Born Global Members of a Community of Practice
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
Internationalisation, Born Globals, Community of practice
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35976 (URN)
Conference
EIBA 2017 Milan Conference: International Business in the Information Age - 43rd European International Business Academy Conference, Milan, Italy, December 14-16, 2017
Available from: 2017-12-27 Created: 2017-12-27 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
Paul, R., Evers, N., Smith, A. & Andersson, S. (2017). Communities of Practice - A Creator and Accelerator of Born Global Ventures. In: Natasha Evers (Ed.), : . Paper presented at The 21st McGill International Entrepreneurship conference, Galway, Ireland, Aug. 30th - Sept. 1st, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communities of Practice - A Creator and Accelerator of Born Global Ventures
2017 (English)In: / [ed] Natasha Evers, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34880 (URN)
Conference
The 21st McGill International Entrepreneurship conference, Galway, Ireland, Aug. 30th - Sept. 1st, 2017
Available from: 2017-09-05 Created: 2017-09-05 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Evers, N. & Andersson, S. (2016). Decision-making logics in international opportunity exploration and exploitation in high tech ventures. In: : . Paper presented at 20th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference at Department of Management, Hanken School of Economics, Vaasa, Finland, August 23-25, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision-making logics in international opportunity exploration and exploitation in high tech ventures
2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the decision-making logics of entrepreneurs during the exploration and exploitation phases of international opportunities. Data was collected from four med-tech international new ventures in Ireland and Sweden. Adopting a longitudinal approach, we captured the processual dynamics of exploration and exploitation and identified decision-making behaviours adopted by INV entrepreneurs in different phases of the international opportunity process. This study finds that he entrepreneur’s decision-making logic falls contingent on their personal knowledge base and nature of industry dynamics surrounding the exploration and exploitation processes. The study finds that those entrepreneurs with a scientific and engineering background drew on causation decision-making logic in the exploration processes concerning technology development, whereas during the exploitation process they enacted more effectuated behaviours in decisions particulary relating to marketing experimentation and development, mainly due to their lack of prior commercial experience and business know-how. This study contributes to the domain of international entrepreneurship (IE) research with a particular focus on decision-making logic in the exploration and exploitation processes of international opportunities. It offers empirical insights into the degree of applicability of effectuation and causation logic in entrepreneurial decision-making. As IE is a young discipline, this study makes a number of inroads in advancing knowledge in the causation and effectuation theoretical perspectives on IE with specific focus on the complex entrepreneurial processes of exploration and exploitation of international opportunities in high tech contexts.

Keywords
International opportunity, exploration, exploitation, effectuation, causation, high-tech industry
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-31876 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
20th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference at Department of Management, Hanken School of Economics, Vaasa, Finland, August 23-25, 2016
Available from: 2016-08-28 Created: 2016-08-28 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Evers, N., Cunningham, J. A. & Hoholm, T. (2016). International entrepreneurship in universities: Context, emergence and actors. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 14(3), 285-295
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International entrepreneurship in universities: Context, emergence and actors
2016 (English)In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 285-295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This special issue presents an opportunity to explore the international aspects of academic and university based international entrepreneurship. Over the last decades much research attention has been focused on university spin-off firms (USOs) on issues such as, creation, risk, strategies and performance (see Druilhe and Garnsey, 2004; Link and Scott, 2005; Lockett and Wright, 2005; Walter et al, 2006; Wright et al., 2006). There has been a dearth of studies that have examined the international dimensions and aspects of university-based spin-off firms. The six articles presented in this special issue point towards interesting future research agendas at the interface between academic and international entrepreneurship. Three core themes emerge from this special issue: Context, Emergence and Actors. In sum, this special issue pinpoints: firstly, specific features of universities and research organizations as contexts for international technology entrepreneurship; secondly, the process of organizational emergence and entrepreneurial cognition; and thirdly, insight into learning processes of USOs and the role of non-academic actors. Our article concludes by identifying future avenues of research. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer, 2016
Keywords
academic entrepreneurship, international entrepreneurship, university spinoffs, networks, technology entrepreneurship, innovation, clusters, internationalization, commercialization
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-31975 (URN)10.1007/s10843-016-0188-6 (DOI)000408927500002 ()2-s2.0-84978870319 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-10 Created: 2016-09-10 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Hannibal, M., Evers, N. & Sevais, P. (2016). Opportunity recognition and international new venture creation in university spin-offs—Cases from Denmark and Ireland. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 14(3), 345-372
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opportunity recognition and international new venture creation in university spin-offs—Cases from Denmark and Ireland
2016 (English)In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 345-372Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Extant research suggests that the founder’s activities and interactions are considered pivotal in driving the opportunity recognition process leading to international new venture emergence. This paper aims to explore the opportunity recognition process and international new venture emergence in the context of university hightechnology spin-offs that are internationally market driven from inception. University spin-offs (USOs) are defined as ‘new firms created to exploit commercially some knowledge, technology or research results developed within a university’ (Pirnay et al., Small Bus Econ 21:355–369, 2003). To address this inquiry, this study imports theory from the entrepreneurship literature on organizational emergence, opportunity recognition, effectuation and the principle of individual self-efficacy. Drawing on empirical case data from four case USOs from Denmark and Ireland, this paper finds that the inventor-founders are typically engaged in opportunity recognition processes that are characterized as creative, driven by scientific innovations. It is indicated that the process of USO emergence and continuous development involves activities and interactions similar to typical international new ventures. The scientific knowledge that created opportunities for the emergence of INV-USOs across our cases endorses the view that innovation and internationalization are strongly correlated. Insights are provided on inventor-founders’ entrepreneurial intention demonstrated through activities and interactions in the on-going processes of creating the USO. Findings further highlight that self-efficacy of the inventor-founder(s) and access to specific resources (means at hand) are salient determinants for international new ventures to materialize. The study concludes with a proposed conceptual framework for further research on the creation of INV-university spin-offs. Conclusions and implications are drawn at the end of the article. © Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2016
Keywords
Academic entrepreneurship, International entrepreneurship, University spin-offs, Entrepreneurial opportunity, Newventure creation, Born globals, International new ventures, Innovation
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-31976 (URN)10.1007/s10843-016-0181-0 (DOI)000408927500005 ()2-s2.0-84978035526 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-10 Created: 2016-09-10 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Evers, N. & Andersson, S. (2015). Dynamic Managerial Capabilities And International Opportunity Creation – Empirical Insights From Irish And Swedish Case Firms. In: : . Paper presented at 19th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference at Department of Management, Birkbeck, University of London, London, United Kingdom, August 27-29, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic Managerial Capabilities And International Opportunity Creation – Empirical Insights From Irish And Swedish Case Firms
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper builds upon and empirically tests our recently JIEN published conceptual model developed by Andersson and Evers (2015). This conceptual framework which advances the three core components of the dynamic managerial capabilities: cognitive, social and human capital (Adner and Helfat, 2003) is an attempt to conceptualise and provide theoretical understanding as to how dynamic managerial capabilities are developed within small internationalising firms for creating and capturing international opportunities.  Building upon this conceptual model and extant theoretical studies, this paper sets out to do three things. Firstly, drawing upon the recent conceptual model developed by Andersson and Evers, (JIEN 2015), this research inquiry explores the role of dynamic managerial capabilities in how international opportunities are created and exploited in Irish and Sweden small internationalising companies. Second, it examines the dichotomy between opportunity discovery and the emergent yet controversial concept of opportunity creation. Thirdly, it explores empirically the theoretical relevance of opportunity creation across the findings. Fourthly, this research pays particular attention to top managers and their top management teams (TMTs) as the primary source of dynamic managerial capabilities.  In the empirical evidence, we seek to understand how dynamic managerial capabilities are developed and utilized by INV managers to create and capture international opportunities. 

Keywords
Dynamic Capabilities, Top management teams, Opportunity, Ireland, Sweden
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29407 (URN)
Conference
19th McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference at Department of Management, Birkbeck, University of London, London, United Kingdom, August 27-29, 2015
Available from: 2015-09-08 Created: 2015-09-08 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8193-1004

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