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Vedder, B., Vinter, J. & Jonsson, M. (2018). A Low-Cost Model Vehicle Testbed with Accurate Positioning for Autonomous Driving. Journal of Robotics, 2018, Article ID 4907536.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Low-Cost Model Vehicle Testbed with Accurate Positioning for Autonomous Driving
2018 (English)In: Journal of Robotics, ISSN 1687-9600, E-ISSN 1687-9619, Vol. 2018, article id 4907536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate positioning is a requirement for many applications, including safety-critical autonomous vehicles. To reduce cost and at the same time improving accuracy for positioning of autonomous vehicles, new methods, tools and research platforms are needed. We have created a low-cost testbed consisting of electronics and software, that can be fitted on model vehicles allowing them to follow trajectories autonomously with a position accuracy of around 3 cm outdoors. The position of the vehicles is derived from sensor fusion between Real-Time Kinematic Satellite Navigation (RTK-SN), odometry and inertial measurement, and performs well within a 10 km radius from a base station. Trajectories to be followed can be edited with a custom GUI, where also several model vehicles can be controlled and visualized in real time. All software and Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) for our testbed are available as open source to make customization and development possible. Our testbed can be used for research within autonomous driving, for carrying test equipment, and other applications where low cost and accurate positioning and navigation is required. © 2018 Benjamin Vedder et al.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2018
Keywords
Autonomous, RTK GNSS, Odometry, Open Source, Testbed, Model car, Motor control, Pure pursuit algorithm, Sensor fusion
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38402 (URN)10.1155/2018/4907536 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, EISIGSVINNOVA, Chronos 1 and 2
Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
Vedder, B., Vinter, J. & Jonsson, M. (2018). Accurate positioning of bicycles for improved safety. In: Saraju P. Mohanty, Peter Corcoran & Hai (Helen) Li (Ed.), 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE): . Paper presented at 36th IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), Las Vegas, NV, USA, Jan. 12-14, 2018. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accurate positioning of bicycles for improved safety
2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE) / [ed] Saraju P. Mohanty, Peter Corcoran & Hai (Helen) Li, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cyclists are not well protected in accidents with other road users, and there are few active safety systems available for bicycles. In this study we have evaluated the use of inexpensive Real-Time Kinematic Satellite Navigation (RTK-SN) receivers with multiple satellite constellations together with dead reckoning for accurate positioning of bicycles to enable active safety functions such as collision warnings. This is a continuation of previous work were we concluded that RTK-SN alone is not sufficient in moderately dense urban areas as buildings and other obstructions degrade the performance of RTK-SN significantly. In this work we have added odometry to the positioning system as well as extending RTK-SN with multiple satellite constellations to deal with situations where the view of the sky is poor and thus fewer satellites are in view. To verify the performance of the positioning system we have used Ultra-Wideband radios as an independent positioning system to compare against while testing during poor conditions for RTK-SN. We were able to verify that adding dead reckoning and multiple satellite constellations improves the performance significantly under poor conditions and makes the positioning system more useful for active safety systems. © 2018 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018
Series
Proceedings of ... IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, E-ISSN 2158-4001
Keywords
RTK GPS, odometry, testbed, bicycle, positioning, ultra-wideband
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35878 (URN)10.1109/ICCE.2018.8326237 (DOI)978-1-5386-3025-9 (ISBN)978-1-5386-3026-6 (ISBN)
Conference
36th IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), Las Vegas, NV, USA, Jan. 12-14, 2018
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Funding: EISIGS (grants from the Knowledge Foundation) and through the Swedish Trafikverkets Skyltfond

Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
Vedder, B. (2015). Testing Safety-Critical Systems using Fault Injection and Property-Based Testing. (Licentiate dissertation). Halmstad: Halmstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing Safety-Critical Systems using Fault Injection and Property-Based Testing
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Testing software-intensive systems can be challenging, especially when safety requirements are involved. Property-Based Testing (PBT) is a software testing technique where properties about software are specified and thousands of test cases with a wide range of inputs are automatically generated based on these properties. PBT does not formally prove that the software fulfils its specification, but it is an efficient way to identify deviations from the specification. Safety-critical systems that must be able to deal with faults, without causing damage or injuries, are often tested using Fault Injection (FI) at several abstraction levels. The purpose of FI is to inject faults into a system in order to exercise and evaluate fault handling mechanisms. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how knowledge and techniques from the areas of FI and PBT can be used together to test functional and safety requirements simultaneously.

We have developed a FI tool named FaultCheck that enables PBT tools to use common FI-techniques directly on source code. In order to evaluate and demonstrate our approach, we have applied our tool FaultCheck together with the commercially available PBT tool QuickCheck on a simple and on a complex system. The simple system is the AUTOSAR End-to-End (E2E) library and the complex system is a quadcopter simulator that we developed ourselves. The quadcopter simulator is based on a hardware quadcopter platform that we also developed, and the fault models that we inject into the simulator using FaultCheck are derived from the hardware quadcopter platform. We were able to efficiently apply FaultCheck together with QuickCheck on both the E2E library and the quadcopter simulator, which gives us confidence that FI together with PBT can be used to test and evaluate a wide range of simple and complex safety-critical software.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2015. p. 85
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 13
Keywords
Fault Injection, FaultCheck, Property-Based Testing, Simulation, Fault Model, Quadcopter, E2E
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-28173 (URN)978-91-87045-29-5 (ISBN)978-91-87045-28-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-05-26, Wigforssalen, House Visionen, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
PROWESSKARYON
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeKnowledge Foundation
Note

This research has been funded through the PROWESS EU project (Grant agreement no: 317820), the KARYON EU project (Grant agreement no: 288195) and through EISIGS (grants from the Knowledge Foundation).

Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
Vedder, B., Eriksson, H., Skarin, D., Vinter, J. & Jonsson, M. (2015). Towards Collision Avoidance for Commodity Hardware Quadcopters with Ultrasound Localization. In: 2015 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS): . Paper presented at The 2015 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), Denver, Colorado, USA, June 9-12, 2015 (pp. 193-203). [S.l.]: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Collision Avoidance for Commodity Hardware Quadcopters with Ultrasound Localization
Show others...
2015 (English)In: 2015 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), [S.l.]: IEEE, 2015, p. 193-203Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present a quadcopter platform built with commodity hardware that is able to do localization in GNSS-denied areas and avoid collisions by using a novel easy-to-setup and inexpensive ultrasound-localization system. We address the challenge to accurately estimate the copter's position and not hit any obstacles, including other, moving, quadcopters. The quadcopters avoid collisions by placing contours that represent risk around static and dynamic objects and acting if the risk contours overlap with ones own comfort zone. Position and velocity information is communicated between the copters to make them aware of each other. The shape and size of the risk contours are continuously updated based on the relative speed and distance to the obstacles and the current estimated localization accuracy. Thus, the collision-avoidance system is autonomous and only interferes with human or machine control of the quadcopter if the situation is hazardous. In the development of this platform we used our own simulation system using fault-injection (sensor faults, communication faults) together with automatically-generated tests to identify problematic scenarios for which the localization and risk contour parameters had to be adjusted. In the end, we were able to run thousands of simulations without any collisions, giving us confidence that also many real quadcopters can manoeuvre collision free in space-constrained GNSS-denied areas. ©2015 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
[S.l.]: IEEE, 2015
Series
International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems, ISSN 2373-6720
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-28169 (URN)10.1109/ICUAS.2015.7152291 (DOI)000388438500024 ()2-s2.0-84941030880 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-6009-5 (ISBN)978-1-4799-6010-1 (ISBN)
Conference
The 2015 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), Denver, Colorado, USA, June 9-12, 2015
Projects
KARYONPROWESS
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeKnowledge Foundation
Note

This research has been funded through the KARYON EU project (Grant agreement no: 288195), the PROWESS EU project (Grant agreement no: 317820) and through EISIGS (grants from the Knowledge Foundation).

Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
Vedder, B., Vinter, J. & Jonsson, M. (2015). Using Simulation, Fault Injection and Property-Based Testing to Evaluate Collision Avoidance of a Quadcopter System. In: Juan E. Guerrero (Ed.), 2015 IEEE International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W): . Paper presented at 1st International Workshop on Safety and Security of Intelligent Vehicles (SSIV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 22, 2015 (pp. 104-111). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Simulation, Fault Injection and Property-Based Testing to Evaluate Collision Avoidance of a Quadcopter System
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W) / [ed] Juan E. Guerrero, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 104-111Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work we use our testing platform based on FaultCheck and QuickCheck that we apply on a quadcopter simulator. We have used a hardware platform as the basis for the simulator and for deriving realistic fault models for our simulations. The quadcopters have a collision-avoidance mechanism that shall take over control when the situation becomes hazardous, steer away from the potential danger and then give control back to the pilot, thereby preventing collisions regardless of what the pilot does. We use our testing platform to randomly generate thousands of simulations with different input stimuli (using QuickCheck) for hundreds of quadcopters, while injecting faults simultaneously (using FaultCheck). This way, we can effectively adjust system parameters and enhance the collision-avoidance mechanism. © 2015 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2015
Keywords
Fault Injection, FaultCheck, Property-Based Testing, Simulation, QuickCheck, Fault Model, Quadcopter
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-28172 (URN)10.1109/DSN-W.2015.28 (DOI)2-s2.0-84957653792 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-8044-7 (ISBN)
Conference
1st International Workshop on Safety and Security of Intelligent Vehicles (SSIV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 22, 2015
Projects
PROWESSKARYON
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeKnowledge Foundation
Note

This research has been funded through the PROWESS EU project (Grant agreement no: 317820), the KARYON EU project (Grant agreement no: 288195) and through EISIGS (grants from the Knowledge Foundation).

Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
Vedder, B., Arts, T., Vinter, J. & Jonsson, M. (2014). Combining Fault-Injection with Property-Based Testing. In: ES4CPS: Workshop Proceedings of Engineering Simulations for Cyber Physical Systems. Paper presented at Workshop on Engineering Simulations for Cyber Physical Systems, ES4CPS 2014 - Held in Conjunction with the Conference DATE 2014 – Design, Automation and Test in Europe, Dresden, Germany, 28 March, 2014. New York: ACM Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Fault-Injection with Property-Based Testing
2014 (English)In: ES4CPS: Workshop Proceedings of Engineering Simulations for Cyber Physical Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a methodology and a platform using Fault Injection (FI) and Property-Based Testing (PBT). PBT is a technique in which test cases are automatically generated from a specification of a system property. The generated test cases vary input stimuli as well as the sequence in which commands are executed. FI is used to accelerate the occurrences of faults in a system to exercise and evaluate fault handling mechanisms and e.g. calculate error detection coverage. By combining the two we have achieved a way of randomly injecting different faults at arbitrary moments in the execution sequence while checking whether certain properties still hold. We use the commercially available tool QuickCheck for generating the test cases and developed FaultCheck for FI. FaultCheck enables the user to utilize fault models, commonly used during FI, from PBT tools like QuickCheck. We demonstrate our method and tools on a simplified example of two Airbag systems that should meet safety requirements. We can easily find a safety violation in one of the examples, whereas by using the AUTOSAR E2E-library implementation, exhaustive testing cannot reveal any such safety violation. This demonstrates that our approach on testing can reveal certain safety violations in a cost-effective way. © 2014 ACM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: ACM Press, 2014
Series
ACM International Conference Proceedings Series
Keywords
Fault model, QuickCheck, FaultCheck, Fault Injection, Property-Based Testing
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27414 (URN)2-s2.0-84904571627 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-2614-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Workshop on Engineering Simulations for Cyber Physical Systems, ES4CPS 2014 - Held in Conjunction with the Conference DATE 2014 – Design, Automation and Test in Europe, Dresden, Germany, 28 March, 2014
Available from: 2015-01-06 Created: 2015-01-06 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
Vedder, B., Svensson, J., Vinter, J. & Jonsson, M.Automated Testing of Ultra-Wideband Positioning for Autonomous Driving.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Testing of Ultra-Wideband Positioning for Autonomous Driving
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicles need accurate and dependable positioning, and these systems need to be tested extensively. We have evaluated positioning based on Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) ranging with our self-driving model car using a highly automated approach. Random drivable trajectories were generated, while the UWB position was compared against the Real-Time Kinematic Satellite Navigation (RTK-SN) positioning system that our model car also is equipped with. Fault injection was used to study the fault tolerance of the UWB positioning system. Addressed challenges are: automatically generating test cases for real-time hardware, restore the state between tests and to maintain safety by preventing collisions. We were able to automatically generate and carry out hundreds of experiments on the model car in real time, and re-run them consistently with and without fault injection enabled. Thereby we demonstrate one novel approach to perform automated testing on complex real-time hardware.

Keywords
RTK GNSS, odometry, testbed, positioning, ultra-wideband, automated testing, model-based testing, Fault Injection, Property-Based Testing, open source, sensor fusion
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38408 (URN)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, EISIGSEU, Horizon 2020, PRoPART (776307)VINNOVA, Chronos 1 and 2
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. / As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1713-3726

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