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Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Karimi, M., Heurlin, M., Limpert, S., Jain, V., Zeng, X., Geijselaers, I., . . . Pettersson, H. (2018). Intersubband Quantum Disc-in-Nanowire Photodetectors with Normal-Incidence Response in the Long-Wavelength Infrared [Letter to the editor]. Nano letters (Print), 18(1), 365-372
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intersubband Quantum Disc-in-Nanowire Photodetectors with Normal-Incidence Response in the Long-Wavelength Infrared
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2018 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 365-372Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Semiconductor nanowires have great potential for realizing broadband photodetectors monolithically integrated with silicon. However, the spectral range of such detectors has so far been limited to selected regions in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared. Here, we report on the first intersubband nanowire heterostructure array photodetectors exhibiting a spectrally resolved photoresponse from the visible to long-wavelength infrared. In particular, the infrared response from 3-20 mm is enabled by intersubband transitions in low-bandgap InAsP quantum discs synthesized axially within InP nanowires. The intriguing optical characteristics, including unexpected sensitivity to normal incident radiation, are explained by excitation of the longitudinal component of optical modes in the photonic crystal formed by the nanostructured portion of the detectors. Our results provide a generalizable insight into how broadband nanowire photodetectors may be designed, and how engineered nanowire heterostructures open up new fascinating opportunities for optoelectronics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Keyword
Nanowires, infrared photodetectors, quantum discs, intersubband photodetectors, photonic crystals
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35916 (URN)10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04217 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Jain, V., Heurlin, M., Karimi, M., Hussain, L., Aghaeipour, M., Nowzari, A., . . . Pettersson, H. (2017). Bias-dependent spectral tuning in InP nanowire-based photodetectors. Nanotechnology, 28(11), Article ID 114006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bias-dependent spectral tuning in InP nanowire-based photodetectors
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2017 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 28, no 11, article id 114006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanowire array ensembles contacted in a vertical geometry are extensively studied and considered strong candidates for next generations of industrial scale optoelectronics. Key challenges in this development deal with optimization of the doping profile of the nanowires and the interface between nanowires and transparent top contact. Here we report on photodetection characteristics associated with doping profile variations in InP nanowire array photodetectors. Bias-dependent tuning of the spectral shape of the responsivity is observed which is attributed to a Schottky-like contact at the nanowire-ITO interface. Angular dependent responsivity measurements, compared with simulated absorption spectra, support this conclusion. Furthermore, electrical simulations unravel the role of possible self-gating effects in the nanowires induced by the ITO/SiOx wrap-gate geometry. Finally, we discuss possible reasons for the observed low saturation current at large forward biases.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2017
Keyword
nanowires, nanowire arrays, IR photodetectors, solar cells, nanophotonics
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-32769 (URN)10.1088/1361-6528/aa5236 (DOI)000395937500001 ()2-s2.0-85014564717 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Hussain, L., Karimi, M., Berg, A., Jain, V., Borgström, M. T., Gustafsson, A., . . . Pettersson, H. (2017). Defect-induced infrared electroluminescence from radial GaInP/AlGaInP quantum well nanowire array light- emitting diodes. Nanotechnology, 28(48), Article ID 485205.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defect-induced infrared electroluminescence from radial GaInP/AlGaInP quantum well nanowire array light- emitting diodes
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2017 (English)In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 28, no 48, article id 485205Article in journal (Refereed) [Artistic work] Published
Abstract [en]

Radial GaInP/AlGaInP nanowire array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are promising candidates for novel high-efficiency solid state lighting due to their potentially large strain-free active emission volumes compared to planar LEDs. Moreover, by proper tuning of the diameter of the nanowires, the fraction of emitted light extracted can be significantly enhanced compared to that of planar LEDs. Reports so far on radial growth of nanowire LED structures, however, still point to significant challenges related to obtaining defect-free radial heterostructures. In this work, we present evidence of optically active growth-induced defects in a fairly broad energy range in vertically processed radial GaInP/AlGaInP quantum well nanowire array LEDs using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. In particular, we demonstrate strong infrared electroluminescence in a spectral range centred around 1 eV (1.2 μm) in addition to the expected red light emission from the quantum well. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence studies reveal a patchy red light emission with clear spectral features along the NWs, most likely induced by variations in QW thickness, composition and barriers. Dark areas are attributed to infrared emission generated by competing defect-assisted radiative transitions, or to trapping mechanisms involving non-radiative recombination processes. Possible origins of the defects are discussed. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing Ltd., 2017
Keyword
radial core-shell nanowires, light-emitting diode, GaInP LED, nanowire LED, infrared emission, defect-induced emission
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35497 (URN)10.1088/1361-6528/aa913c (DOI)000415052500002 ()2-s2.0-85033687191 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Jain, V., Heurlin, M., Barrigon, E., Bosco, L., Nowzari, A., Schroff, S., . . . Pettersson, H. (2017). InP/InAsP Nanowire-Based Spatially Separate Absorption and Multiplication Avalanche Photodetectors. ACS Photonics, 4(11), 2693-2698
Open this publication in new window or tab >>InP/InAsP Nanowire-Based Spatially Separate Absorption and Multiplication Avalanche Photodetectors
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2017 (English)In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 4, no 11, p. 2693-2698Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are key components in optical communication systems due to their increased photocurrent gain and short response time as compared to conventional photodetectors. A detector design where the multiplication region is implemented in a large band gap material is desired to avoid detrimental Zener tunneling leakage currents, a concern otherwise in smaller band gap materials required for absorption at 1.3/1.55 μm. Self-assembled III-V semiconductor nanowires offer key advantages such as enhanced absorption due to optical resonance effects, strain-relaxed heterostructures, and compatibility with mainstream silicon technology. Here, we present electrical and optical characteristics of single InP and InP/InAsP nanowire APD structures. Temperature-dependent breakdown characteristics of p+-n-n+ InP nanowire devices were investigated first. A clear trap-induced shift in breakdown voltage was inferred from I-V measurements. An improved contact formation to the p+-InP segment was observed upon annealing, and its effect on breakdown characteristics was investigated. The band gap in the absorption region was subsequently varied from pure InP to InAsP to realize spatially separate absorption and multiplication APDs in heterostructure nanowires. In contrast to the homojunction APDs, no trap-induced shifts were observed for the heterostructure APDs. A gain of 12 was demonstrated for selective optical excitation of the InAsP segment. Additional electron-beam-induced current measurements were carried out to investigate the effect of local excitation along the nanowire on the I-V characteristics. Simulated band profiles and electric field distributions support our interpretation of the experiments. Our results provide important insight for optimization of avalanche photodetector devices based on III-V nanowires. © 2017 American Chemical Society

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017
Keyword
avalanche photodetectors, nanowires, punch-through, SAM APDs
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36687 (URN)10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00389 (DOI)000415786300010 ()2-s2.0-85034033359 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyCarl Tryggers foundation Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Note

The authors acknowledge financial support from NanoLund, the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technological Development, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, the Ljungberg Foundation, the Carl Trygger Foundation, and the Swedish Energy Agency. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 641023 (NanoTandem) and under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 656208.

Available from: 2018-04-26 Created: 2018-04-26 Last updated: 2018-06-14Bibliographically approved
Karimi, M., Jain, V., Heurlin, M., Nowzari, A., Hussain, L., Lindgren, D., . . . Pettersson, H. (2017). Room-temperature InP/InAsP Quantum Discs-in-Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors [Letter to the editor]. Nano letters (Print), 17(6), 3356-3362
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Room-temperature InP/InAsP Quantum Discs-in-Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors
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2017 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 3356-3362Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The possibility to engineer nanowire heterostructures with large bandgap variations is particularly interesting for technologically important broadband photodetector applications. Here we report on a combined study of design, fabrication, and optoelectronic properties of infrared photodetectors comprising four million n+–i–n+ InP nanowires periodically ordered in arrays. The nanowires were grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy on InP substrates, with either a single or 20 InAsP quantum discs embedded in the i-segment. By Zn compensation of the residual n-dopants in the i-segment, the room-temperature dark current is strongly suppressed to a level of pA/NW at 1 V bias. The low dark current is manifested in the spectrally resolved photocurrent measurements, which reveal strong photocurrent contributions from the InAsP quantum discs at room temperature with a threshold wavelength of about 2.0 μm and a bias-tunable responsivity reaching 7 A/W@1.38 μm at 2 V bias. Two different processing schemes were implemented to study the effects of radial self-gating in the nanowires induced by the nanowire/SiOx/ITO wrap-gate geometry. Summarized, our results show that properly designed axial InP/InAsP nanowire heterostructures are promising candidates for broadband photodetectors. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017
Keyword
Nanowires, disc-in-nanowire, infrared photodetectors, quantum discs
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34047 (URN)10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b05114 (DOI)000403631600005 ()28535059 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020825146 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-10 Created: 2017-06-10 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Berg, A., Yazdi, S., Nowzari, A., Storm, K., Jain, V., Vainorius, N., . . . Borgström, M. T. (2016). Radial Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes in the (AlxGa1-x)yIn1-yP Material System. Nano letters (Print), 16(1), 656-662
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radial Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes in the (AlxGa1-x)yIn1-yP Material System
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2016 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 656-662Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanowires have the potential to play an important role for next-generation light-emitting diodes. In this work, we present a growth scheme for radial nanowire quantum-well structures in the AlGaInP material system using a GaInP nanowire core as a template for radial growth with GaInP as the active layer for emission and AlGaInP as charge carrier barriers. The different layers were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to ensure lattice-matched radial structures. Furthermore, we evaluated the material composition and heterojunction interface sharpness by scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electro-optical properties were investigated by injection luminescence measurements. The presented results can be a valuable track toward radial nanowire light-emitting diodes in the AlGaInP material system in the red/orange/yellow color spectrum. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2016
Keyword
Nanowire, radial, quantum well, STEM-EDX, light-emitting diodes, MOCVD
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35700 (URN)10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04401 (DOI)000368322700100 ()26708274 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84957989531 (Scopus ID)
Projects
NWs4LIGHT
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 280773
Available from: 2018-01-10 Created: 2018-01-10 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Nowzari, A., Heurlin, M., jain, V., Storm, K., Hosseinnia, A., Anttu, N., . . . Samuelson, L. (2015). A Comparative Study of Absorption in Vertically and Laterally Oriented InP Core–Shell Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices [Letter to the editor]. Nano letters (Print), 15(3), 1809-1814
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparative Study of Absorption in Vertically and Laterally Oriented InP Core–Shell Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices
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2015 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1809-1814Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have compared the absorption in InP core-shell nanowire p-i-n junctions in lateral and vertical orientation. Arrays of vertical core-shell nanowires with 400 nm pitch and 280 nm diameter, as well as corresponding lateral single core-shell nanowires, were configured as photovoltaic devices. The photovoltaic characteristics of the samples, measured under 1 sun illumination, showed a higher absorption in lateral single nanowires compared to that in individual vertical nanowires, arranged in arrays with 400 nm pitch. Electromagnetic modeling of the structures confirmed the experimental observations and showed that the absorption in a vertical nanowire in an array depends strongly on the array pitch. The modeling demonstrated that, depending on the array pitch, absorption in a vertical nanowire can be lower or higher than that in a lateral nanowire with equal absorption predicted at a pitch of 510 nm for our nanowire geometry. The technology described in this Letter facilitates quantitative comparison of absorption in laterally and vertically oriented core-shell nanowire p-i-n junctions and can aid in the design, optimization, and performance evaluation of nanowire-based core-shell photovoltaic devices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
Keyword
Nanowire, absorption, solar cell, photovoltaics, core-shell, radial, InP
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30039 (URN)10.1021/nl504559g (DOI)000351188000056 ()25671437 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84924598071 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

Other funding agencies:Nordic innovation program NANORDSUN, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF), Swedish Energy Agency, Nanometer Structure Consortium at Lund University (nmC@LU)

Available from: 2015-12-15 Created: 2015-12-15 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Jafari Jam, R., Heurlin, M., Jain, V., Kvennefors, A., Graczyk, M., Maximov, I., . . . Samuelson, L. (2015). III-V nanowire synthesis by use of electrodeposited gold particles. Nano letters (Print), 15(1), 134-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>III-V nanowire synthesis by use of electrodeposited gold particles
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2015 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 134-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Semiconductor nanowires are great candidates for building novel electronic devices. Considering the cost of fabricating such devices, substrate reuse and gold consumption are the main concerns. Here we report on implementation of high throughput gold electrodeposition for selective deposition of metal seed particles in arrays defined by lithography for nanowire synthesis. By use of this method, a reduction in gold consumption by a factor of at least 300 was achieved, as compared to conventional thermal evaporation for the same pattern. Because this method also facilitates substrate reuse, a significantly reduced cost of the final device is expected. We investigate the morphology, crystallography, and optical properties of InP and GaAs nanowires grown from electrodeposited gold seed particles and compare them with the properties of nanowires grown from seed particles defined by thermal evaporation of gold. We find that nanowire synthesis, as well as the material properties of the grown nanowires are comparable and quite independent of the gold deposition technique. On the basis of these results, electrodeposition is proposed as a key technology for large-scale fabrication of nanowire-based devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
Keyword
Gold electrodeposition, catalyst particles, nanoimprint lithography, crystal phase, nanowires
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27513 (URN)10.1021/nl503203z (DOI)000348086100022 ()25435082 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84921063502 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-01-19 Created: 2015-01-19 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Jain, V., Wallentin, J., Nowzari, A., Heurlin, M., Asoli, D., Borgström, M. T., . . . Pettersson, H. (2015). Processing and Characterization of Nanowire Arrays for Photodetectors. In: Baldassare Di Bartolo, John Collins & Luciano Silvestri (Ed.), Nano-Structures for Optics and Photonics: Optical Strategies for Enhancing Sensing, Imaging, Communication and Energy Conversion. Paper presented at International School of Atomic & Molecular Spectroscopy - Nano-Structures for Optics & Photonics, Erice, Sicily, Italy, July 4-19, 2013 (pp. 511-512). Dordrecht: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Processing and Characterization of Nanowire Arrays for Photodetectors
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2015 (English)In: Nano-Structures for Optics and Photonics: Optical Strategies for Enhancing Sensing, Imaging, Communication and Energy Conversion / [ed] Baldassare Di Bartolo, John Collins & Luciano Silvestri, Dordrecht: Springer, 2015, p. 511-512Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present a fabrication scheme of contacting arrays of vertically standing nanowires (NW) for LEDs (Duan et al. Nature 409:66–69, 2001), photodetectors (Wang et al. Science (NY) 293:1455–1457, 2001) or solar cell applications (Wallentin et al. Science (NY) 339:1057–1060, 2013). Samples were prepared by depositing Au films using nano-imprint lithography (Må rtensson et al. Nano Lett 4:699–702, 2004) which are used as catalysts for NW growth in a low-pressure metal organic vapour phase epitaxy system where III-V precursors and dopant gases are flown at elevated temperatures which lead to the formation of NWs with different segments (Borgström et al. Nano Res 3:264–270, 2010). An insulating SiO2 layer is then deposited and etched from the top segments of the NWs followed by sputtering of a transparent top conducting oxide and opening up 1 × 1 mm2 device areas through a UV lithography step and etching of the top contact from non-device areas. A second UV lithography step was subsequently carried out to open up smaller windows on the ITO squares for bond pad definition, followed by metallization and lift-off; and the substrate is used as back contact. We also report on the electrical and optical properties of near-infrared p+−i−n+ photodetectors/solar cells based on square millimeter ensembles of InP nanowires grown on InP substrates. The study includes a sample series where the p +-segment length was varied between 0 and 250 nm, as well as solar cell samples with 9.3 % efficiency with similar design. The NWs have a complex modulated crystal structure of alternating wurtzite and zincblende segments, a polytypism that depends on dopant type. The electrical data for all samples display excellent rectifying behavior with an ideality factor of about 2 at 300 K. From spectrally resolved photocurrent measurements, we conclude that the photocurrent generation process depends strongly on the p +-segment length. Without p +-segment in the NWs, photogenerated carriers funneled from the substrate into the NWs contribute significantly to the photocurrent. Adding a p +-segment shifts the depletion region up into the i-region of the NWs reducing the substrate contribution to photocurrent while strongly improving the collections of carriers generated in the NWs, in agreement with theoretical modeling (Fig. 48.1). © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dordrecht: Springer, 2015
Series
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics, ISSN 1874-6500
Keyword
Nanophotonics, Nanowires, Infrared (IR), Photodetectors, Solar cells
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-25127 (URN)10.1007/978-94-017-9133-5_48 (DOI)2-s2.0-84921395940 (Scopus ID)978-94-017-9142-7 (ISBN)978-94-017-9132-8 (ISBN)978-94-017-9133-5 (ISBN)
Conference
International School of Atomic & Molecular Spectroscopy - Nano-Structures for Optics & Photonics, Erice, Sicily, Italy, July 4-19, 2013
Projects
Nanowires, photodetectors, solar cells, nanotechnology
Available from: 2014-04-22 Created: 2014-04-22 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Park, M.-S., Jain, V., Lee, E., Kim, S., Pettersson, H., Wang, Q., . . . Choi, W. (2014). InAs/GaAs p-i-p quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors operating beyond 200 K. Electronics Letters, 50(23), 1731-1733
Open this publication in new window or tab >>InAs/GaAs p-i-p quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors operating beyond 200 K
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2014 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 50, no 23, p. 1731-1733Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-temperature operating performance of p-i-p quantum dots-in-awell infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) is successfully demonstrated. The optically active region consists of 10 layers of p-doped selfassembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) asymmetrically positioned in In0.15Ga0.85As quantum wells (QWs). The dark current is suppressed by an incorporated superlattice (SL) structure composed of 10 pairs of AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure. The very low recorded dark current makes the fabricated p-i-p QDIPs suitable for high-temperature operation. The measured photoresponse reveals broad mid-wave infrared (MWIR) detection up to 200 K. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stevenage, United Kingdom: The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2014
Keyword
Quantum dots, photodetectors, QWIPS
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27516 (URN)10.1049/el.2014.2437 (DOI)000344942600045 ()2-s2.0-84912136838 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-01-19 Created: 2015-01-19 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5993-8106

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