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Malnes, D., Waara, S., Figuière, R., Ahrens, L., Wiberg, K., Köhler, S. J. & Golovko, O. (2023). Hazard screening of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in Sweden's three largest lakes and their associated rivers. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 453, 1-10, Article ID 131376.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hazard screening of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in Sweden's three largest lakes and their associated rivers
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 453, p. 1-10, article id 131376Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Persistent, mobile, and toxic (PMT) substances have recently garnered increased attention by environmental researchers, the water sector and environmental protection agencies. In this study, acute and chronic species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were retrieved from literature data for previously quantified contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in Swedish surface waters (n = 92) and risk quotients (RQ) were calculated. To better understand the characteristics of the detected CECs in non-urban lake sites (n = 71), these compounds were checked against established criteria for potentially toxic PMs (PM(T)s) and occurrence in the aquatic environment, respectively. For the CECs with missing SSDs (n = 15 [acute], n = 41 [chronic]), ecotoxicity data were extracted for eight taxonomic groups, and if data were sufficient (n ≥ 3), SSDs were derived. The retrieved and newly developed SSDs were then used in an environmental hazard assessment (EHA) in the investigated Swedish rivers and lakes. In the rivers, 8 CECs had RQ> 1 in at least one location, and 20 CECs posed a moderate risk (0.01 < RQ < 1). In total, 21 of the 71 detected substances had already been identified as PM(T)/vPvM substances. Our study shows the importance of studying field data at large spatial scale to reveal potential environmental hazards far from source areas. © 2023 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Industrial chemicals, Ionizable substances, PFAS, Pharmaceuticals, Species sensitivity distribution (SSD)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50416 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2023.131376 (DOI)000988876000001 ()37094447 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85153039542 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-10 Created: 2023-05-10 Last updated: 2023-08-21Bibliographically approved
Waara, S. & Nilsson, P.-Å. (2023). Two Free Surface Flow Wetlands for Post-Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater in Sweden. In: Cross, Katharine et al. (Ed.), Nature-Based Solutions for Wastewater Treatment: A Series of Factsheets and Case Studies (pp. 214-220). London: IWA Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two Free Surface Flow Wetlands for Post-Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater in Sweden
2023 (Spanish)In: Nature-Based Solutions for Wastewater Treatment: A Series of Factsheets and Case Studies / [ed] Cross, Katharine et al., London: IWA Publishing, 2023, p. 214-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

[No abstract available]

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: IWA Publishing, 2023
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51582 (URN)2-s2.0-85168328013 (Scopus ID)9781789063035 (ISBN)9781789063028 (ISBN)9781789062267 (ISBN)9781789062250 (ISBN)
Note

Also available in a Spanish edition: "Dos humedales de flujo libre/superficial para el post-tratamiento terciario de aguas residuales en Suecia" in Soluciones basadas en la naturaleza (SBN) para tratamiento de aguas residuales.

Available from: 2023-09-07 Created: 2023-09-07 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
Waara, S. & Johansson, F. (2022). Ecological risk assessment of trace elements accumulated in stormwater ponds within industrial areas. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29, 27026-27041
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecological risk assessment of trace elements accumulated in stormwater ponds within industrial areas
2022 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 29, p. 27026-27041Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stormwater ponds can provide flood protection and efficiently treat stormwater using sedimentation. As the ponds also host aquatic biota and attract wildlife, there is a growing concern that the sediment bound pollutants negatively affect aquatic organisms and the surrounding ecosystem. In this study, we used three methods to assess the accumulation and the potential ecological risk of 13 different heavy metals and metalloids (e.g. trace elements) including both elements that are frequently monitored and some which are rarely monitored in sediment from 5 stormwater ponds located within catchments with predominately industrial activities. Ecological risk for organisms in the older ponds was observed for both commonly (e.g. Cd, Cu, Zn) and seldom (e.g. Ag, Sb) monitored trace elements. The 3 methods ranked the degree of contamination similarly. We show that methods usually used for sediment quality assessment in aquatic ecosystems can also be used for screening the potential risk of other trace elements in stormwater ponds and may consequently be useful in stormwater monitoring and management. Our study also highlights the importance of establishing background conditions when conducting ecological risk assessment of sediment in stormwater ponds. © 2021, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heidelberg: Springer, 2022
Keywords
Detention ponds, Geoaccumulation index, Metalloids, Metals, Risk quotients, Sediment quality
National Category
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46473 (URN)10.1007/s11356-021-18102-0 (DOI)000732504100001 ()34932183 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85121478184 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agency: Halmstad University

Available from: 2022-03-15 Created: 2022-03-15 Last updated: 2022-04-08Bibliographically approved
Figuière, R., Waara, S., Ahrens, L. & Golovko, O. (2022). Risk-based screening for prioritisation of organic micropollutants in Swedish freshwater. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 429, Article ID 128302.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk-based screening for prioritisation of organic micropollutants in Swedish freshwater
2022 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 429, article id 128302Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Concerns about environmental contamination by organic micropollutants (OMPs) are increasing, due to their potential bioaccumulative and toxic properties. This study evaluated the risk posed by OMPs to aquatic eco- systems in Swedish freshwaters. The assessment was based on measured environmental concentrations (MEC) of OMPs in surface waters upstream and downstream of Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A novel optimised risk quotient (RQf) was used to identify potential high-risk substances in the aquatic environment. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of WWTP effluent on aquatic ecosystems using a novel impact factor (I) based on the risk quotient (RQ). Among the 126 substances investigated, four compounds (metformin, N,N- dimethyltetradecylamine, oxazepam, and venlafaxine) were identified as likely to pose a risk to aquatic eco- systems in Swedish surface waters (RQf>1), and five compounds (clindamycin, gemfibrozil, sertraline, o-des- methylvenlafaxine, and diclofenac) were identified as posing a moderate risk to aquatic ecosystems ( 0.1 <RQf<1). WWTP effluent appeared to pose an environmental risk for all recipient sites, but the impact of calculated RQ was site-specific. These results can be used by authorities to prioritise OMPs and contaminated hotspots, in order to decrease negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

Synopsis: A novel optimised risk assessment approach for identification of high-concern organic micropollutants in aquatic environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Aquatic environment, Ecotoxicology, Environmental monitoring, Pharmaceuticals, Risk assessment
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46496 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128302 (DOI)000752578700007 ()35121296 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85123866890 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV-09085-20
Note

Funding: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (NV-09085-20) and Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences at Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.

Available from: 2022-03-21 Created: 2022-03-21 Last updated: 2022-07-06Bibliographically approved
Kasiuliene, A., Paulauskas, V., Marozas, V. & Waara, S. (2019). Accumulation of heavy metals in forest dwarf shrubs and dominant mosses as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. Journal of Elementology, 24(3), 1079-1090
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accumulation of heavy metals in forest dwarf shrubs and dominant mosses as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution
2019 (English)In: Journal of Elementology, ISSN 1644-2296, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 1079-1090Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article discusses the environmental concerns about heavy metal accumulation in dominant forest mosses and dwarf shrubs. Samples of two different species of mosses, such as glittering wood moss (Hylocomium splendens) and feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi), and two species of dwarf shrubs, that is European blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), were collected from specifically chosen areas with evident anthropogenic pollution (vicinity of an airport and close to heavy road traffic) and from contamination-free, secluded forest areas in Lithuania and Sweden. Instrumental analysis of heavy metals, including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc, revealed that the selected plant species tend to accumulate zinc and copper the most and chromium the least. Forest mosses, used as indicators of airborne pollution, accumulated less heavy metals than dwarf shrubs, indicating more metal accumulation from the soil. The results also revealed that forest, dwarf shrub leaves even picked from areas with known anthropogenic pollution sources were safe to use. since concentrations of cadmium and lead remained below the maximum permissible level. A multivariate data analysis model with two principle components explained more than 70% of the data variation. The heavy metal content in soil was the most distinctive factor separating the Lithuanian and Swedish sites. Cadmium and chromium soil contents were more significant in the Lithuanian soils, whereas copper, lead, and zinc were more significant in the Swedish soils.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Olsztyn: Polish Society for Magnesium Research, 2019
Keywords
bioaccumulation, contaminated soil, cadmium, feathermoss, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41471 (URN)10.5601/jelem.2019.24.1.1744 (DOI)000482747900016 ()2-s2.0-85073368251 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-31 Created: 2020-01-31 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
Waara, S. & Wojciechowska, E. (2019). Treatment of landfill leachate in a constructed free water surface wetland system over a decade – Identification of disturbance in process behaviour and removal of eutrophying substances and organic material. Journal of Environmental Management, 249, Article ID 109319.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of landfill leachate in a constructed free water surface wetland system over a decade – Identification of disturbance in process behaviour and removal of eutrophying substances and organic material
2019 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 249, article id 109319Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An 8 ha free water surface wetland system in Orebro, Sweden, which has sediment traps followed by 10 ponds for treatment of landfill leachate in the methanogenic stage, was studied from 2003 to 2012. The wetland was irregularly loaded and the leachate characteristics showed high temporal and spatial variability, so Multivariate Statistical Process Control was chosen as the diagnostic tool for detecting anomalies prior to assessing removal efficiency for eutrophying substances and organics. Disturbances in process behaviour included those due to intermittent flow, dilution due to snowmelt, an episode of high pollutant load, and sampling technique. The wetland total nitrogen mass removal was 89%, resulting in a first order rate coefficient of 1.7 m/year. Total phosphorus mass removal was 98%, while mass reduction was lower for TOC (60%), although this was still below discharge limits. The low amount of labile organic material and phosphate are probably the main reasons for the low denitrification rate. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: Academic Press, 2019
Keywords
Landfill leachate treatment, Free surface constructed wetland, Long-term evaluation, Treatment performance, Multivariate analysis
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41447 (URN)10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109319 (DOI)000492797500014 ()31404856 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85070318829 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-31 Created: 2020-01-31 Last updated: 2020-02-06Bibliographically approved
Waara, S., Gajewska, M., Cruz Blázquez, V., Alsbro, R., Norwald, P. & Waara, K.-O. (2015). Long term performance of an FWS wetland for post-tertiary treatment of sewage: the influence of flow, temperature and age on nitrogen removal. In: Gabriela Dotro & Vincent Gagnon (Ed.), Book of Abstracts: 6th International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control: Annual Conference of the Constructed Wetland Association: 13th to 18th September, 2015, York, United Kingdom. Paper presented at 6th International Symposium on Wetland Pollution Dynamics and Control, York, United Kingdom, 13th-18th of September, 2015 (pp. 38-39).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long term performance of an FWS wetland for post-tertiary treatment of sewage: the influence of flow, temperature and age on nitrogen removal
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2015 (English)In: Book of Abstracts: 6th International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control: Annual Conference of the Constructed Wetland Association: 13th to 18th September, 2015, York, United Kingdom / [ed] Gabriela Dotro & Vincent Gagnon, 2015, p. 38-39Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30137 (URN)
Conference
6th International Symposium on Wetland Pollution Dynamics and Control, York, United Kingdom, 13th-18th of September, 2015
Available from: 2016-01-07 Created: 2016-01-07 Last updated: 2022-09-13Bibliographically approved
Rögnvaldsson, T., Brink, J., Florén, H., Gaspes, V., Holmgren, N., Lutz, M., . . . Sandberg, M. (2014). ARC13 – Assessment of Research and Coproduction: Reports from the assessment of all research at Halmstad University 2013. Halmstad: Halmstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ARC13 – Assessment of Research and Coproduction: Reports from the assessment of all research at Halmstad University 2013
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2014 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

During 2013, an evaluation of all the research conducted at Halmstad University was carried out. The purpose was to assess the quality of the research, coproduction, and collaboration in research, as well as the impact of the research. The evaluation was dubbed the Assessment of Research and Coproduction 2013, or ARC13. (Extract from Executive Summary)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2014. p. 110
Keywords
Halmstad University, research evaluation, coproduction
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-24789 (URN)978-91-87045-06-6 (ISBN)978-91-87045-05-9 (ISBN)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2014-03-10 Created: 2014-03-05 Last updated: 2021-05-11Bibliographically approved
Waara, S. & Bandaruk, T. (2014). Metal and Metalloid Sequestration in a Constructed Wetland System for Treatment of Landfill Leachate During 2003–2012. In: : . Paper presented at Linneaus Eco-Tech '14, Kalmar, Sweden, 24-26 November, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal and Metalloid Sequestration in a Constructed Wetland System for Treatment of Landfill Leachate During 2003–2012
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The treatment of landfill leachate in constructed wetland systems is a common practice in Europe. However, very few studies were made to evaluate their performance over a long period of time. A free surface constructed wetland system consisting of sediment traps followed by 10 ponds connected with overflows was built at Atleverket near Örebro, Sweden in 2001. It receives pre-treated leachate from the municipal landfill. As part of the wetland monitoring programme a large data set on the surface concentrations of 15 metals and 2 metalloids has been collected from different sampling sites within the wetland during the operation period. In this study, the data from inlet and outlet of the wetland were compiled and analysed. The aim of this paper is therefore to estimate the removal efficiency of metals and metalloids using data on concentrations and flow and investigate the effect of wetland age on removal pattern. The elements with the highest removal efficiency were Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn ranging from 95% for Pb to 65 % for Ca. The elements with the lowest reduction were B, Co K, Mg, Ni and S ranging from Co 56 % to 40 % for S. It was found that the removal efficiency was not related to inlet concentrations of the elements as the elements with high and low inlet concentrations were found in both groups. Analysis of reduction pattern also revealed that the group with higher removal efficiency showed fairly constant outlet concentrations during the study period, while the elements with lower removal efficiency demonstrated variable outlet concentrations. No statistical difference in removal due to age of the wetland was found. The study results showed that the wetland system has high removal efficiency of metals and metalloids and the removal pattern is not affected by age of the wetland. The influence on reduction due to leachate characteristics, wetland design and retention time will be discussed.

Keywords
Landfill leachate, Treatment wetlands, Wetland design, Metals and metalloids
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27376 (URN)10.13140/2.1.4824.2241 (DOI)
Conference
Linneaus Eco-Tech '14, Kalmar, Sweden, 24-26 November, 2014
Available from: 2015-01-02 Created: 2015-01-02 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Waara, S., Gajewska, M., Dvarioniene, J., Ehde, P. M., Gajewski, R., Grabowski, P., . . . Wojciechowska, E. (2014). Towards Recommendations for Design of Wetlands for Post-Tertiary Treatment of Waste Water in the Baltic Sea Region – Gdańsk Case Study. In: : . Paper presented at Linneaus Eco-Tech '14, Kalmar, Sweden, 24-26 November, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Recommendations for Design of Wetlands for Post-Tertiary Treatment of Waste Water in the Baltic Sea Region – Gdańsk Case Study
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2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There are many challenges that need to be addressed if the far reaching objectives on high environmental status as required in the EU Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive will be met in the Baltic Sea Region within the next decade. For wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) this implies, in spite of the many improvements made during the last decade, development and introduction of new technology to further reduce eutrophying compounds, hazardous chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Constructed wetlands when properly designed and operated have been shown to be robust systems with low energy requirements that may not only reduce many types of pollutants but may also provide many additional ecosystem services beyond requirements generally imposed by authorities. For example, they may support and enhance biodiversity and be used to convert brownfield areas in urban landscapes to recreational areas. Reduced cost is possible if treated water is reused in industry or for irrigation. In a project, supported by the Swedish Institute, a group of scientists, a water company and water using industry has together with local authorities through workshops, field studies and literature studies worked on finding a general first recommendation on design and operation. In this paper we will present the scientific rational and legal constraints for the general design and operation of a wetland system for post-tertiary treatment of waste water from WWTPs using Gdańsk as an example. The proposal includes a first part, which mainly will be focusing on pollutant and pathogen removal using particle traps and a HSSF wetland on land owned by the WWTP and a second part consisting of a FWS wetland which, in addition to further polishing the water, will enhance biodiversity and provide recreational areas on derelict land owned by the city.

Keywords
discharge limits, ecosystem services, sustainable cities, treatment wetlands, waste water
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27377 (URN)10.13140/2.1.1140.5123 (DOI)
Conference
Linneaus Eco-Tech '14, Kalmar, Sweden, 24-26 November, 2014
Projects
WETEFF: Towards recommendation for design, operation and monitoring of constructed wetlands for treatment of effluent from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea Region
Note

Financial support: Swedish Institute

Available from: 2015-01-02 Created: 2015-01-02 Last updated: 2017-03-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0553-7918

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