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Fallahnejad, M., Kranzl, L., Haas, R., Hummel, M., Müller, A., Sánchez-García, L. & Persson, U. (2024). District heating potential in the EU-27: Evaluating the impacts of heat demand reduction and market share growth. Applied Energy, 353(Part B), Article ID 122154.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>District heating potential in the EU-27: Evaluating the impacts of heat demand reduction and market share growth
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2024 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 353, no Part B, article id 122154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a novel approach to modeling the gradual reduction in heat demand and the evolving expansion of district heating (DH) grids for assessing the DH potential in EU member states (MS). It introduces new methodological elements for modeling the impact of connection rates below 100% on heat distribution costs in both dense and sparse areas. The projected heat demand in 2050 is derived from a decarbonization scenario published by the EU, which would lead to a reduction in demand from 3128 TWh in 2020 to 1709 TWh by 2050. The proposed approach yields information on economic DH areas, DH potential, and average heat distribution costs. The results confirm the need to expand DH grids to maintain supply levels in view of decreasing heat demand. The proportion of DH potential from the total demand in the EU-27 rises from 15% in 2020 to 31% in 2050. The analysis of DH areas shows that 39% of the DH potential is in areas with heat distribution costs above 35 EUR/MWh, but most MS have average heat distribution costs between 28 and 32 EUR/MWh. The study reveals that over 40% of the EU's heat demand is in regions with high potential for implementing DH.  © 2023 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
District heating potential, EU-27, District heating grid investment, GIS
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51333 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.122154 (DOI)001109288600001 ()2-s2.0-85175477205 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: TU Wien Bibliothek for financial support for proofreading and through its Open Access Funding Program

Earlier title: Overview of district heating potentials in EU-27 countries under evolving DH market shares and ambitious heat demand reduction scenario

Available from: 2023-08-03 Created: 2023-08-03 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Braungardt, S., Bürger, V., Fleiter, T., Bagheri, M., Manz, P., Billerbeck, A., . . . Sánchez-García, L. (2023). Renewable heating and cooling pathways – Towards full decarbonisation by 2050 – Final report. Brussels: Publications Office of the European Union
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Renewable heating and cooling pathways – Towards full decarbonisation by 2050 – Final report
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2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the adoption of the EU Climate Law in 2021, the EU has set itself a binding target to achieve climate neutrality by 2050 and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 55 percent compared to 1990 levels by 2030. To support the increased ambition, the EU Commission adopted proposals for revising the key directives and regulations addressing energy efficiency, renewable energies and greenhouse gas emissions in the Fit for 55 package.

The heating and cooling (H&C) sector plays a key role for reaching the EU energy and climate targets. H&C accounts for about 50 percent of the final energy consumption in the EU, and the sector is largely based on fossil fuels. In 2021, the share of renewable energies in H&C reached 23%. The decarbonisation of heating and cooling is addressed across several directives and regulations at EU level.

The aim of this study is to support the analytical basis for the development and implementation of policies to ensure a seamless pathway to the full decarbonisation of the heating and cooling sector by 2050 in buildings and industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brussels: Publications Office of the European Union, 2023. p. 277
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities, PROACTS
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-52184 (URN)10.2833/036342 (DOI)978-92-68-07633-0 (ISBN)
Projects
ENER C1 2019-482
Funder
European Commission, ENER C1 2019-482
Available from: 2023-12-06 Created: 2023-12-06 Last updated: 2023-12-19Bibliographically approved
Sánchez-García, L., Averfalk, H., Möllerström, E. & Persson, U. (2023). Understanding effective width for district heating. Energy, 277, Article ID 127427.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding effective width for district heating
2023 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 277, article id 127427Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

District heating is one of the technologies that can contribute to the decarbonisation of the European heat sector. Nonetheless, these infrastructures only deliver about a tenth of the heat demands in the continent. Therefore, it is essential to assess the expansion potential of these systems and to identify which areas should be target for further investigations, which calls for easy-to-use and straightforward methods such as Persson & Werner's network capital cost model. Pivotal parameters of the model are the effective width, a metric of trench length by land area, alongside the average pipe diameter and the linear heat density. This study has carried out an in-depth analysis of these crucial parameters with respect to both distribution and service pipes in a large Danish district heating network, which has allowed to explore the behaviour of effective width in a broad range of building densities and derive new equations for both effective width and average pipe diameter. The model has subsequently been validated in another large network in Denmark and several minor districts in the same country, showing the accuracy of the model on an aggregated level. © 2023 Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
District heating, GIS, Pipe network, Cost analysis, Effective width, Plot ratio
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50424 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2023.127427 (DOI)000992994200001 ()2-s2.0-85154565584 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 846463
Available from: 2023-05-07 Created: 2023-05-07 Last updated: 2023-06-21Bibliographically approved
Sánchez-García, L., Averfalk, H., Persson, U., Hermoso-Martínez, N. & Hernández-Iñarra, P. (2023). Viability of district heating networks in temperate climates: Benefits and barriers of cold and warm temperature networks. In: Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Brodersen, Hans Jørgen (Ed.), Book of Abstracts: 9th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems. Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems, Copenhagen, Denmark, 12-13 September, 2023 (pp. 280-281). Aalborg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Viability of district heating networks in temperate climates: Benefits and barriers of cold and warm temperature networks
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2023 (English)In: Book of Abstracts: 9th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems / [ed] Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Brodersen, Hans Jørgen, Aalborg, 2023, p. 280-281Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The decarbonization of the heat supply and the attainment of a higher security of supply demand the transition towards zero-carbon heating solutions. In dense urban environments, where the construction cost of a pipe network is relatively low, heating and cooling networks can deliver heating and cooling at a lower cost compared to individual solutions. 

This paper builds on prior research by these authors mapping heating and cooling energy use in Bilbao, Spain, a city characterised by mild oceanic climate and a dense urban pattern. Areas within the city where heating and cooling networks could be more feasible have been identified taking into account the building stock characteristics and energy use, together with other urban and resource parameters, and a city district has been selected for further study.      

Warm networks deliver heat at a sufficiently high temperature to be directly used by the consumers whereas cold networks employ lower temperatures, thus requiring heat pumps at the consumers premises. Research has highlighted as advantages of this newer configuration the possibility of delivering both heating and cooling with the same network, the lower capital costs of these networks and negligible heat losses. Nonetheless, comparisons between the two technologies have been seldom performed in the literature. In this paper, an economic comparison between these two solutions is presented for the selected district of Bilbao.  Results show that cold networks require a lower investment in the actual network infrastructure but the distributed heat pumps increase the costs to a higher total CAPEX than in warm networks.  Overall life cycle costs of heat are also slightly higher for cold networks than for warm networks. Other benefits and barriers for each of the solutions, for example regarding necessary space or speed and modularity of the implementation of the network are also discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aalborg: , 2023
Keywords
District Heating, Warm Network, Cold Network, Distribution Technology, Heat Density
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51640 (URN)
Conference
9th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems, Copenhagen, Denmark, 12-13 September, 2023
Projects
Decarb City Pipes 2050 - Transition roadmaps to energy efficient, zero-carbon urban heating and cooling
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 893509
Available from: 2023-09-15 Created: 2023-09-15 Last updated: 2023-09-28Bibliographically approved
Persson, U., Atabaki, M. S., Nielsen, S. & Moreno, D. (2022). D1.9: Report on the amounts of urban waste heat accessible in the EU28. Update of deliverable 1.4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>D1.9: Report on the amounts of urban waste heat accessible in the EU28. Update of deliverable 1.4
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report presents the updated and final results from the work performed in Task 1.2 of the ReUseHeat project to assess the accessible EU28 urban waste heat recovery potential from seven unconventional waste heat sources: data centres, metro stations, food production facilities, food retail stores, residential sector buildings, service sector buildings, and waste water treatment plants. The report focusses on recent data and model updates for the EU28 in total (EU27 plus the United Kingdom), as well as for the project demonstration sites, while less focus is directed towards the original methods and approaches developed for these models; all of which have been described in previous accounts. In terms of data updates, monitoring data from demonstration site operations and public responses to our online project questionnaire on real-world urban waste heat recovery initiatives, are presented and evaluated in overview summary. Regarding model updates, the assessments of urban waste heat potentials from data centres and metro stations have been refreshed by use of new underlying input data, by the configuration of existing and the addition of new model parameters, as well as by reference to later year energy statistics. For the modelling of the total EU28 potential, utilising a dataset for the geographical representation of current urban district heating areas more detailed than the previous one, renders by spatial analytics, under the same “inside or within 2 kilometres of urban district heating areas” default setting as used before, an updated and more accurate assessment of the distances and the vicinity by which low-grade urban waste heat sources are located relative current demand locations. We maintain in this report also our application of the two concepts “available” waste heat and “accessible” waste heat, which, in combination with spatial constraints, are used to distinguish between resource potentials and utilisation potentials. For the total count of activities elaborated in this update (70,862 unique point-source activities compared to the original 70,771), the total available waste heat potential is assessed at some 1849 petajoule per year (~514 terawatt-hours), compared to the original 1842 petajoule per year. At the default spatial constraint setting, the final available waste heat potential is estimated at ~800 petajoule per year (~222 terawatt-hours) from a thus reduced subset of 22,756 unique point-source locations (960 petajoule per year from 27,703 unique facilities in the original), which here corresponds to a final accessible EU28 waste heat utilisation potential anticipated at 1173 petajoule (~326 terawatt-hours) annually (previous assessment at 1410 petajoule annually). For improved dissemination and exploitation of project results, a new web map; the European Waste Heat Map, has been developed and made available at the ReUseHeat project web page where point source data from this work may be viewed and shared. © The Authors.

Publisher
p. 55
Series
ReUseHeat ; D1.9
National Category
Energy Systems Remote Sensing Energy Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-48179 (URN)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 767429
Available from: 2022-09-29 Created: 2022-09-29 Last updated: 2024-01-22Bibliographically approved
Wiechers, E., Möller, B. & Persson, U. (2022). Geographic layers that illustrate future energy efficiency potentials: Second set of map layers (future years scenarios for 2030 and 2050): D5.5. Zenodo
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geographic layers that illustrate future energy efficiency potentials: Second set of map layers (future years scenarios for 2030 and 2050): D5.5
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Pan-European Thermal Atlas Peta is an online visualization tool for spatial data. Version 5.1 was launched in 2020 with a first set of layers for the EU27+UK, which related to energy demands in the base year and first, intermediate project results regarding energy efficiency potentials. With the update to version 5.2, Peta was complemented with layers based on the scenarios studied in different sEEnergies tasks, completed after the launch of Peta 5.1. As a result, Peta 5.2 shows energy demand and energy efficiency data for residential and service sector buildings as well as for industry and transport for different scenarios, focusing on the status-quo and the scenario year 2050, while also containing 2030 data.

Throughout the Heat Roadmap Europe projects, Peta has been developed as an information system for the heat sector. Its main content related to district heating grid investment costs, district heating area demarcations and supply options. The current version 5.2 features new layers that include future heat demands and district heating development costs for distribution and service pipe investment costs, as well as energy efficiency potentials of the industry and transport sectors.

In a new layer group Peta 5.2 presents the results of spatial analyses, for example the allocation of excess heat to urban areas as well as an index that combines energy efficiency potentials across sectors and technologies.

Peta 5.2 can be accessed via the following URL:https://tinyurl.com/peta5seenergies, while the geospatial data can be accessed through thesEEnergies Open Data Hub: https://s-eenergies-open-data-euf.hub.arcgis.com/. Furthermore, Story Maps add an additional dimension to the dissemination of project results (accessible here: https://tinyurl.com/sEEnergiesStorymaps). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Zenodo, 2022. p. 23
National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Systems Remote Sensing
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46769 (URN)10.5281/zenodo.6524569 (DOI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 846463
Available from: 2022-05-07 Created: 2022-05-07 Last updated: 2022-05-10Bibliographically approved
Lygnerud, K., Nielsen, S., Persson, U., Wynn, H., Wheatcroft, E., Antolin-Gutierrez, J., . . . Ljung, M. (2022). Handbook for increased recovery of urban excess heat.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Handbook for increased recovery of urban excess heat
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this book is to consolidate information from low temperature waste heat recovery demonstration sites. Apart from technical validation, the ReUseHeat project has generated knowledge about the urban waste heat potential in Europe, main stakeholders and different business aspects. Five stakeholder groups are targeted. These are urban waste heat owners, District Heating (DH) companies, policy makers, investors and customers. In the first chapter of the book, the concept of urban waste heat is introduced and the urban waste heat potential in Europe is presented. Thereafter (chapter two), information on business aspects is provided (stakeholders, value chain, risks, contracts and business model characteristics). Chapter three showcases the demonstrator concepts (waste heat recovery from data centre, hospital, metro and awareness creation about urban waste heat recovery) and performance data. Throughout the writing of the handbook, it was identified that it is important to compare the cost of different heating alternatives, to facilitate customer decision making. Therefore, a model was derived to compare costs of heating alternatives. It is presented in chapter four. Urban waste heat recovery is news. It is therefore important that stakeholders are made aware of the possibility to use the locally available heat and to start collaborating in new ways. To ensure as much stakeholder engagement as possible, the writing process of this book encompassed a six-month stakeholder involvement process. The stakeholder input is presented in chapter five. In chapter six, thoughts on the future development of district energy, policy implications and major learnings from the project are presented. This book was written within the ReUseHeat project. The work on the book was initiated after the first out of five years of activity to ensure that the consortium would be engaged in its development and to capture the knowledge generated on an ongoing basis. The final version of the book was ready and placed on the ReUseHeat webpage in September 2022. The project webpage remains in operation until 2024. The book not only exists in digital format. 600 copies were also printed and distributed to relevant stakeholders. All partners of the consortium have contributed to the writing of the book.

Publisher
p. 80
National Category
Energy Systems Economics Energy Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-48183 (URN)978-91-7883-404-4 (ISBN)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 767429
Available from: 2022-09-30 Created: 2022-09-30 Last updated: 2023-02-21Bibliographically approved
Persson, U., Atabaki, M. S., Sánchez-García, L. & Lichtenwöhrer, P. (2022). H/C outlook 2050 of cities with cross-city synthesis: Deliverable D2.6 (Edited version).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>H/C outlook 2050 of cities with cross-city synthesis: Deliverable D2.6 (Edited version)
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report is the second out of three consecutive accounts of a coherent methodological framework developed in the EU Horizon 2020 project Decarb City Pipes 2050 to define heating and cooling decarbonisation design approaches for cities based on urban typologies. The first and third accounts are, respectively, the deliverable reports D2.5 (Decarbonisation design-approaches based on urban typologies) and D2.7 (Recommendations for cities' H/C supplies & demands in 2050). The framework has been developed by identifying possible thematic synergies between the objectives of the concerned deliverables, by combining different method elements, and by organising a collaborative work strategy among the involved project partners. This report presents, in overview and detail, the input data synonymously used within the framework for the determination of urban typologies, for the modelling and mapping of heating and cooling outlooks for 2050, for the quantification of a cross-city synthesis, as well as for formulating recommendations for cities´ heating and cooling demands and supplies in 2050. The study focusses on the urban areas of seven European project cities (Bilbao (ES), Bratislava (SK), Dublin (IE), Munich (DE), Rotterdam (NL), Vienna (AT), Winterthur (CH)), for which EU-scoped, publicly available input data, to the extent possible, has been gathered according to ten structuring criteria parameters. Heating and cooling outlooks for 2050 are established for each project city based on the used input data and illustrated in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, and constitute the first element of a quantitative cross-city synthesis (city comparison). The second element (city ranking) is facilitated by application of a multi-criteria decision model, which here consists of combining the Analytical Hierarchy Process method (AHP) and the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS).

Publisher
p. 95
National Category
Energy Systems Remote Sensing Energy Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50239 (URN)
Projects
Decarb City Pipes 2050 - Transition roadmaps to energy efficient, zero-carbon urban heating and cooling
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 893509
Available from: 2023-03-29 Created: 2023-03-29 Last updated: 2023-12-01Bibliographically approved
Möller, B., Wiechers, E., Persson, U., Nielsen, S., Werner, S., Connolly, D., . . . Lund, H. (2022). Peta: the Pan-European Thermal Atlas : version 5.2 : developed as part of the sEEnergies project. Flensburg: Europa-Universität Flensburg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peta: the Pan-European Thermal Atlas : version 5.2 : developed as part of the sEEnergies project
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2022 (English)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Pan-European Thermal Atlas version 5.2 (Peta, version 5.2). Peta is an online visualization tool for spatial data relating to energy efficiency in buildings, industry, and transport sectors. Developed as part of the sEEnergies project. Copyright Flensburg, Halmstad and Aalborg Universities 2022. 

Place, publisher, year, pages
Flensburg: Europa-Universität Flensburg, 2022
National Category
Energy Systems Remote Sensing Energy Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-48178 (URN)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 846463
Available from: 2022-09-29 Created: 2022-09-29 Last updated: 2023-02-27Bibliographically approved
Lichtenwöhrer, P., Hemis, H., Persson, U., Sánchez-García, L. & Atabaki, M. S. (2022). Report on decarbonisation design-approaches based on urban typologies: Deliverable D2.5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Report on decarbonisation design-approaches based on urban typologies: Deliverable D2.5
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2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report identifies different typology-based approaches and methods for decarbonising the energy sector of cities. Respectively, typologies were evaluated, and design approaches were developed. In a first step, already existing typologies were evaluated, including a study by the Technical University of Darmstadt and examples from the City of Vienna. In a next step, conceivable structuring criteria and decarbonisation approaches from existing work within the DCP project were identified and summarised. These include structuring criteria such as heat demand density, renewable energy sources or types of refurbishment activities. On this basis, a new typology was developed. Five highly weighted criteria could be derived from the results of the expert survey, including structural energy efficiency, coverage of district heating, potential for renewable sources, potential for waste heat and heat demand density. These criteria formed the basis for the development of the novel typology. The first typology represents areas with high compatibility with highly weighted criteria, the third typology represents areas with comparably low compatibility, while the second typology is associated in between. Based on the developed typology, six design approaches were presented in this report. One short-term and one long-term approach for each typology include recommendations as well as concrete measures for strategic decision-making.

Publisher
p. 46
National Category
Energy Systems Remote Sensing Energy Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50238 (URN)
Projects
Decarb City Pipes 2050 - Transition roadmaps to energy efficient, zero-carbon urban heating and cooling
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 893509
Available from: 2023-03-29 Created: 2023-03-29 Last updated: 2023-12-01Bibliographically approved
Projects
Quantification of synergies between Energy Efficiency first principle and renewable energy systems [846463]; ; Publications
Sánchez-García, L., Averfalk, H., Möllerström, E. & Persson, U. (2023). Understanding effective width for district heating. Energy, 277, Article ID 127427. Wiechers, E., Möller, B. & Persson, U. (2022). Geographic layers that illustrate future energy efficiency potentials: Second set of map layers (future years scenarios for 2030 and 2050): D5.5. ZenodoMöller, B., Wiechers, E., Persson, U., Nielsen, S., Werner, S., Connolly, D., . . . Lund, H. (2022). Peta: the Pan-European Thermal Atlas : version 5.2 : developed as part of the sEEnergies project. Flensburg: Europa-Universität FlensburgSánchez-García, L., Persson, U. & Averfalk, H. (2022). sEEnergies special report: Construction costs of new district heating networks in France. sEEnergiesSánchez-García, L., Averfalk, H. & Persson, U. (2022). sEEnergies special report: Construction costs of new district heating networks in Germany. sEEnergiesMöller, B., Wiechers, E., Sánchez-García, L. & Persson, U. (2022). Spatial models and spatial analytics results: D5.7. ZenodoMöller, B., Wiechers, E. & Persson, U. (2022). Spatial models: Spatially adjusted energy efficiency potentials by sectors for future year scenarios: D5.6. Sánchez-García, L., Averfalk, H., Persson, U. & Werner, S. (2021). A Closer Look at the Effective Width for District Heating Systems. In: Henrik Lund; Brian Vad Mathiesen; Poul Alberg Østergaard; Hans Jørgen Brodersen (Ed.), Book of Abstracts: 7th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems. Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems, Copenhagen, Denmark, 21-22 September 2022 (pp. 153-153). Aalborg: Aalborg UniversitetsforlagMöller, B., Wiechers, E., Persson, U. & Sánchez-García, L. (2021). An empirical high-resolution geospatial model of future population distribution for assessing heat demands. In: : . Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems, 21-22 September, Copenhagen, Denmark. Meunier, S., Protopapadaki, C., Persson, U., Sánchez-García, L., Möller, B., Wiechers, E., . . . Saelens, D. (2021). Cost and capacity analysis for representative EU energy grids depending on decarbonisation scenarios: D4.4. Zenodo
Soldriven fjärrvärme med groplager för svenska förhållanden [P50037-1_Energi]; Dalarna University
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9118-4375

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