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Persson, U., Wiechers, E., Möller, B. & Werner, S. (2019). Heat Roadmap Europe: Heat distribution costs. Energy, 176, 604-622
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heat Roadmap Europe: Heat distribution costs
2019 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 176, p. 604-622Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This analysis elaborates further the concept of physical and economic suitability for district heating in EU28 by an aggregation regarding key dimensions such as land areas, populations, heat demands, and investment volumes. This aggregation is based on a resolution on hectare level by slicing the total land area into 437 million pieces. Results show that heat demands in buildings are present in 9% of the land area. Because of high concentrations in towns and cities, 78% of the total heat demand in buildings originate from dense urban areas that constitute 1.4% of the total land area and 70% of the population. Due to these high heat densities above 50 MJ/m2 per year, the paper evaluates a setting where district heating is individually expanded in each member state for reaching a common 50% heat market proportion in EU28 at lowest cost. At this saturation rate, the aggregated EU28 district heat deliveries would increase to 5.4 EJ/a at current heat demands and represents an expansion investment volume, starting from current level of 1.3 EJ, of approximately 270 billion euro for heat distribution pipes. Given the current high heat densities in European urban areas, this study principally confirms earlier expectations by quantitative estimations. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
District heating, Distribution capital cost, Heat density, Land use, Geographical information systems, European union
National Category
Energy Systems Remote Sensing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39226 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2019.03.189 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064154901 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Heat Roadmap Europe
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 695989
Available from: 2019-04-14 Created: 2019-04-14 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Möller, B., Wiechers, E., Persson, U., Grundahl, L., Søgaard Lund, R. & Vad Mathiesen, B. (2019). Heat Roadmap Europe: Towards EU-Wide, local heat supply strategies. Energy, 177, 554-564
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heat Roadmap Europe: Towards EU-Wide, local heat supply strategies
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2019 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 177, p. 554-564Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present paper describes a quantitative method for preparing local heat supply strategies. Detailed spatial data on heat demand and supply are generated using combined top-down and bottom-up modelling for 14 member states of the European Union, which constitute 91% of its heat demand in buildings. Spatial analysis is used for zoning of heat supply into individual and collective heating. Continuous cost curves are used to model economically feasible district heating shares within prospective supply districts. Excess heat is appraised and allocated to prospective district heating systems by means of a two-stage network allocation process. Access to renewable energy sources such as geothermal, large-scale solar thermal, as well as sustainable biomass, is analysed. The result is a comprehensive and detailed set of heat supply strategies in a spatially discrete manner. The findings indicate that in the 14 European Union member states, up to 71% of building heat demand in urban areas can be met with district heating. Of this, up to 78% can be covered with excess heat, while the remainder can be covered with low enthalpy renewable energy sources. The conclusion shows the possibility of a largely de-carbonised heat sector as part of a smart energy system for Europe.  © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Heat roadmap europe, District heating, GIS, Allocation
National Category
Energy Systems Remote Sensing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39313 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2019.04.098 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064883783 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Heat Roadmap Europe
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 695989
Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2019-05-02 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Persson, U. & Averfalk, H. (2018). Accessible urban waste heat: Deliverable 1.4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accessible urban waste heat: Deliverable 1.4
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report presents the work performed in Task T1.2 of the ReUseHeat project to assess the accessible EU28 urban excess heat recovery potential from four unconventional excess heat sources: data centres, metro stations, service sector buildings, and waste water treatment plants. The report presents in overview and detail the concepts, data, basic premises, and methods, used to produce the results from this work. In all, excess heat potentials are modelled and spatially mapped for a total of some 26,400 unique activities, but by application of two new concepts: available excess heat and accessible excess heat, by which total potentials are distinguished from practical utilisation potentials, a significantly reduced count of some 6800 unique facilities represent the final cut. Common for these facilities are that they all are located inside or within 2 kilometres of urban district heating areas. For the total count of activities, the full available excess heat potential is assessed at some 1.56 EJ per year. At the restrained conditions, thus representing a conservative estimate, the final available excess heat potential from the four unconventional sources is estimated at 0.82 EJ per year, which here corresponds to a final accessible excess heat potential anticipated at 1.24 EJ annually.

Publisher
p. 116
National Category
Energy Systems Remote Sensing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38750 (URN)
Projects
Recovery of Urban Excess Heat (ReUseHeat)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 767429
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Leurent, M., Da Costa, P., Jasserand, F., Rämä, M. & Persson, U. (2018). Cost and climate savings through nuclear district heating in a French urban area. Energy Policy, 115, 616-630
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost and climate savings through nuclear district heating in a French urban area
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2018 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 115, p. 616-630Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper compares the socioeconomic potential of heating systems that could be developed in the Lyon urban area (France). The district heating (DH) systems investigated in this paper use low-carbon heat sources: large-scale heat pumps (LSHP) or nuclear combined heat and power plants (NCHP). They are compared with electric boilers and central gas boilers in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and heating costs. The heating systems are dimensioned to supply the projected 2030 heat loads for two different land surface areas (extensive and compact). The key input data is the empirical residential and tertiary heat demand per square kilometre for 2015, extrapolated to 2030 to account for the potential decrease in the heat demand (energy-efficient buildings). Given the assumptions made in this paper, the heating system that obtains the best balance between CO2 emissions and heating cost relies on an NCHP located about 30 km from Lyon. Cases in which the heat has to be transported over longer distances are considered, hence providing insights for metropolitan areas with similar size and density as the Lyon area. Implications for stakeholders and policy makers are discussed, so that to optimize future French energy systems through the most efficient use of available technologies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
District heating, Cost benefit analysis, Urban, Nuclear energy, Cogeneration, Geothermal
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36561 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2018.01.043 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Leurent, M., Da Costa, P., Rämä, M., Persson, U. & Jasserand, F. (2018). Cost-benefit analysis of district heating systems using heat from nuclear plants in seven European countries. Energy, 149, 454-472
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-benefit analysis of district heating systems using heat from nuclear plants in seven European countries
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2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 149, p. 454-472Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper aims to evaluate and compare the potential cost savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of district heating (DH) systems using heat from nuclear combined heat and power plants (NCHP) in Europe. Fifteen DH + NCHP systems, spread throughout seven countries, are studied. The selection was made in collaboration with ‘the Ad-Hoc Expert Group on the Role and Economics of Nuclear Cogenerationin a Low Carbon Energy Future’ from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Firstly, the linear heat density of the modelled DH networks was determined, including locations with poorly developed DH networks. A large potential for extending DH networks was identified for France and the United Kingdom despite the expected decrease in the heat demand due to building renovation. Secondly, the costs and GHG emissions of DH + NCHP systems were evaluated via a cost benefit analysis. It concluded that 7 of the 15 projects would be cost-effective if 25% of the total urban heat demand was supplied. Implementing NCHP-based systems would reduce GHG emissions by approximately 10 Mt eCO2/a. Four additional DH + NCHP systems could become competitive if a larger share of the total demand was supplied. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the uncertainty affecting the key parameters. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
District heating, Cost benefit analysis, Nuclear energy, Cogeneration, Europe
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36578 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.01.149 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042279209 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
Paardekooper, S., Søgaard Lund, R., Vad Mathiesen, B., Chang, M., Petersen, U. R., Grundahl, L., . . . Persson, U. (2018). Heat Roadmap Europe 4: Quantifying the Impact of Low-Carbon Heating and Cooling Roadmaps: Deliverable 6.4. Copenhagen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heat Roadmap Europe 4: Quantifying the Impact of Low-Carbon Heating and Cooling Roadmaps: Deliverable 6.4
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
A final report presenting the heating and cooling scenarios, including a description about how these results can be used by lead-users
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen: , 2018. p. 97
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38749 (URN)
Projects
Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 695989
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-01-11Bibliographically approved
Möller, B., Wiechers, E., Persson, U., Grundahl, L. & Connolly, D. (2018). Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying local heat demand and supply areas with a European thermal atlas. Energy, 158, 281-292
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying local heat demand and supply areas with a European thermal atlas
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2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 158, p. 281-292Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2016 the first Strategy for Heating and Cooling of the European Union has shown that district heating and cooling networks can integrate renewable energies in an increasingly energy-efficient built environment. At the same time, the heating and cooling sector is probably the most diverse and least mapped component of the European energy system. The aim of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas is to improve the knowledge base for the geographical distribution of heat and cooling demands across Europe. Demand densities of the demanded thermal services themselves, the spatial coherence of these demands, and their location relative to sources of heating greatly affect the economy of district heating schemes compared to individual solutions. The objective is therefore to develop a comprehensive model, which can be used to a) quantify heat demands by density, b) group coherent areas with demands into prospective supply zones, c) produce supply curves for these zones, and d) ultimately calculate local energy mixes on the basis of allocated excess heat as well as renewable energy sources. The developed method spatially disaggregates national demand data to high-resolution geospatial data on urban structures. The resulting atlas allows for an advanced quantitative screening process, which can establish the basis for energy systems analyses relying on geographically explicit information on the heating demand and supply volumes and costs. The present paper presents version 4 of the Pan-European Thermal Atlas, which takes another step towards higher spatial resolution and confidence in comparison to its predecessors, version 1 to 3. For the first time, a 100m resolution heat atlas of Europe is being presented, which may help describing the heating sector in the required spatial resolution. By means of spatial statistical analyses using ordinary least square linear regressions, multiple spatial inputs such as population, degree of built-up and its derivatives are turned into a coherent model of the urban tissue. Plot ratios form the basis of models of heat demand in single and multi-family residential buildings as well as the service sector. Prospective district heating areas have been delineated, and the resulting zoning of heat supply has been linked to a resource-economic analysis, which allows for cost-supply studies in disaggregated form. The present heat atlas version 4 is now available for 14 countries that altogether represent 90% of the heat demand in the 28 European Union member states. First results are being presented with emphasis on the achieved methodological improvements. Moreover, a newly developed online mapping system is being presented, which will assist in mapping the new geography of heating and cooling demands and supplies. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Heat roadmap Europe, GIS, District heating, Heat supply, Heat demand density
National Category
Energy Systems Remote Sensing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37239 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.06.025 (DOI)
Projects
Heat Roadmap Europe 4 (HRE4)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 695989
Available from: 2018-06-21 Created: 2018-06-21 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Averfalk, H., Ingvarsson, P., Persson, U., Gong, M. & Werner, S. (2017). Large heat pumps in Swedish district heating systems. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 79, 1275-1284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large heat pumps in Swedish district heating systems
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2017 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 79, p. 1275-1284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Power-to-heat solutions like heat pumps and electric boilers are foreseen to be possible future tools to stabilise international power markets with high proportions of variable power supply. Temporary low cost electricity can be used for heat generation at times with high availability of wind and solar power through substitution of ordinary heat supply, hence contributing to increased energy system sustainability. Power-to-heat installations in district heating systems are competitive due to low specific investment and installation costs for large electric boilers, heat pumps, and heat storages. Several large-scale heat pumps were installed in Swedish district heating systems during the 1980s, since a national electricity surplus from new nuclear power existed for some years. The aim of this paper is to summarise the accumulated operation experiences from these large Swedish heat pumps to support and facilitate planning of future power-to-heat solutions with heat pumps in district heating systems. Gained experiences consider; installed capacities, capacity utilisation, heat sources used, refrigerant replacements, refrigerant leakages, and wear of mechanical components. The major conclusion is that many of the large thirty-year-old heat pumps are still in operation, but with reduced capacity utilisation due to internal competition from waste and biomass cogeneration plants in the district heating systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kidlington: Pergamon Press, 2017
Keywords
Power-to-heat, Heat pumps, District heating, District cooling, Integrated energy systems
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34097 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.135 (DOI)000410011500091 ()2-s2.0-85019691543 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Persson, U., Möller, B., Wiechers, E. & Grundahl, L. (2017). Map of the heat synergy regions and the cost to expand district heating and cooling in all 14 MS: Accessing the outputs of D2.2. Heat Roadmap Europe
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Map of the heat synergy regions and the cost to expand district heating and cooling in all 14 MS: Accessing the outputs of D2.2
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heat Roadmap Europe, 2017. p. 60
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35234 (URN)
Projects
Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 695989
Available from: 2017-10-19 Created: 2017-10-19 Last updated: 2017-10-25Bibliographically approved
Persson, U., Möller, B., Wiechers, E. & Rothballer, C. (2017). Maps Manual for Lead-Users: Deliverable 2.4: A report, based on the template from D7.4, describing how these maps can be used by lead-users.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maps Manual for Lead-Users: Deliverable 2.4: A report, based on the template from D7.4, describing how these maps can be used by lead-users
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 35
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35232 (URN)
Projects
Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 695989
Available from: 2017-10-19 Created: 2017-10-19 Last updated: 2017-10-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9118-4375

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