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Peter, H., Eklund, M. & Rosengren, L. (2022). Newly arrived students – Trapped between state intentions and municipalities realization: A textual analysis of transformation processes in Swedish steering documents, a pilot study. In: Michael Dal (Ed.), Education And Involvement In Precarious Times Abstract Book: Nera Conference 2022. Paper presented at The annual 50th conference of Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), Reykjavik, Iceland, 1-3 June, 2022 (pp. 534-535). Reykjavik: University of Iceland Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Newly arrived students – Trapped between state intentions and municipalities realization: A textual analysis of transformation processes in Swedish steering documents, a pilot study
2022 (English)In: Education And Involvement In Precarious Times Abstract Book: Nera Conference 2022 / [ed] Michael Dal, Reykjavik: University of Iceland Press, 2022, p. 534-535Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Research topic

The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss discourses, and their transformation, in governmental steering documents dealing with education of newly arrived in Sweden between 2014 and 2022. During these years the legislation has been revised and publicly discussed, we therefore want to investigate which differences can be detected. Steering documents give a hint measuring inclusivity and cohesion of the educational system on the one hand, and a linkage to the societal discussion on the other. The paper is part of a pilot study within a project focusing on newly arrived students’ learning and assessment processes. We are analyzing transformations and differences over time and in organizational hierarchy from governmental objectives to municipality realizations. Previous research shows that newly arrived students in Swedish schools encounter structural obstacles, as teachers’ lower expectations, otherising, and a deficiency perspective. The success of young migrants’ education could be seen as a litmus test for an equal society, and intrinsic for the possibility for employment in the Swedish society. 

Theoretical framework and research design 

The empiric material of this study consists of a strategical sampling of steering documents; law documents, governmental inquires and bills, and agreements between governmental agencies, and municipalities. Our method is inspired by Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis and based on our theoretical frame on education which is imbedded in Bourdieu’s praxeology. We conceptualize the documents as specific historical discourses within fields of power, looking for intertextuality, and differences between different levels; governmental, municipality and public discourse on immigration and responsibilities of school education which would be interesting to compare to other countries further on. As a point of departure, we have applied content analysis continuing with coding of keywords which allow us to detect temporal changes in phrasing and articulation during 2014 and 2022. The keywords are highlighting the level of mandates and organization strategies, which allow us to compare differences of connotations on textual, text producing and societal level. 

Expected results/findings 

We expect to find explicitly different discourses on governmental and municipality level. Variations, we assume, are to be found on both the textual level, e.g., from newcomer to newly arrived, and the content level. Whereas the governmental objectives seemed to concentrate on integration in 2014, the focus moves to language education and organization questions later. The changes may show a somehow shifting educational discourse emphasizing assessment outcomes while at the same time organizational conditions concentrating on language impede the student’s success. It seems to evolve an increasing shortcoming, and towards 2021, a problem discourse. 

Relevance to Nordic educational research 

Despite similarities in models of welfare, the educational systems have diverged in the Nordic countries during the recent years due to changes in, among others, education politics. In all Nordic countries the education systems have been adjusted to newly arrived children as a result of global migration. Our paper contributes to the theme with updated material which would be very interesting for a comparison further on looking for impacts on education in the Nordic countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Reykjavik: University of Iceland Press, 2022
Keywords
newly arrived students, intercultural education, discourse, equity, steering documents
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-49817 (URN)978-9935-468-22-2 (ISBN)
Conference
The annual 50th conference of Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), Reykjavik, Iceland, 1-3 June, 2022
Available from: 2023-01-12 Created: 2023-01-12 Last updated: 2023-01-12Bibliographically approved
Eklund, M., Peter, H. & Rosengren, L. (2022). Trapped between state intentions and municipalities realization: A textual analysis of transformation processes in Swedish steering documents, a pilot study. In: : . Paper presented at ECER 2022 – European Conference Educational Research Annual Conference of EERA at Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia, August 22-26, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trapped between state intentions and municipalities realization: A textual analysis of transformation processes in Swedish steering documents, a pilot study
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this paper is to describe and discuss the change of discourses in governmental steering documents dealing with the school education of newly arrived in Sweden, and their transformations between 2014 and 2022. This paper is a pilot study within a project focusing on newly arrived students’ learning and assessment processes. We wish to analyze transformations and differences over time and in organizational hierarchy from governmental objectives to municipality realizations. Focusing on steering documents, to begin with, we want to investigate how the parliament, government and governmental agencies did articulate the motivation of their objectives?

Sweden has always been a multicultural and multilingual society to some degree, but in the school's governing documents it was long assumed that Sweden was monocultural and monolingual (Eklund, 2003). Students with other cultural or linguistic backgrounds had to adapt to the students from the majority to achieve success in school. The possibility for pupils with mother tongues other than Swedish receive instruction in their respective languages ​​was introduced in 1966. The obligation for municipalities to offer mother tongue instruction was introduced with the home language reform in 1977. In 1996, the name was changed to mother tongue. The need for study guidance in the mother tongue became more and more articulated and more regulated, especially after 2010. Another adaptation of the school to a changed student composition was the introduction of Swedish as a foreign language, which 1995 changed its name to Swedish as a second language. As a country with a long tradition of immigration and a general reputation of a good standard of social justice and low degree of inequalities Sweden has also got the label of being ‘the consciousness of the world’ (Barry. & Yuill, 2016; Dance, 2006; Svanberg & Tydén, 2005). An educational sector influenced by marketization at least since the late 90-ties, may have changed the preconditions for equality though (Dovemark et al., 2018). Due to the influence of neoliberal policy and a shift from equity and social justice on the education the refugee, asulym-seeking and migrant students is particularly disadvantaged (Devine, 2013; Nilsson Folke, 2017; Pinson, 2020; Taylor, 2008). Previous Swedish research shows that newly arrived students in Swedish schools encounter structural obstacles, for instance teachers’ lower expectations, otherising, and a deficiency perspective. Overall, the difficulties and opportunities the current system entails seems to lead to greater exclusion (Bunar, 2010; Gruber, 2007; Nilsson Folke, 2017; Sharif, 2017).

A societal inclusion of migrants though is an important aspect shaping an equal society. Immigrant families and people with lower education have difficulties entering the labor market. The success of young migrants’ education could be seen as a litmus test for an equal society, and intrinsic for the possibility for employment in the Swedish society (Lindblad 2016; Pinson, 2020). Steering documents give a hint measuring inclusivity and cohesion of the educational system on the one hand and a linkage to the societal discussion on the other.

During the years 2014-2022, the Swedish government has revised legislation aiming at strengthening newly arrived students’ possibilities to accomplish the objectives of the education.  Against this background we think it is of interest to investigate which differences can be detected between 2014 and 2022 in regard to newly arrived students’ success in the educational system.

Method: The empiric material of this study consists of a strategical sampling of steering documents; law documents, governmental inquires and bills, and agreements between governmental agencies, and municipalities. As a starting point of departure, we have applied content analysis continuing with coding of keywords which allow us to detect temporal changes in phrasing and articulation during 2014 and 2022. The keywords are highlighting the level of mandates and organization strategies, which allow us to compare differences of connotations on textual, text producing and societal level. Guiding questions have been on concepts used for migrants and newly arrived students as well as the organization of their education. Questions asked are for instance: which kind of educational obstacles seemed to be identified as relevant and which kind of different solutions are presented during the years. The coding process is inspired by Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 1993, Fairclough 2013) and based on our theoretical frame on education which is imbedded in Bourdieu’s praxeology (Bourdieu 1998). We conceptualize the documents as specific historical discourses within fields of power, looking for intertextuality, and differences between different levels – governmental, municipality and public discourse on immigration and responsibilities of school education which would be interesting to compare to other countries further on.

Expected Outcomes: We expect following years being indicators for differences on the timeline: 2015 with the emigrant movement and about 70000 new students in Swedish schools in short notice; new legislation for newly arrived students in 2016 and 2018 followed by a new law on migration in 2021. We do also suppose different discourses on governmental and municipality level. The main differences, we assume, are to be found in different contexts which affect the term-level: whereas 2014 (Prop. 2014/15:45) the governmental intention seemed to center integration, later we perceive a greater focus on language training questions and organization. The changes may show a somehow shifting educational discourse emphasizing assessment outcomes while at the same time organizational conditions concentrating on language impede the student’s success. It seems to evolve an increasing shortcoming and towards 2021 a problem discourse.

Keywords
newly arrived students, intercultural education, discourse, equity, steering documents
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-49816 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2022 – European Conference Educational Research Annual Conference of EERA at Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia, August 22-26, 2022
Available from: 2023-01-12 Created: 2023-01-12 Last updated: 2023-01-12Bibliographically approved
Aldrin, E., Eklund, M. & Peter, H. (2020). Högskolans språk och mitt eget. En studie av nyantagna lärarstudenters förhållningssätt till skrivande, skriftspråket på högskolan och den egna skrivkompetensen. Högre Utbildning, 10(1), 43-56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Högskolans språk och mitt eget. En studie av nyantagna lärarstudenters förhållningssätt till skrivande, skriftspråket på högskolan och den egna skrivkompetensen
2020 (Swedish)In: Högre Utbildning, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 43-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores how a heterogenous group of first year university students perceive writing in general, academic writing in specific, as well as their own writing proficiency. A questionnaire (n 93) was created basing on theories on academic literacy and writing psychology. The results show varying attitudes among the students which highlight questions of the dimensions of writing, identity and group affiliations. Gender was of little importance, whereas age and self-stated writing skills correlated to some extent with the results. The small scale of the study does not permit far-reaching conclusions, but the results indicate attitudes that could have importance for the development of academic literacy. The study can be used as a start of departure for interventions that facilitate for groups with different backgrounds to participate in higher education. ©2020 Emilia Sturm Aldrin, Monica Eklund och Heike Peter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Swednet, 2020
National Category
Educational Sciences General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43702 (URN)10.23865/hu.v10.1671 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-12-15 Created: 2020-12-15 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Cuesta, M., Eklund, M., Rydin, I. & Witt, A.-K. (2016). Using Facebook as a Co-learning Community in Higher Education. Learning, Media & Technology, 41(1), 55-72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Facebook as a Co-learning Community in Higher Education
2016 (English)In: Learning, Media & Technology, ISSN 1743-9884, E-ISSN 1743-9892, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 55-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Students’ cultural capital plays a major role in their success in higher education. In Sweden today, many students come from diverse cultural, social and educational backgrounds. Knowledge of requirements in academic systems differs widely. Some students feel insecure about how to interpret academic codes, thus weakening these students’ opportunities for academic success. The major goal of this project was to lay the groundwork for a more equal educational system. Using social media, in this case conversations (e.g., chats) in a closed forum on Facebook monitored by a tutor, we aimed to improve student integration into academic culture. We differentiated two central themes related to student conversations on Facebook: (1) Access to academic habituscracking codes and (2) Emancipation by co-learning – extended academic codes. It was found that students participating in study groups created on Facebook learnt to better crack and extend the codes extant in university studies. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2016
Keywords
higher education, academic codes, Facebook, diverse backgrounds, broaden recruitment
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27859 (URN)10.1080/17439884.2015.1064952 (DOI)000367805600004 ()2-s2.0-84938651233 (Scopus ID)
Note

This project was supported by a research grant from Halmstad University.

Available from: 2015-02-17 Created: 2015-02-17 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Eklund, M., Högdin, S. & Rydin, I. (2013). Educational Integration of Asylum-seeking and Refugee Children in Sweden. In: Elinor L. Brown, University of Kentucky & Anna Krasteva, New Bulgarian University (Ed.), Migrants and Refugees: Equitable Education for Displaced Populations (pp. 73-93). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Educational Integration of Asylum-seeking and Refugee Children in Sweden
2013 (English)In: Migrants and Refugees: Equitable Education for Displaced Populations / [ed] Elinor L. Brown, University of Kentucky & Anna Krasteva, New Bulgarian University, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2013, p. 73-93Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have undergone substantial cultural and social changes due to increased migration from the 1970s onwards. While the Nordic region has become more multicultural in terms of demography, workforces and cultural practices, criticism of multicultural politics has increased. Despite different patterns of immigration in the Nordic countries, they all seem to share growing political tensions with regard to multiculturalism and migration. Many migrants have experiences of racism and discrimination (Eide & Nikunen, 2010:1). In all Nordic countries, right-wing conservative parties have strengthened their position. In Norway and Denmark, such parties have for some time been represented in the Parliament, and in Sweden, the Sweden Democrats came into the Parliament after the 2010 election. This party has on its agenda to reduce the costs for migration and dramatically change the national migration policy. They blame the government for being too permissive and generous. It is against this background the present report is written.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2013
Series
International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice ; 6
Keywords
Migration, refugee, children, education
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-23717 (URN)9781623964665 (ISBN)9781623964672 (ISBN)9781623964689 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-10-03 Created: 2013-10-03 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Cuesta, M., Eklund, M., Rydin, I. & Witt, A.-K. (2013). Innovative Pedagogical Methods in Higher Education. In: : . Paper presented at The European Conference on Educational Research, ECER 2013, 9-13 September, Istanbul, Turkey.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovative Pedagogical Methods in Higher Education
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this paper is to critically reflect about the results from a pilot study, in which Facebook was used as a co-learning community. A communicative tool or arena for discussing educational matters in order to facilitate for students with diverse backgrounds to reach better understanding on academic culture and knowledge production. In the pilot study we worked with a “consciousness-raising” pedagogy for encouraging and supporting students to cooperate with each other, and by the use of Facebook as a platform. The development of these pedagogical view and method can be seen as providing equal opportunities, by generating better results in higher education studies. The project is supposed to contribute to knowledge concerning more profound issues associated to ideas of democracy and empowerment connected to change and development in academic cultures. The central questions to be answered are: What means by “co-learning community” by Facebook? How does this tool stimulate students to be more confident and as a consequence, reach a better understanding about the ways into “break down” obstacles, in terms of academic cultural codes? How does it is expressed by the students in terms of benefit?

Keywords
pedagogy, inovation, facebook, co-learing, student
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-24070 (URN)
Conference
The European Conference on Educational Research, ECER 2013, 9-13 September, Istanbul, Turkey
Projects
Dialoger i medierat rum – samlärande via Facebook för ”att duga” i högre utbildning
Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-12-02 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Rasmusson, M. & Eklund, M. (2013). "It's easier to read on the Internet - you just click on what you want to read...": Abilities and skills needed for reading on the Internet. Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, 18(3), 401-419
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"It's easier to read on the Internet - you just click on what you want to read...": Abilities and skills needed for reading on the Internet
2013 (English)In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 401-419Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today's youth spend a lot of time on the Internet where they meet a multimodal world. The focus in the present study has been on the skills and abilities needed for on-line reading. This study explores reading on the Internet, with pairs of Swedish students aged 10 and 15. The pairs completed tasks on the Internet and these sessions were video-taped. Five main categories of skills and abilities were found: traditional literacy, multimodal literacy, path-finding, IT abilities, and information abilities. The results support earlier research in the field at large, and also add to the literature on on-line reading, in areas such as the crucial need for the ability to spell and knowing web address conventions in English. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Springer-Verlag New York, 2013
Keywords
Reading, Internet
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-16652 (URN)10.1007/s10639-012-9190-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-84879795932 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-12-06 Created: 2011-12-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Rydin, I., Eklund, M., Sjöberg, U. & Högdin, S. (2011). Evaluation of implementation of the "General recommendations for education of newly arrived pupils" issued by the Swedish Agency for Education.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of implementation of the "General recommendations for education of newly arrived pupils" issued by the Swedish Agency for Education
2011 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This evaluation is a part of the project “Integrating Refugee and Asylum-seeking Children in the Educational Systems of EU Member States: Evaluation and Promotion of Current Best Practices” (INTEGRACE). The main objective of the INTEGRACE project is to promote the educational integration of refugee and asylum-seeking children (RASC) in the EU by developing common standards and sharing best practices in policies and programmes development and evaluation,   with a specific focus on the needs of vulnerable groups (e.g. children who have been victims of crime, unaccompanied children).

The main purpose of this evaluation of best practices concerning refugee and asylum-seeking children (RASC) will be “[...] to analyze to what extent and under what conditions, these practices could be replicated in a different context.” The principle aim of this evaluation and of the SIA to be conducted in Slovenia and Bulgaria will be to assess the possibility of replication and the social impacts of the eventual implementation of a practice which has already been identified and evaluated as a good one in some of the old member states of EU.

The aim of the conducted evaluation is to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from old to new EU member States, thereby allowing the latter to deal more effectively with the their new migration situation. Furthermore, the evaluation at hand will provide the grounds for developing a common EU framework to addressing the educational needs of RASC in the near future.

In the Swedish country report a number of so-called best practices aimed for RASC were described. Based on responses and discussions with the partner in Slovenia, a case was chosen on the implementation of the “General recommendations for newly arrived pupils” in three schools in Bollnäs, a municipality, located in the middle of Sweden.

This report, will therefore analyse in detail how these “General recommendations” are implemented into the Swedish school system in light of an evaluation conducted by the authority The Schools Inspectorate (SI), but also provide the reader with a short note on the reasons for the Swedish National Agency for Education to formulate these recommendations concerning education for newcomers.

The concept “newly arrived” refers, according to the “General recommendations”, to compulsory, special, upper secondary or special upper secondary school children or youth who arrive in Sweden near the beginning of or during a specific school year. They are not native speakers of Swedish and are as a rule unable to speak or understand Swedish; finding themselves in Sweden on different terms and under different circumstances. Many have a permanent residence permit already upon arrival. Others have obtained a residence permit after a long wait in a refugee camp or lodging with acquaintances. Some are asylum seekers. Of the latter group, most have arrived with their parents, whereas others are unaccompanied and have no legal guardian. Some arrive based on their connections to refugees with a residence permit. Others have come after a parent has married a Swedish citizen. Still others are in hiding in the hope of revision of a previously denied asylum application. Finally, some are so-called paperless children – children or youth present in Sweden who have not applied for a residence permit and who are, thus, not registered with the Migration Board. A child or an adolescent coming to school may, thus, have arrived directly from another country or may have been present in Sweden for a shorter or longer period of time. Thus, being “newly arrived” may mean being new to the school but previously present in Sweden, in some cases having learned Swedish to some extent.4 In other  words, behind the term “newly arrived” we find a vast range of children where refugee and asylumseeking children (RASC) are also included. 

Publisher
p. 27
Series
Integrationg Refugee and Asylum seeking Children in Education
Keywords
Integration, ecucation, asylum seeking, children, migration
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-16650 (URN)
Projects
INTEGRACE, Integrationg Refugee and Asylum seeking Children in Education, European Refugee Fund
Available from: 2011-12-06 Created: 2011-12-06 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Eklund, M., Sjöberg, U., Rydin, I. & Högdin, S. (2011). Good practices in the field of educational integration of refugee and asylum-seeking children: Country report : Sweden. In: Andrey Nonchev and Nikolai Tagarov (Ed.), Integrating Refugee and Asylum-seeking Children in the Educational Systems of EU Member States (pp. 182-214). Sofia, Bulgaria: Center for the Study of Democracy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Good practices in the field of educational integration of refugee and asylum-seeking children: Country report : Sweden
2011 (English)In: Integrating Refugee and Asylum-seeking Children in the Educational Systems of EU Member States / [ed] Andrey Nonchev and Nikolai Tagarov, Sofia, Bulgaria: Center for the Study of Democracy , 2011, , p. 35p. 182-214Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sofia, Bulgaria: Center for the Study of Democracy, 2011. p. 35
Keywords
Integration, education, asylum seeking, children, migration
National Category
Sociology Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-16090 (URN)978-954-477-183-6 (ISBN)
Projects
Integrating Refugee and Asylum-seeking Children in the Educational Systems of EU Member States: Evaluation and Promotion of Current Best Practices – INTEGRACE
Available from: 2011-09-02 Created: 2011-09-02 Last updated: 2022-09-13Bibliographically approved
Högdin, S., Rydin, I., Eklund, M. & Sjöberg, U. (2011). Integrating refugee and asylum-seeking children in the educational systems: Country report : Denmark. Sofia, Bulgaria: Center for the Study of Democracy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating refugee and asylum-seeking children in the educational systems: Country report : Denmark
2011 (English)Report (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sofia, Bulgaria: Center for the Study of Democracy, 2011. p. 19
Keywords
Integration, Education, Asylum seeking, Children, Migration
National Category
Sociology Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-16089 (URN)978-954-477-183-6 (ISBN)
Projects
Integrating Refugee and Asylum-seeking Children in the Educational Systems of EU Member States: Evaluation and Promotion of Current Best Practices – INTEGRACE
Funder
EU, European Research Council, JLS/2009/ERFX/CA1013
Note

Report included on CD. Financial support: the European Refugee Fund. See also: http://www.csd.bg/fileadmin/user_upload/INTEGRACE_handbook.pdf

Available from: 2011-09-02 Created: 2011-09-02 Last updated: 2022-09-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8757-926X

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