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Rebeggiani, S. & Rosén, B. G. (2023). A measure of perceived quality to secure the polishability of new paint systems. Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, 11(2), Article ID 024006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A measure of perceived quality to secure the polishability of new paint systems
2023 (English)In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, E-ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 024006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The automotive industry continuously strives to reduce their environmental impact. For the paint shop it means to introduce more sustainable paint concepts, while maintaining the production rate and retain the right surface appearance that is crucial for the vehicle’s perceived quality. Today most painted parts are visually inspected and, if needed, manually repaired by abrasive polishing to eliminate spot defects. The repair process consists of one sanding step to remove the defect, and one or two rubbing/polishing steps to restore the surface, but still it tends to be a non-reliable process leaving patterns or clusters of shallow micro scratches seen as three-dimensional shapes moving over the surface when viewed from different angles like holograms. These so called ‘polishing roses’ are hard to detect in artificial light but clearly visible in Sunlight and therefore they constitute a constant quality issue. Accurate polishing procedures in combination with more objective inspection techniques would secure a high surface quality—but what is ‘accurate’? The overall scope of the study was to deepen the knowledge of paint systems to develop test routines for the polishability of coatings already during the development stage, and thereby ease the implementation of new coating systems in production. The study was based on collected process data from professional polishers to define a process window based on key parameters for successful end-of-line repairs of coated surfaces, i.e. strategies minimizing the occurrence of visible polishing traces. A CNC-machine was built up for the purpose to systematically test and evaluate new coating systems and repair procedures. The surface estimation was made by visual inspections as well as by a further developed photometric stereo system providing quantitative images of remaining repair traces. © 2023 IOP Publishing Ltd

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics (IOP), 2023
Keywords
abrasive polishing, metrology, paint system, perceived quality, visual inspection
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51447 (URN)10.1088/2051-672X/acd869 (DOI)000999903400001 ()2-s2.0-85161565204 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 201506889
Available from: 2023-08-17 Created: 2023-08-17 Last updated: 2023-08-17Bibliographically approved
Rebeggiani, S., Bergman, M., Rosén, B. G. & Eriksson, L. (2023). On communicating extruded aluminium surface quality along the supply chain - a customer approach to sustainable surfaces. Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, 11(1), Article ID 014013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On communicating extruded aluminium surface quality along the supply chain - a customer approach to sustainable surfaces
2023 (English)In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 014013Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today, far too many products are scrapped due to surface related issues, products with perfect function but with minor surface blemishes. The complaints are often offset by goodwill commitments from suppliers at great cost to them and delivery delays and lead time costs for customers. The reason is that the industry relies on several non-standardized classification systems for surface quality that are based on various combinations of and designations for surface defects, assessed by visual inspections at a defined distance to determine the severity of any detected surface deviations. These similar classification systems provide far too much scope for subjective and non-repeatable assessments causing communication problems between customer and producer at all stages in the supply chain. To challenge this situation, a common toolbox to communicate, describe and define surface quality should be developed, i.e. a standardisation of surface quality assessment including various effects and defects with a jointly established nomenclature and evaluation parameters. This work presents the first step of a research project bringing together 11 suppliers and OEMs along the supply chain, from the delivery of raw aluminium to finished alumina profiles included in consumer products. The final goal of the project is to develop an ‘objective classification of visual requirements’ on alumina profiles towards increased sustainability and decreased material wastage. Presented result is a common terminology with links to the process chain, surface defect geometry and visual appearance aiming at making the communication between producers and buyers of the aluminium profiles clearer and more unambiguous when it comes to specification and requirements of profile surfaces in each of the supply-chain links. Future work will add measurable parameters specifying surface quality. © 2023 IOP Publishing Ltd

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2023
Keywords
aluminium, perceived quality, surface defects, sustainability
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-51221 (URN)10.1088/2051-672X/acc544 (DOI)000957633400001 ()2-s2.0-85151372027 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-07-06 Created: 2023-07-06 Last updated: 2023-07-06Bibliographically approved
Rebeggiani, S., Bergman, M., Rosén, B. G. & Eriksson, L. (2022). Towards an objective classification of extruded aluminum surfaces - a literature review and case study. In: Amos H.C. Ng; Anna Syberfeldt; Dan Högberg; Magnus Holm (Ed.), SPS2022: Proceedings of the 10th Swedish Production Symposium. Paper presented at 10th Swedish Production Symposium, SPS 2022, Skövde, Sweden, 26-29 April, 2022 (pp. 51-62). Amsterdam: IOS Press, 21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards an objective classification of extruded aluminum surfaces - a literature review and case study
2022 (English)In: SPS2022: Proceedings of the 10th Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Amos H.C. Ng; Anna Syberfeldt; Dan Högberg; Magnus Holm, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2022, Vol. 21, p. 51-62Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Large costs and lead-time losses are created by returned aluminum products - to a great extent unnecessarily. Much of the metal product complaints are due to visual surface defects. Today, the aluminum industry relies on several non-standardized classification systems for surface quality assessments which provides far too much scope for subjective and non-repeatable surface estimations. To challenge this situation, a common toolbox to describe and define surface quality in a more objective way needs to be developed. A first step towards such standardization is to speak the same language, thus this study is based on a state-of-the-art survey covering terminology and descriptions of surface defects in literature, and a round-robin assessment collecting terms used by employees at seven companies within the aluminum industry. The literature study showed that most attempts to catalog and categorized various types of defects on commercial aluminum extrusions are based on the origin of defects and how to prevent and/or reduce them, thus the vocabulary is production-oriented and most terms are not useful from the customers’ nor the designers’ point of view when coming to describe desired surface effect, i.e. perceived surface quality. The round-robin assessment confirmed the large variation of terminology used, and that defects were judged differently also within the same company due to experience and field of work. A common vocabulary is suggested to be based on the relationships between used expressions; from general terms at stages linked to consumers, designers and sale, tracing towards more technical terms the closer the stage where the origin of the defect can be found. This structure, in combination with e.g. manufacturing cost, is expected to guide customers towards more sustainable surface quality choices that, together with more consistent surface assessments along the production chain, is expected to strongly reduce unnecessary scrapping. © 2022 The authors and IOS Press.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2022
Series
Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering ; 21
Keywords
Aluminum, Surface defects, perceived quality, Kansei engineering
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Smart Cities and Communities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-48238 (URN)10.3233/ATDE220125 (DOI)2-s2.0-85132844317 (Scopus ID)978-1-64368-268-6 (ISBN)978-1-64368-269-3 (ISBN)
Conference
10th Swedish Production Symposium, SPS 2022, Skövde, Sweden, 26-29 April, 2022
Funder
Vinnova, 2019-03568Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Energy Agency
Note

Funding: The project (2019-03568) is carried out with financial support from the Strategic Innovation Programme Metallic Materials, a joint venture of Vinnova, the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems, Formas and The Swedish Energy Agency. 

Available from: 2022-10-03 Created: 2022-10-03 Last updated: 2023-02-10Bibliographically approved
Rebeggiani, S., Dimkovski, Z. & Rosén, B. G. (2019). Traceology for prediction of polishing roses. In: Abstracts book Met & Props 2019 LYON: . Paper presented at 22nd International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, Lyon, France, July 2-5, 2019 (pp. 173-174).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traceology for prediction of polishing roses
2019 (English)In: Abstracts book Met & Props 2019 LYON, 2019, p. 173-174Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41104 (URN)
Conference
22nd International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, Lyon, France, July 2-5, 2019
Funder
Vinnova, 2015-06889
Available from: 2019-12-04 Created: 2019-12-04 Last updated: 2021-01-27Bibliographically approved
Rebeggiani, S., Wagner, M., Mazal, J., Rosén, B. G. & Dahlén, M. (2018). Detection of paint polishing defects. Paper presented at Met and Props 2017, Gothenburg, Sweden, 27-29 June, 2017. Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, 6(2), Article ID 024009.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection of paint polishing defects
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 024009Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Surface finish plays a major role on perceived product quality, and is the first thing a potential buyer sees. Today end-of-line repairs of the body of cars and trucks are inevitably to secure required surface quality. Defects that occur in the paint shop, like dust particles, are eliminated by manual sanding/polishing which lead to other types of defects when the last polishing step is not performed correctly or not fully completed. One of those defects is known as 'polishing roses' or holograms, which are incredibly hard to detect in artificial light but are clearly visible in sunlight.

This paper will present the first tests with a measurement set-up newly developed to measure and analyse polishing roses. The results showed good correlations to human visual evaluations where repaired panels were estimated based on the defects' intensity, severity and viewing angle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018
Keywords
Metrology, coating, polishing, surface finish, surface estimation
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37400 (URN)10.1088/2051-672X/aabfb5 (DOI)000432868700002 ()2-s2.0-85051439349 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Met and Props 2017, Gothenburg, Sweden, 27-29 June, 2017
Projects
Robust Polering
Funder
Vinnova, 2015-06889
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2020-02-03Bibliographically approved
Rebeggiani, S., Flemming, L., Rosén, B.-G. & Blunt, L. (2014). A Training Consortium to Explore and Exploit Surface Metrology. In: : . Paper presented at SPS'14, The 6th Swedish Production Symposium, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 16-18, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Training Consortium to Explore and Exploit Surface Metrology
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The importance of surface finish in all aspects of manufacturing influences economic considerations as well as environmental aspects and functionality. The ability to effective and efficient characterise surface topography is an important tool in the manufacturers arsenal which is often overlooked or underutilised. By providing a comprehensive, affordable training package, a gap in the industrial knowledge is filled giving manufacturers the ability to increase their competitive edge.

Keywords
surface metrology, education, knowledge transfer
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27152 (URN)
Conference
SPS'14, The 6th Swedish Production Symposium, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 16-18, 2014
Available from: 2014-12-01 Created: 2014-12-01 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Rebeggiani, S., Dimkovski, Z., Kofod, G. & Rosén, B.-G. (2014). Empirical Evaluation of Spin-on-Glass-Layers on Steel Surfaces by Wear Tests. Tribologia Finnish Journal of Tribology, 32(1), 19-24
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empirical Evaluation of Spin-on-Glass-Layers on Steel Surfaces by Wear Tests
2014 (English)In: Tribologia Finnish Journal of Tribology, ISSN 0780-2285, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dies and moulds with high precision surfaces are being used in various branches, e.g. in the plastic industry where the surface finish are conventionally performed by manual polishers. With ever increasing demands of shorter lead times and reduced costs, efforts have been made to automate this finishing process. This paper presents an empirical study performed to test durability properties of SOG (spin-on-glass)-layers on steel surfaces. The results showed that the thin coating last longer than the thicker ones, and that the harder coatings withstood wear significantly better than the steel reference samples thus motivating further investigations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology, 2014
Keywords
Injection moulding, surface finish, tribometer, ball-on-disk, SOG-layers
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27153 (URN)2-s2.0-84910601772 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-12-01 Created: 2014-12-01 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Dimkovski, Z., Kofod, G., Rebeggiani, S. & Rosén, B.-G. (2014). Evaluation of Durability of SOG-layers on Steel Surfaces by Wear and Scratch Tests. In: : . Paper presented at The 16th Nordic Symposium on Tribology - NORDTRIB 2014, Aarhus, Denmark, 10-13 June, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Durability of SOG-layers on Steel Surfaces by Wear and Scratch Tests
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Steel moulds with high precision surfaces are being used in various branches. Process aspects, like tool life and tribological properties, as well as design issues are of great importance. This work summarises experimental studies performed to test durability properties of SOG (spin-on-glass)-layers on steel surfaces. This coating technique is based on a newly developed method for surface preparation of tools which has been demonstrated to be durable for more than 66.000 replications in injection moulding processes without loss of surface fidelity. The procedure allows surface roughness reduction from approximately 200 nm Ra down to some few nm for high gloss applications, as well as easy transfer of large-area functional nanostructures on complex 3D surfaces.

Three different types of surfaces were investigated: SOG-layered metal surfaces with three different layer thicknesses, one ingot casted and one electro slag remelted material (with hardness level of 950 and 2500 MPa, respectively). The metal surfaces were ground and polished to mirrorlike finishes.

Three circular samples of each type were rubbed against a hard steel ball of 6.35 mm radius on a commercial pin-on-disk tribometer. To resemble the molding process a sliding speed of 2 mm/s and a load of 8 N were chosen. The tests were performed with 5 minutes intervals until the first damage on the surface were observed. In parallel, scratch tests were performed in the same tribometer. The surfaces were measured in-situ by a portable microscope and a stylus, and afterwards by a white light interferometer and scanning electron microscope to evaluate the size of the wear/scratch traces.

The surface type with the longest time to damage and/or smallest wear/scratch traces was considered to be the most durable one.

Keywords
mirror finish, tribometer, ball-on-disk, scratch-test, SOG-layers
National Category
Mechanical Engineering Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-25136 (URN)
Conference
The 16th Nordic Symposium on Tribology - NORDTRIB 2014, Aarhus, Denmark, 10-13 June, 2014
Available from: 2014-04-23 Created: 2014-04-23 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Rebeggiani, S. & Rosén, B.-G. (2014). Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels. Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, 2(3), Article ID 035004.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels
2014 (English)In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 2, no 3, article id 035004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometer-level.

It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2014
Keywords
Polishing strategy, tool steels, surface quality, high gloss appearance
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-22174 (URN)2-s2.0-84979198888 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-05-17 Created: 2013-05-17 Last updated: 2017-03-20Bibliographically approved
Rebeggiani, S. & Rosén, B.-G. (2014). Quantitative evaluation of the surface finish of high gloss polished tool steels. Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013), Taipei, Taiwan, 17–21 June, 2013. Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, 2(1), Article ID 014002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative evaluation of the surface finish of high gloss polished tool steels
2014 (English)In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 014002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Standardized procedures to measure and estimate surface qualities of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components do not exist. Instead, steel producers as well as polishers and mould-users need to rely on master plaques for tactile comparisons and/or their own visual estimations for surface quality controls. This paper presents an overview of various surface evaluation methods of steels, including existing standards and available surface metrology. A new method to evaluate high gloss polished tool steel surfaces, based on a three-dimensional non-contacting measurement technique, is presented. The suggested method is based on defect extraction, and should be useful for both specifications and quality controls. Included defects were found to be quality criteria for polished tool steel surfaces. The surface acceptance levels and defect classification are based on interviews and questionnaires, as well as literature studies and visual estimations of test samples made by experienced polishers. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2014
Keywords
tool steels, surface characterisation, surface parameters, surface defects
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-24329 (URN)10.1088/2051-672X/2/1/014002 (DOI)2-s2.0-84979195167 (Scopus ID)
Conference
14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013), Taipei, Taiwan, 17–21 June, 2013
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2014-01-07 Created: 2014-01-07 Last updated: 2017-03-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9084-819X

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