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Khan, T., Lundgren, L., Järpe, E., Olsson, M. C. & Wiberg, P. (2019). A Novel Method for Classification of Running Fatigue Using Change-Point Segmentation. Sensors, 19(21), Article ID 4729.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Method for Classification of Running Fatigue Using Change-Point Segmentation
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2019 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 21, article id 4729Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Blood lactate accumulation is a crucial fatigue indicator during sports training. Previous studies have predicted cycling fatigue using surface-electromyography (sEMG) to non-invasively estimate lactate concentration in blood. This study used sEMG to predict muscle fatigue while running and proposes a novel method for the automatic classification of running fatigue based on sEMG. Data were acquired from 12 runners during an incremental treadmill running-test using sEMG sensors placed on the vastus-lateralis, vastus-medialis, biceps-femoris, semitendinosus, and gastrocnemius muscles of the right and left legs. Blood lactate samples of each runner were collected every two minutes during the test. A change-point segmentation algorithm labeled each sample with a class of fatigue level as (1) aerobic, (2) anaerobic, or (3) recovery. Three separate random forest models were trained to classify fatigue using 36 frequency, 51 time-domain, and 36 time-event sEMG features. The models were optimized using a forward sequential feature elimination algorithm. Results showed that the random forest trained using distributive power frequency of the sEMG signal of the vastus-lateralis muscle alone could classify fatigue with high accuracy. Importantly for this feature, group-mean ranks were significantly different (p < 0.01) between fatigue classes. Findings support using this model for monitoring fatigue levels during running. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
surface-electromyography, blood lactate concentration, random forest, running, fatigue
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40834 (URN)10.3390/s19214729 (DOI)000498834000126 ()2-s2.0-85074441602 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Other funder: Swedish Adrenaline.

Available from: 2019-11-04 Created: 2019-11-04 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Khan, T., Lundgren, L., Anderson, D. G., Novak, I., Dougherty, M., Verikas, A., . . . Aharonson, V. (2019). Assessing Parkinson's disease severity using speech analysis in non-native speakers. Computer speech & language (Print), Article ID 101047.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing Parkinson's disease severity using speech analysis in non-native speakers
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2019 (English)In: Computer speech & language (Print), ISSN 0885-2308, E-ISSN 1095-8363, article id 101047Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Speech disorder is a common manifestation of Parkinson's disease with two main symptoms, dysprosody and dysphonia. Previous research studying objective measures of speech symptoms involved patients and examiners who were native language speakers. Measures such as cepstral separation difference (CSD) features to quantify dysphonia and dysprosody accurately distinguish the severity of speech impairment. Importantly CSD, together with other speech features, including Mel-frequency coefficients, fundamental-frequency variation, and spectral dynamics, characterize speech intelligibility in PD. However, non-native language speakers transfer phonological rules of their mother language that tamper speech assessment.

Objectives: This paper explores CSD's capability: first, to quantify dysprosody and dysphonia of non-native language speakers, Parkinson patients and controls, and secondly, to characterize the severity of speech impairment when Parkinson's dysprosody accompanies non-native linguistic dysprosody.

Methods: CSD features were extracted from 168 speech samples recorded from 19 healthy controls, 15 rehabilitated and 23 not-rehabilitated Parkinson patients in three different clinical speech tests based on Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor-speech examination. Statistical analyses were performed to compare groups using analysis of variance, intraclass correlation, and Guttman correlation coefficient µ2. Random forests were trained to classify the severity of speech impairment using CSD and the other speech features. Feature importance in classification was determined using permutation importance score.

Results: Results showed that the CSD feature describing dysphonia was uninfluenced by non-native accents, strongly correlated with the clinical examination (µ2>0.5), and significantly discriminated between the healthy, rehabilitated, and not-rehabilitated patient groups based on the severity of speech symptoms. However, the feature describing dysprosody did not correlate with the clinical examination but significantly distinguished the groups. The classification model based on random forests and selected features characterized the severity of speech impairment of non-native language speakers with high accuracy. Importantly, the permutation importance score of the CSD feature representing dysphonia was the highest compared to other features. Results showed a strong negative correlation (µ2<-0.5) between L-dopa administration and the CSD features.

Conclusions: Although non-native accents reduce speech intelligibility, the CSD features can accurately characterize speech impairment, which is not always possible in the clinical examination. Findings support using CSD for monitoring Parkinson's disease.

© 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: Academic Press, 2019
Keywords
Dysphonia, Dysprosody, Parkinson's disease, Speech processing, Tele-monitoring
National Category
Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41003 (URN)10.1016/j.csl.2019.101047 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-11-21 Created: 2019-11-21 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
Parker, J. & Lundgren, L. E. (2019). Pedal to the Metal: Velocity and Power in High Level Golfers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pedal to the Metal: Velocity and Power in High Level Golfers
2019 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In most rotational power assessments, discrete variables are used for subsequent examination; however, movements are continuous, and data can be collected in time series. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the velocity- and power-time series characteristics of a standing rotation test and identify relationships with golf performance. Thirty-one golfers performed a golfspecific rotation test (GSRT) with 3 different resistances (6, 10, and 14 kg) in a robotic engine system. Time series of velocity and power was calculated from the raw data, and each repetition was then normalized to 0–100%. Principal component analyses (PCAs) were performed on velocity and power waveforms. The PCA used an eigenvalue analysis of the data covariance matrix. The relationship between clubhead speed (CHS) and all principal components (PC) was examined using linear regression. Ten velocity parameters and 6 power parameters explained 80% of the variance in the data. For velocity, the first 2 PCs identified both magnitude and phase shift features while PCs 3–5 identified difference features. For power, the first 2 PCs identified both magnitude and phase shift features, the third PC identified a phase shift feature, and the fourth PC identified a difference feature. The highest relationship with CHS was shown for GSRT with 14 kg in PC2 for power (R2 5 0.48, p , 0.001). The PCA of the GSRT power test could distinguish intraindividual differences, external loads, and sex-based differences. Athletes should focus on accelerating smoothly through the movement, particularly with heavier loads, and not pulling aggressively at the beginning of the rotational AU3 movement to achieve maximum power. Copyright © 2019 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2019
Keywords
principal component analysis, time series, golf, athlete assessment
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41088 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0000000000003357 (DOI)31490426 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 2012/0319
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved
Parker, J. & Lundgren, L. (2018). Surfing the Waves of the CMJ: Are There between-Sport Differences in the Waveform Data?. Sports, 6(4), 1-12, Article ID 168.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surfing the Waves of the CMJ: Are There between-Sport Differences in the Waveform Data?
2018 (English)In: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1-12, article id 168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ability to analyse countermovement jump (CMJ) waveform data using statistical methods, like principal component analysis, can provide additional information regarding the different phases of the CMJ, compared to jump height or peak power alone. The aim of this study was to investigate the between-sport force-time curve differences in the CMJ. Eighteen high level golfers (male = 10, female = 8) and eighteen high level surfers (male = 10, female = 8) performed three separate countermovement jumps on a force platform. Time series of data from the force platform was normalized to body weight and each repetition was then normalized to 0–100 percent. Principal component analyses (PCA) were performed on force waveforms and the first six PCs explained 35% of the variance in force parameters. The main features of the movement cycles were characterized by magnitude (PC1 and PC5), waveform (PC2 and PC4), and phase shift features (PC3). Surf athletes differ in their CMJ technique and show a greater negative centre of mass displacement when compared to golfers (PC1), although these differences are not necessarily associated with greater jump height. Principal component 5 demonstrated the largest correlation with jump height (R2  = 0.52). Further studies are recommended in this area, to reveal which features of the CMJ thatrelate to jumping performance, and sport specific adaptations. © 2018 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2018
Keywords
force-time, jump testing, kinetic assessment, principal component analysis, vertical jump
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38530 (URN)10.3390/sports6040168 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 2012/0319
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Farley, O. R. .., Secomb, J. L., Raymond, E. R., Lundgren, L. E., Ferrier, B. K., Abbiss, C. R. & Sheppard, J. M. (2018). Workloads of Competitive Surfing: Work-to-Relief Ratios, Surf-Break Demands, and Updated Analysis. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 32(10), 2939-2948
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workloads of Competitive Surfing: Work-to-Relief Ratios, Surf-Break Demands, and Updated Analysis
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 32, no 10, p. 2939-2948Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study provides an in-depth descriptive and quantitative time-motion analysis of competitive surfing, using Global Positioning System (GPS) units and video synchronization, which serves to extend upon the results of Farley, Harris, and Kilding (Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, 7 [2012]). In addition, comparisons between locations and surfers competing in the same heats were performed. Global Positioning System and video data were collected from 41 male competitive surfers (23.2 6 6.1 years, 71 6 10.3 kg, 177.2 6 6.4 cm) participating in 3 professional domestic surfing events, with competitive heats of 20-minute duration. Fifty data sets were analyzed across the 3 competitions, with velocities and distances covered, proportion of time spent performing various surfing activities, and total work-to-relief ratio determined. Results revealed surfers paddled 44% of the total time, followed by stationary periods (42%). Surfers performed at a significantly (p < 0.05) higher work-to- relief ratio (1.7:1) at the Beach-break (an exposed beach) com- pared with point-break 1 and 2 (waves breaking around a rocky point). Point-breaks 1 and 2 had longer continuous durations of paddling, with significantly longer rides at point-break 1 over the Beach-break (p < 0.01) and point-break 2 (p < 0.01). The average maximal speed (24.8 km/h) from point-break 2 was significantly faster than point-break 1 (p < 0.01) and Beach- break (p < 0.05). This information should influence surfing drills and conditioning methods to prepare these athletes for the dis- parate demands, such as training for a point-break competition involving longer durations of continuous paddling and short, high-intensity workloads for a Beach-break. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
Keywords
exercise durations, GPS, time-motion analysis, performance analysis
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37760 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0000000000002659 (DOI)29912078 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-22 Created: 2018-08-22 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
Farley, O. R. L., Secomb, J. L., Raymond, E., Lundgren, L., Ferrier, B., Abbiss, C. R. & Sheppard, J. (2018). Workloads of Competitive Surfing: Work-to-Relief Ratios, Surf-Break Demands, and Updated Analysis. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 32(10), 2939-2948
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workloads of Competitive Surfing: Work-to-Relief Ratios, Surf-Break Demands, and Updated Analysis
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 32, no 10, p. 2939-2948Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study provides an in-depth descriptive and quantitative time-motion analysis of competitive surfing, using Global Positioning System (GPS) units and video synchronization, which serves to extend upon the results of Farley, Harris, and Kilding (Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, 7 [2012]). In addition, comparisons between locations and surfers competing in the same heats were performed. Global Positioning System and video data were collected from 41 male competitive surfers (23.2 ± 6.1 years, 71 ± 10.3 kg, 177.2 ± 6.4 cm) participating in 3 professional domestic surfing events, with competitive heats of 20-minute duration. Fifty data sets were analyzed across the 3 competitions, with velocities and distances covered, proportion of time spent performing various surfing activities, and total work-to-relief ratio determined. Results revealed surfers paddled 44% of the total time, followed by stationary periods (42%). Surfers performed at a significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher work-to-relief ratio (1.7:1) at the beach-break (an exposed beach) compared with point-break 1 and 2 (waves breaking around a rocky point). Point-breaks 1 and 2 had longer continuous durations of paddling, with significantly longer rides at point-break 1 over the beach-break (p ≤ 0.01) and point-break 2 (p ≤ 0.01). The average maximal speed (24.8 km·h−1) from point-break 2 was significantly faster than point-break 1 (p ≤ 0.01) and beach-break (p ≤ 0.05). This information should influence surfing drills and conditioning methods to prepare these athletes for the disparate demands, such as training for a point-break competition involving longer durations of continuous paddling and short, high-intensity workloads for a beach-break. © 2018 National Strength and Conditioning Association

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2018
Keywords
sport sciences, surfing, performance analysis
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41076 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0000000000002659 (DOI)000454031900030 ()29912078 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059828921 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-03 Created: 2019-12-03 Last updated: 2019-12-03
Lundgren, L., Zügner, R., Tranberg, R., Brorsson, S. & Osvalder, A.-L. (2017). Effect of stance width on kinematics of laboratory landings with fixed feet on a kiteboard. In: : . Paper presented at Congress of the European Society of Biomechanics (ESB), Seville, Spain, July 2-5, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of stance width on kinematics of laboratory landings with fixed feet on a kiteboard
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35162 (URN)
Conference
Congress of the European Society of Biomechanics (ESB), Seville, Spain, July 2-5, 2017
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports
Note

Funding: Swedish Research Council for Sport Science, and the Gothenburg Sports Test Centre

Available from: 2017-10-06 Created: 2017-10-06 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Secomb, J. L., Farley, O. R., Nimphius, S., Lundgren, L. E., Tran, T. T. & Sheppard, J. M. (2017). The training-specific adaptations resulting from resistance training, gymnastics and plyometric training, and non-training in adolescent athletes. International journal of sports science & coaching, 12(6), 762-773
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The training-specific adaptations resulting from resistance training, gymnastics and plyometric training, and non-training in adolescent athletes
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2017 (English)In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 762-773Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although previous research has investigated the training-specific adaptations to training in adults, there is a paucity of research aimed at investigating these adaptations in adolescent athletes. As such, adolescent athletes’ training-specific adaptations from three different training interventions were investigated in this study. Sixteen adolescent athletes participated in this study, whereby eight performed both training interventions and eight the non-training control. Pre- and post-testing was performed for each intervention with the testing battery: ultrasonography of the vastus lateralis and lateral gastrocnemius, countermovement jump, squat jump, and isometric mid-thigh pull. The resistance training group had large significant increases in isometric mid-thigh pull relative peak force (p < 0.01, g = 0.85 (−0.01, 1.71)) and vastus lateralis fascicle length (p = 0.04, g = 0.94 (0.07, 1.80)). The gymnastics and plyometric group demonstrated large significant changes in vastus lateralis pennation angle (p = 0.03, g = −0.94 (−1.81, −0.08)) and fascicle length (p = 0.03, g = 1.07 (0.19, 1.95)), and moderate significant increases in lateral gastrocnemius thickness (p = 0.01, g = 0.63 (−0.21, 1.47)) and eccentric leg stiffness (p = 0.03, g = 0.60 (−0.24, 1.44)). No significant changes were observed for any variables in the non-training group. The resistance training evoked increases in lower-body force producing capabilities, whereas the gymnastics and plyometric training evoked changes in muscle structure and inherent muscle qualities. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
Keywords
Muscle structure, strength, jumping performance, power, muscle architecture
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36560 (URN)10.1177/1747954117727810 (DOI)000416360100007 ()2-s2.0-85040937383 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, L., Brorsson, S. & Osvalder, A.-L. (2012). Comfort aspects important for the performance and safety of kitesurfing. Paper presented at IEA 2012: 18th World congress on Ergonomics - Designing a sustainable future, Recife, Brazil, 12-16 February, 2012. Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, 41(Suppl. 1), 1221-1225
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comfort aspects important for the performance and safety of kitesurfing
2012 (English)In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 1221-1225Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Equipment used in sports is of great importance, especially when the equipment is in direct contact with the athlete or is important for safety. In the sport kitesurfing environmental factors and the equipment design are crucial for the comfort and safety. The participants’ choice and opinion of equipment can show which factors are considered most important for the performance and to reduce risk for injury. This study has evaluated self-reported information from the participants about what equipment they use, comfort of the equipment and if the equipment has contributed to any injuries. The methods used were questionnaires (n=206) and interviews (n=17), which in combination allows to assess the problem both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results showed that supported leading edge kites are most frequently used, with a waist harness and foot straps to attach the feet. The choice of kite type was mainly based on the discipline of riding for the respondent. Some issues concerning comfort of riding and injury risk the respondents did relate to the design of harness and foot straps. The information from this study can be used for development strategies for industry manufacturers and for further studies in the area of equipment design and biomechanics. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2012
Keywords
sport equipment, kitesurfing, injury risk, product comfort
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-19725 (URN)10.3233/WOR-2012-0306-1221 (DOI)000306361801054 ()22316886 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84859837158 (Scopus ID)
Conference
IEA 2012: 18th World congress on Ergonomics - Designing a sustainable future, Recife, Brazil, 12-16 February, 2012
Available from: 2012-10-04 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, L., Zügner, R., Tranberg, R., Osvalder, A.-L. & Brorsson, S. (2012). Normalizing stance width. In: Kylie Tucker, Bianca Butler and Paul W Hodges (Ed.), Neuroplasticity, Motor control, Cutting-Edge Technology & Rehabilitation: Proceedings of the XIXth Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology & Kinesiology. Paper presented at ISEK 2012: XIXth Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology & Kinesiology, 19-21 July 2012, Brisbane, Australia (pp. 221-221). Brisbane: NHMRC Centre of Clinical Research Excellence in Spinal Pain, Injury and Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Normalizing stance width
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2012 (English)In: Neuroplasticity, Motor control, Cutting-Edge Technology & Rehabilitation: Proceedings of the XIXth Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology & Kinesiology / [ed] Kylie Tucker, Bianca Butler and Paul W Hodges, Brisbane: NHMRC Centre of Clinical Research Excellence in Spinal Pain, Injury and Health , 2012, p. 221-221Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: In previous studies, stance widths are most often determined as a percentage of shoulder width, where 70% of shoulder width is considered a narrow stance width and 140% of shoulder width is considered a wide stance width. A few studies have also normalized stance width to the width of the hips (distance between trochanters). However, there are also a possibility to normalize stance width in relation to the length of the lower extremities, since this variable might not change as much in dynamic situations and may correlate higher to the angle of the lower extremity in a frontal plane. AIM: This study aims to compare measurements of stance width when normalized to shoulder width, hip width and leg length for three different stance widths with feet attached to a board. METHOD: Motion capture (Qualisys, 16 Oqus-cameras) was used to measure 7 active male kitesurfers with their feet attached to a kiteboard (136 cm). They were 20-28 years old, in average 180 cm (SD=7 cm) and 78 kg (SD=7 kg). The subjects were standing with three different stance widths, using the same external rotation (20° bilaterally). Markers were attached to shoulders (acromion processes), knee joint lines, hips (trochanter major), heels (mid-posterior of calcaneus) and ankles (lateral and medial malleoli). Stance width was measured as the distance between the two medial ankle markers and normalized towards the distances between (1) the shoulder markers, (2) the hip markers and knee marker plus knee marker and lateral ankle marker and (3) the right and left hip marker. Furthermore, the angle of an extended lower extremity towards a vertical line in the frontal plane was measured. All measurements were done twice, and SPSS 20 was used for data analysis of correlation (Pearson’s r). RESULTS: The measured stance widths between ankles were 39.9 cm, 43.6 cm, and 48 cm (SD=1.2-1.4) for all subjects. The correlations (r) between the angle of the leg towards a vertical line and normalized stance width for the three normalization variables were: (1) 0.79, (2) 0.96 and (3) 0.93. All of the correlations were significant at a level of p>0.01. CONCLUSION: The results show that the variables hip or leg length would be preferred to use when normalizing stance width for young male athletes, standing in wide stance widths. Further studies using a greater number of subjects, more stance widths and a more heterogeneous group are suggested for the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brisbane: NHMRC Centre of Clinical Research Excellence in Spinal Pain, Injury and Health, 2012
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-19726 (URN)978-0-646-58228-3 (ISBN)
Conference
ISEK 2012: XIXth Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology & Kinesiology, 19-21 July 2012, Brisbane, Australia
Available from: 2012-09-25 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2513-3040

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