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Friel, R., Gerling-Gedin, M., Nilsson, E. & Andreasson, B. P. (2019). 3D Printed Radar Lenses with Anti-Reflective Structures. Designs, 3(2), Article ID 28.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Printed Radar Lenses with Anti-Reflective Structures
2019 (English)In: Designs, E-ISSN 2411-9660, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine if 3D printed lenses with wavelength specific anti-reflective (AR) surface structures would improve beam intensity and thus radar efficiency for a Printed Circuit Board (PCB)-based 60 GHz radar. This would have potential for improved low-cost radar lenses for the consumer product market. Methods: A hyperbolic lens was designed in 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) software and was then modified with a wavelength specified AR structure. Electromagnetic computer simulation was performed on both the ‘smooth’ and ‘AR structure’ lenses and compared to actual 60 GHz radar measurements of 3D printed polylactic acid (PLA) lenses. Results: The simulation results showed an increase of 10% in signal intensity of the AR structure lens over the smooth lens. Actual measurement showed an 8% increase in signal of the AR structure lens over the smooth lens. Conclusions: Low cost and readily available Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) 3D printing has been shown to be capable of printing an AR structure coated hyperbolic lens for millimeter wavelength radar applications. These 3D Printed AR structure lenses are effective in improving radar measurements over non-AR structure lenses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
radar, 3D printing, lenses, anti-reflective coatings, millimeter wave radar, simulation, additive manufacturing, quasi-optics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39695 (URN)10.3390/designs3020028 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 2016/0303
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-07-31Bibliographically approved
Hagström, A. L., Vass, L., Liu, F., Gerling, M., Karlsson, P.-O., Nilsson, E. & Andreasson, B. P. (2018). An iterative approach to determine the refractive index of 3D printed 60GHz PLA lenses. In: Proceedings of the 14th Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC 2018): . Paper presented at Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference 2018, LAPC 2018, Loughborough, United Kingdom, 12-13 November, 2018. Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An iterative approach to determine the refractive index of 3D printed 60GHz PLA lenses
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 14th Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC 2018), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes an iterative approach to determine quasi-optical properties of standard 3D printer filament material to, in an inexpensive and fast way, construct focusing lenses for millimetre wave systems. Results from three lenses with different focal lengths are shown and discussed. The real part of the permittivity at 60GHz for polylactic acid (PLA) is in this paper determined to be εr=2.74. © 2018 Institution of Engineering and Technology. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE, 2018
Series
IET Conference Publications ; CP746
Keywords
Additive manufacturing, radar, lenses, quasi-optics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38454 (URN)10.1049/cp.2018.1480 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061380873 (Scopus ID)978-1-78561-969-4 (ISBN)
Conference
Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference 2018, LAPC 2018, Loughborough, United Kingdom, 12-13 November, 2018
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160303
Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Ernst, R., Nilsson, E. & Viberg, P.-A. (2016). 60GHz Vital Sign Radar using 3D-printed Lens. In: 2016 IEEE SENSORS: . Paper presented at 15th IEEE Sensors Conference, SENSORS 2016; Convention Center at the Caribe Royale Hotel, Orlando; United States; 30 October 2016 through 2 November 2016. Piscataway: IEEE, Article ID 7808774.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>60GHz Vital Sign Radar using 3D-printed Lens
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE SENSORS, Piscataway: IEEE, 2016, article id 7808774Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is an increased interest in contact-less vital sign monitoring methods as they offer higher flexibility to the individual being observed. Recent industrial development enabled radar functionality to be packed in single-chip solutions, decreasing application complexity and speeding up designs. Within this paper, a vital sign radar has been developed utilizing a recently released 60GHz frequency modulated continuous wave single-chip radar in combination with 3D-printed quasi-optics. The electronics development has been focused on compactness and high system integration using a low cost design process. The final experiments prove that the radar is capable of tracking human respiration rate and heartbeat at the same time from a distance of 1m.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: IEEE, 2016
Series
IEEE Sensors, ISSN 1930-0395
Keywords
3D printers, Frequency modulation, Patient monitoring, Radar, Tracking radar
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Embedded Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35654 (URN)10.1109/ICSENS.2016.7808774 (DOI)000399395700361 ()2-s2.0-85010992192 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-8287-5 (ISBN)978-1-4799-8288-2 (ISBN)
Conference
15th IEEE Sensors Conference, SENSORS 2016; Convention Center at the Caribe Royale Hotel, Orlando; United States; 30 October 2016 through 2 November 2016
Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, E. & Svensson, C. (2014). Power Consumption of Integrated Low-Power Receivers. IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, 4(3), 273-283
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Power Consumption of Integrated Low-Power Receivers
2014 (English)In: IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, ISSN 2156-3357, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 273-283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the advent of Internet of Things (IoT) it has become clear that radio-frequency (RF) designers have to be aware of power constraints, e.g., in the design of simplistic ultra-low power receivers often used as wake-up radios (WuRs). The objective of this work, one of the first systematic studies of power bounds for RF-systems, is to provide an overview and intuitive feel for how power consumption and sensitivity relates for low-power receivers. This was done by setting up basic circuit schematics for different radio receiver architectures to find analytical expressions for their output signal-to-noise ratio including power consumption, bandwidth, sensitivity, and carrier frequency. The analytical expressions and optimizations of the circuits give us relations between dc-energy-per-bit and receiver sensitivity, which can be compared to recent published low-power receivers. The parameter set used in the analysis is meant to reflect typical values for an integrated 90 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor fabrication processes, and typical small sized RF lumped components.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2014
Keywords
Metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS), Internet of things (IoT), low noise, low-power, receiver, wake-up radio (WuR)
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27406 (URN)10.1109/JETCAS.2014.2337151 (DOI)000342163700004 ()2-s2.0-84907196958 (Scopus ID)
Note

Article number: 6866244

Available from: 2015-01-05 Created: 2015-01-05 Last updated: 2015-02-18Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, E. & Svensson, C. (2013). Ultra Low Power Wake-Up Radio Using Envelope Detector and Transmission Line Voltage Transformer. IEEE JOURNAL ON EMERGING AND SELECTED TOPICS IN CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, 3(1), 5-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultra Low Power Wake-Up Radio Using Envelope Detector and Transmission Line Voltage Transformer
2013 (English)In: IEEE JOURNAL ON EMERGING AND SELECTED TOPICS IN CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, ISSN 2156-3357, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 5-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An ultra-low power wake-up radio receiver using no oscillators is described. The radio utilizes an envelope detector followed by a baseband amplifier and is fabricated in a 130-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. The receiver is preceded by a passive radio-frequency voltage transformer, also providing 50 Omega antenna matching, fabricated as transmission lines on the FR4 chip carrier. A sensitivity of -47 dBm with 200 kb/s on-off keying modulation is measured at a current consumption of 2.3 mu A from a 1 V supply. No trimming is used. The receiver accepts a dBm continuous wave blocking signal, or modulated blockers 6 dB below the sensitivity limit, with no loss of sensitivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2013
Keywords
Blocking signal, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), envelope detector sensitivity, radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultra low power, wake-up radio, wireless sensor networks
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Telecommunications Communication Systems Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35454 (URN)10.1109/JETCAS.2013.2242777 (DOI)000337788400002 ()2-s2.0-84874950891 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2017-11-22Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, E., Nilsson, B. & Järpe, E. (2011). A Pharmaceutical Anti-counterfeiting Method Using Time Controlled Numeric Tokens. In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications. Paper presented at 2011 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications (pp. 335-339). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Pharmaceutical Anti-counterfeiting Method Using Time Controlled Numeric Tokens
2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2011, p. 335-339Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An anti-counterfeit and authentication method usingtime controlled numeric tokens enabling a secure logistic chain ispresented. Implementation of the method is illustrated with apharmaceutical anti-counterfeit system. The method uses activeRFID technology in combination with product seal. Authenticityis verified by comparing time controlled ID-codes, i.e. numerictokens, stored in RFID tags and by identical numeric tokensstored in a secure database. The pharmaceutical products areprotected from the supplier to the pharmacist, with thepossibility to extend the authentication out to the end customer.The ability of the method is analyzed by discussion of severalpossible scenarios. It is shown that an accuracy of 99.9% tellingthe customer she has an authentic product is achieved by the useof 11-bit ID-code strings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2011
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-16341 (URN)10.1109/RFID-TA.2011.6068659 (DOI)2-s2.0-82155181989 (Scopus ID)978-1-4577-0028-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2011 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications
Available from: 2011-09-27 Created: 2011-09-26 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, E. & Svensson, C. (2011). Envelope Detector Sensitivity and Blocking Characteristics. In: 2011 20th European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD): . Paper presented at 20th European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD 2011), Linköping, Sweden, August 29-31, 2011 (pp. 773-776). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, Article ID 6043845.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Envelope Detector Sensitivity and Blocking Characteristics
2011 (English)In: 2011 20th European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2011, p. 773-776, article id 6043845Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents analytical expressions for the sensitivity of a low power envelope detector driven by a weak RF signal in the presence of a blocking signal. The envelope detector has been proposed for low power Wake-Up radios in applications such as RFID and wireless sensor systems. The theoretical results are verified with simulations of a modern short channel MOS transistor in a commonly used circuit topology. A discussion around a tutorial example of a radio frontend, consisting of an LNA and a detector, is presented. It is shown that the sensitivity of a low power envelope detector can reach -62 dBm with a low power LNA and in presence of a CW blocker. © 2011 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2011
Keywords
Analytical expressions, Blocking signal, Envelope detectors, Low Power, RF signal, Short channels, Theoretical result, Wake-up radio, Wireless sensor system, Circuit theory; Detector circuits, Electric network topology, Transistor transistor logic circuits, Detectors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-16342 (URN)10.1109/ECCTD.2011.6043845 (DOI)2-s2.0-80155123439 (Scopus ID)978-1-4577-0618-9 (ISBN)978-1-4577-0617-2 (ISBN)978-1-4577-0616-5 (ISBN)
Conference
20th European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD 2011), Linköping, Sweden, August 29-31, 2011
Funder
ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2011-09-27 Created: 2011-09-26 Last updated: 2018-07-11Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, E., Nilsson, B., Bengtsson, L., Svensson, B., Wiberg, P.-A. & Bilstrup, U. (2010). A low power-long range active RFID-system consisting of active RFID backscatter transponders. In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications (RFID-TA). Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications, RFID-TA 2010, 17 - 19 June 2010 Guangzhou, China (pp. 26-30). Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A low power-long range active RFID-system consisting of active RFID backscatter transponders
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2010 (English)In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications (RFID-TA), Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 26-30Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a novel active radio frequency identification system consisting of transponders with low complexity, low power consumption, and long system reading range. The transponder’s low complexity and small circuit integration area indicate that the production cost is comparable to the one of a passive tag. The hardware keystone is the transponder’s radio wake-up transceiver, which is a single oscillator with very low power consumption. The communication protocol, based on frequency signalling binary tree, contributes to the low complexity of the tag architecture. More than 1500 tags can be read per second. The average transponder ID read-out delay is 319 ms when there are 1000 transponders within reach of the interrogator. The calculated expected life time for a transponder is estimated to be almost three years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010
Keywords
Active RFID, Circuit integration, Communication protocols, Expected life, Long range, Low complexity, Low Power, Low-power consumption, Passive tags, Production cost, Radio frequency identification systems, Reading range, Single oscillators
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-5711 (URN)10.1109/RFID-TA.2010.5529854 (DOI)2-s2.0-77956447687 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-6698-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications, RFID-TA 2010, 17 - 19 June 2010 Guangzhou, China
Note

©2010 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

Available from: 2010-09-27 Created: 2010-09-14 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, E., Linnér, P., Sikö, A., Bilstrup, U. & Wiberg, P.-A. (2010). A new CMOS radio for low power RFID applications. In: Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications : June 17-19, 2010 : Dong Fang Hotel, Guangzhou, China.. Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications, RFID-TA 2010, 17 - 19 June 2010 Guangzhou, China (pp. 106-111). Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new CMOS radio for low power RFID applications
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2010 (English)In: Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications : June 17-19, 2010 : Dong Fang Hotel, Guangzhou, China., Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010, p. 106-111Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A novel radio receiver circuit, functioning as a tuned active, detecting antenna, is described. The receiver is suggested to be part of a new radio system with the potential of competing with the range capability of active RFID-tags and, through its low power and long lifetime, with passive RFID-tags. The circuit is outlined and the functionality is verified by simulations and measurements.

A 24 MHz discrete prototype showed better than -70 dBm sensitivity and 5 kHz bandwidth, with a power consumption of 102 μW. Simulations of a monolithic implementation were performed at 2.5 GHz. The detector is modeled by using 180 nm CMOS transistors. In simulations the power consumption for the detector is below 125 μW at a sensitivity of -83 dBm and a bandwidth of 9 MHz.

Our conclusion is that this novel simple circuit architecture is well suited for monolithic implementation of a low power transceiver.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2010
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-5712 (URN)10.1109/RFID-TA.2010.5529870 (DOI)2-s2.0-77956439385 (Scopus ID)978-142446700-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technology and Applications, RFID-TA 2010, 17 - 19 June 2010 Guangzhou, China
Note

©2010 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

Available from: 2010-09-23 Created: 2010-09-14 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, E. & Malmberg, D. (2008). Using microwave interferometry to improve the blast furnace operation. In: SCANMET III: 3rd International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking : 8-11 June 2008, Luleå, Sweden : Nordkalotten Hotel & Conference. Vol. 1.. Paper presented at SCANMET III, 3rd International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, 8-11 June 2008, Nordkalotten Hotel & Conference, Luleå, Sweden (pp. 617-626). Luleå: MEFOS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using microwave interferometry to improve the blast furnace operation
2008 (English)In: SCANMET III: 3rd International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking : 8-11 June 2008, Luleå, Sweden : Nordkalotten Hotel & Conference. Vol. 1., Luleå: MEFOS , 2008, p. 617-626Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There are many known technologies that can be used to monitor surfaces, but the most of them requires a transparent environment to be functional. In the Blast Furnace where the environment is full of dust and fume at high temperatures those technologies are not applicable.

With a functional technology in such an environment the burden surface could be analysed and monitored, which in its extension would lead to a way to control the charging operation in the BF and thus a better use of raw material and also a better gas utilization.

In this paper we will discuss the use of microwave technology as one technology with the potential to create a topographical image of the burden surface in the Blast Furnace during operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: MEFOS, 2008
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-5702 (URN)978-91-633-2269-3 (ISBN)978-91-633-2270-9 (ISBN)
Conference
SCANMET III, 3rd International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, 8-11 June 2008, Nordkalotten Hotel & Conference, Luleå, Sweden
Available from: 2010-09-27 Created: 2010-09-14 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Projects
Cohabitant Radars [2016-03940_Vinnova]; Halmstad University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2783-7460

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