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Dohlsten, J., Barker-Ruchti, N. & Lindgren, E.-C. (2019). Caring as sustainable coaching in elite athletics: benefits and challenges. Sport Coaching Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Caring as sustainable coaching in elite athletics: benefits and challenges
2019 (English)In: Sport Coaching Review, ISSN 2164-0629Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Coaches in elite sport must ensure a balance between performance, high pressure and well-being. A caring approach, based on a coach’s commitment to caring for athletes, has the potential to create such a balance and sustainability. The aim of this study was to identify coaches’ caring and problematise their ethics of care in relation to sustainability. We draw on and integrate the theoretical concept of caring into a conception of (un-) sustainable sport. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven Swedish elite athletics coaches. Results show that coaches’ ethics of care is important for creating sustainable elite athletics practices, but that caring also conflicts with sustainability thinking if coaches do not base their actions on practical wisdom and moral and ethical dilemmas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Caring, sustainability, coaching, practical wisdom, athletics
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38493 (URN)10.1080/21640629.2018.1558896 (DOI)
Note

Funding: the Gothenburg Athletics Federation

Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-12-04 Last updated: 2019-01-02Bibliographically approved
Håman, L., Prell, H. & Lindgren, E.-C. (2019). Personal trainer´s health advice to clients in the fitness gym. In: : . Paper presented at AIESEP World Congress, AIESEP2019, New York, USA, June 19-22, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personal trainer´s health advice to clients in the fitness gym
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fitness gyms have become popular places for physical activity. Several individuals exercise at gyms and an increasing number hire a personal trainer (PT). PTs have an important role in offering advice and exercise programs as well as detecting unhealthy behaviors among their clients. Norms regarding exercise habits in the gyms appear to be strongly gendered, which may influence PTs’ advice. The purpose of this presentation is to describe PTs’ health advice to clients. In total, 19 PTs, nine women and ten men, aged 23 – 47 years were recruited through purposive sampling. An explorative design was employed and seven focus group discussions were carried out. These were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis guided by a gender perspective. The findings suggest that PTs had a gendered health advice approach towards women regarding exercise and diet. The PTs gave reactive health advice especially to women showing unhealthy exercise and eating behaviors in order to correct these unhealthy behaviors. The specific advice involved a) eating more and exercising less, b) focusing on performance rather than appearance and c) avoiding heavy weight lifting. However, the PTs avoided to advise men showing similar unhealthy training and eating behaviors. The PTs also had a transgressive health advice approach. They advised both women and men to a) adopt a relaxed attitude to exercise and diet, b) to prioritize and rationalize their exercise and diet and c) to eat a natural diet. The gendered health advice approach might give women and men different opportunities to improve their physical fitness, health and well-being. Men with unhealthy behaviors might not be supported by the PTs, which adversely can affect men's health. We recommend that gym managers and PT-educators increase their awareness about the importance of providing equal opportunities for women and men to improve their physical fitness and health.

Keywords
diet, exercise, fitness gym, gender, health advice, personal trainer
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39468 (URN)
Conference
AIESEP World Congress, AIESEP2019, New York, USA, June 19-22, 2019
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2018-0064
Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-24 Last updated: 2019-09-25Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, L., Fröberg, A., Korp, P., Larsson, C., Berg, C. & Lindgren, E.-C. (2019). Possibilities and Challenges in Developing and Implementing an Empowerment-based School-Intervention in a Swedish Disadvantaged Community. Health Promotion International
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Possibilities and Challenges in Developing and Implementing an Empowerment-based School-Intervention in a Swedish Disadvantaged Community
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2019 (English)In: Health Promotion International, ISSN 0957-4824, E-ISSN 1460-2245Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we describe and critically reflect on the possibilities and challenges of developing and implementing an empowerment-based school intervention regarding healthy food and physical activity (PA), involving participants from a Swedish multicultural area characterized by low socioeconomic status. The 2-year intervention was continually developed and implemented, as a result of cooperation and shared decision making among researchers and the participants. All 54 participants were seventh graders, and the intervention comprised health coaching, health promotion sessions and a Facebook group. We experienced that participants valued collaborating with peers, and that they took responsibility in codeveloping and implementing the intervention. Participants expressed feeling listened to, being treated with respect and taken seriously. However, we also experienced a number of barriers that challenged our initial intentions of aiding participation and ambition to support empowerment. Moreover, it was challenging to use structured group health coaching and to work with goal-setting in groups of participants with shared, and sometimes competing, goals, wishes and needs related to food and PA. Successful experiences from this intervention was the importance of acquiring a broad and deep understanding of the context and participants, being open to negotiating, as well as adjusting the intervention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019
Keywords
food, participation, physical activity, shared decision making, socioeconomic
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38804 (URN)10.1093/heapro/daz021 (DOI)
Note

The study received funding from the Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science at the University of Gothenburg and the Swedish Nutrition Foundation.

Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-05-21
Lindgren, E.-C., Haraldsson, K. & Håman, L. (2019). ‘Pulse for learning and health [PuLH]’ in primary school; pupil’s experiences. In: : . Paper presented at AIESEP World Congress, New York, USA, June 19-22, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>‘Pulse for learning and health [PuLH]’ in primary school; pupil’s experiences
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To improve academic performance and health in schoolchildren, the program Pulse for learning and health [PuLH] in Sweden has introduced moderate to vigorous physical activities [MVPA] three times a week (á 30 minutes). The teachers used a child-centered coaching approach, which has the child’s best interests in mind and focused on having fun. The objective of this contribution is to describe what Swedish pupils convey, using their own voices, about their experiences of participating in the school-based program PuLH. We have taken on children’s perspectives in order to be able to understand the children’s own culture. Eight schools in the Region of Jönköping, Sweden, have implemented PuLH. In total, 73 pupils (34 girls, 39 boys, grades 4-9) were recruited through purposive sampling. Thirteen focus group interviews (n=71) and individual interviews (n=2) were carried out. An explorative design was employed, in which data were categorized using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in four major themes, which we classify as ‘promotes academic performance’, ‘promotes a learning school environment’, ‘promotes health and well-being’, and ‘individual and structural barriers’. The pupils stated that they increased their working capacity, the classroom environment became more calm and peaceful, they got more cohesion and new friends, their needs and interest were in focus, they felt more alert and got in a better mood, they increased their physical competence, their habits became healthier and illness decreased. However, some of the pupils revealed individual and structural barriers, which reduced pleasure and motivation to participate in MVPA due to; poor planning and that they felt time pressure, felt uncomfortable showing their bodies and digital challenges. We recommend that schools take pupils’ interests and needs into consideration when planning for and implementing MVPA activities and not use MVPA as a 'quick fix' i.e. to solve complex problems regarding pupil's learning.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39471 (URN)
Conference
AIESEP World Congress, New York, USA, June 19-22, 2019
Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-24 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Mirskaya, M., Lindgren, E.-C. & Carlsson, I.-M. (2019). Ruined active life: Experiences of fertile women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse in daily physical active life. In: : . Paper presented at International Continence Society (ICS) 2019, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 3-6, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ruined active life: Experiences of fertile women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse in daily physical active life
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major public health problem. Symptomatic POP (sPOP) affects quality of life and implies an increased risk for surgery. Many women become symptomatic later in life. Existing research on sPOP predominantly concentrates on the effects of the condition on postmenopausal women. However, bothersome symptoms of POP may occur shortly after delivery. This paper provides insight into fertile women's daily physical active lives in order to better understand their situation and improve care for this group.

Aim: To explore how fertile women with symptomatic POP after vaginal delivery experience their daily physical active life.

Methods: An inductive, text-driven approach was taken, selecting thread posts from an internet forum written by 33 women. The data presented in this article stem from a larger empirical data that explored fertile women's experiences of symptomatic POP after vaginal delivery (VD). Data were processed using qualitative content analysis. The data consisted of chains of questions and answers or comments on the topic of sPOP, posted on an online forum by fertile women who had experienced sPOP after VD.          

Results: The theme “Ruined active life” showed that many of the fertile women experienced that their lives were ruined because of unexpected physical limitations caused by sPOP. They found themselves balancing being a parent and being disabled because of sPOP. Bothersome symptoms like vaginal heaviness, fullness, soreness and pain were aggravated by many basic daily activities, generating fear that any action involving physical activity might worsen the situation. The women were extremely scared that doing daily household chores and parenting, e.g. lifting and carrying the baby or using a carrycot, might aggravate the symptoms. Moreover, this fear restricted women from playing active games with their older children, such as helping them onto a swing, teaching them to ride a bike, and jumping on a trampoline. All these restrictions led to feelings of being inadequate mothers, resulting in frustration, sadness, anger, uncertainty and a growing sense of hopelessness.Another substantial result of this study addresses sport activities. For many fertile women, sports activities had played an important role before delivery, and now sPOP restricted them from it. The realisation that they could not continue engaging in sports at the same level of athletic performance as before delivery led to intense grief, anxiety and frustration. For instance, women had to give up running and high-intensity training. Some of them did not dare to participate in any activities at the gym. One of them had to quit her job as a training instructor. Giving up favourite activities that were a part of the women’s identity caused an identity crisis, leading to depression. They often expressed that they “just wanted their life back”, demonstrating an inability to accept the new situation. Discussions concerning exercise and safe workouts were very common in the thread. Women were desperate to find information and sought advice from healthcare providers regarding lifestyle changes and how to adjust physical activity in relation to sPOP. However, it was found to be difficult to access satisfactory, unambiguous information. Instead, information was inconsistent, unclear and difficult to understand. Although some healthcare providers were considered helpful and kind, unfortunately they lacked knowledge, which led to useless advice being given which often was not in line with the information that the women had found out by themselves from independent sources. For instance, one woman was encouraged to continue with life as usual and with exercises such as doing sit-ups in spite of her complaints about aggravating her symptoms by physical activity. The woman was told that “nothing would fall out” and in any case if it did happen she was in no danger. Moreover, the fertile women who sought professional help expressed that normalisation of sPOP as a condition was common among healthcare providers. On the contrary, women did not perceive the symptoms of POP as normal or natural, and the attitude of healthcare professionals was experienced as humiliating and discouraging and caused feelings of not being taken seriously. This led to mistrust, disappointment, frustration and criticism of healthcare professionals and the system.

Discussion: The fertile women in this study experienced failure to carry out their parental responsibilities, both physically and emotionally. Fear that activities such as lifting children or playing active games with them might worsen the symptoms led to emotional imbalance. This worry has reasonable grounds, owing to an assumption that increased load to the pelvic floor in the form of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) contributes to development of POP. It has also been shown that IAP increases during brisk walking and as a result of carrying things in a front carry position, which is used by postpartum women to carry their babies in car seats (1).

One of the main findings of this study was psychological suffering due to an inability to participate in high-intensity exercise, since for some women, exercise was a part of self-esteem and a natural part of life. It is well established that physical activity has positive effects on health. Moreover, moderate or vigorous physical activity such as brisk walking, cycling, tennis, swimming and running has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms postpartum (2). Some of the fertile women in this study suffered from anxiety and depression and would probably have benefited from participating in physical activity. However, they felt unsure about what kind of physical activities they could resume without worsening their symptoms and became disappointed when they faced a lack of understanding and competence among healthcare professionals in terms of advising suitable exercises. Likely recommendations regarding leisure-time physical activity for postpartum women with depression without sPOP must differ from those with sPOP. One such physical activity that has been found to be suitable for women with sPOP is basic Pilates exercises, which does not raise IAP and, for instance, is safe to recommend for women after POP surgery (3).

Conclusion and clinical implications: This study demonstrates that sPOP has a significant impact on fertile women’s active life. sPOP restricts daily and sports activities and affects the ability to fulfil everyday parental duties. In addition, the lack of information from healthcare providers regarding suitable physical activities adds more emotional stress and worsens the situation. It is of the utmost importance to acknowledge this problem. There is a need to develop guidelines for management of sPOP after VD, including information regarding safe lifting techniques and suitable exercises. Copyright © ICS 2019.

Keywords
pelvic organ prolapse, prolapse symptoms, quality of life
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39744 (URN)
Conference
International Continence Society (ICS) 2019, Gothenburg, Sweden, September 3-6, 2019
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-09-09
Fröberg, A., Jonsson, L., Berg, C., Lindgren, E.-C., Korp, P., Lindwall, M., . . . Larsson, C. (2018). Effects of an Empowerment-Based Health-Promotion School Intervention on Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Adolescents in a Multicultural Area. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(11), Article ID 2542.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of an Empowerment-Based Health-Promotion School Intervention on Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Adolescents in a Multicultural Area
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 11, article id 2542Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Physical activity (PA) decreases with age, and interventions are needed to promote PA during adolescence, especially, among those in low-socioeconomic status (SES) areas. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a two-year, empowerment-based health-promotion school intervention had any effects on changes in (a) moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), (b) sedentary time (SED), (c) exercise training (ET) frequency, and (d) ET duration, among adolescents. Participants (aged 12⁻13 years at baseline) from one intervention school and two control schools, were recruited from a multicultural area of Sweden, characterized by low-SES. During the course of the two-year intervention, a total of 135 participants (43% boys) were included in the study. The intervention was developed and implemented as a result of cooperation and shared decision-making among the researchers and the participants. MVPA and SED were measured with accelerometers, and ET frequency and duration was self-reported at the beginning of the seventh, eighth, and ninth grade, respectively. There were no significant effects of the two-year, empowerment-based health-promotion school intervention on changes in the accelerometer-measured MVPA and SED, or the self-reported ET frequency and duration, among the adolescents. Overall, the intervention was unsuccessful at promoting PA and reducing SED. Several possible explanations for the intervention's lack of effects are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2018
Keywords
empowerment, exercise, health promotion, participatory, physical activity, school, sedentary behavior
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38492 (URN)10.3390/ijerph15112542 (DOI)30428548 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056651266 (Scopus ID)
Projects
How-to-Act?
Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-12-04 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Holmberg, C., Larsson, C., Korp, P., Lindgren, E.-C., Jonsson, L., Fröberg, A., . . . Berg, C. (2018). Empowering aspects for healthy food and physical activity habits: adolescents’ experiences of a school-based intervention in a disadvantaged urban community. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 13(sup1: Equal Health), Article ID 1487759.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empowering aspects for healthy food and physical activity habits: adolescents’ experiences of a school-based intervention in a disadvantaged urban community
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 13, no sup1: Equal Health, article id 1487759Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose:

This study aimed to describe adolescents’ experiences of participating in a health-promoting school-based intervention regarding food and physical activity, with a focus on empowering aspects. 

Method:

The school was located in a urban disadvantaged community in Sweden, characterized by poorer self-reported health and lower life expectancy than the municipality average. Focus group interviews with adolescents (29 girls, 20 boys, 14–15 years) and their teachers (n = 4) were conducted two years after intervention. Data were categorized using qualitative content analysis. 

Results: 

A theme was generated, intersecting with all the categories: Gaining control over one’s health: deciding, trying, and practicing together, in new ways, using reflective tools. The adolescents appreciated influencing the components of the intervention and collaborating with peers in active learning activities such as practicing sports and preparing meals. They also reported acquiring new health information, that trying new activities was inspiring, and the use of pedometers and photo-food diaries helped them reflect on their health behaviours. The adolescents’ experiences were also echoed by their teachers. 

Conclusions: 

To facilitate empowerment and stimulate learning, health-promotion interventions targeting adolescents could enable active learning activities in groups, by using visualizing tools to facilitate self-reflection, and allowing adolescents to influence intervention activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Adolescence, empowerment, focus group interviews, food habits, health equity, health promotion, intervention, physical activity
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38485 (URN)10.1080/17482631.2018.1487759 (DOI)000459729600002 ()29972679 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85049570269 (Scopus ID)
Projects
How-to-Act?
Note

Funding: Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science at the University of Gothenburg & Swedish Nutrition Foundation

Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-12-04 Last updated: 2019-04-03Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, J., Winroth, J., Bremander, A., Haglund, E., Holmquist, M., Lindgren, E.-C., . . . Staland Nyman, C. (2018). Förändringsledarskap vid digital transformation inom vård och omsorg: En sammanfattande rapport från kompetensutvecklingsprojektet ”Trygg motivation och inspiration” i Kungsbacka kommun 2018. Halmstad
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förändringsledarskap vid digital transformation inom vård och omsorg: En sammanfattande rapport från kompetensutvecklingsprojektet ”Trygg motivation och inspiration” i Kungsbacka kommun 2018
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: , 2018. p. 49
Keywords
Digitalisering, förändringsledarskap, hälsa, arbetsmiljö, lärande, kompetensutveckling, aktionsforskning
National Category
Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38303 (URN)
Projects
HIcube Kompetenta vården
Funder
European Social Fund (ESF)
Available from: 2018-11-11 Created: 2018-11-11 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, E.-C. & Barker-Ruchti, N. (2017). Balancing performance-based expectations with a holistic perspective on coaching: a qualitative study of Swedish women’s national football team coaches’ practice experiences. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 12(1), Article ID 1358580.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balancing performance-based expectations with a holistic perspective on coaching: a qualitative study of Swedish women’s national football team coaches’ practice experiences
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1358580Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how an exclusive sample of women’s national football team coaches described how they implement careful coaching while facing social and organizational pressure to win medals.

Method: To consider coaches’ negotiations, we drew on Noddings’ concept of caring. Using an interpretive research paradigm, we conducted in-depth interviews with five Swedish women’s national football team coaches. An abductive approach was used to simultaneously process the theoretical framework of “ethics of care” and the empirical data.

Results: The coaches unanimously adopted a holistic perspective to coaching. The coaching strategies they described included promoting players’ development, well-being, and sustainable elite performance; listening to the players’ voices and engaging in dialogue; and creating a positive environment and promoting fair play.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that the women coaches, despite performance pressure, adopt caring coaching in the form of Noddings’ pedagogical modelling, dialogue, and confirmation strategies, and provide an example of how coaches can adopt caring, holistic, and athlete-centred coaching while working at the highest level of competitive sport and achieving competitive success. 

© 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Caring, coaching, holistic perspective, football, national team, women
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35137 (URN)10.1080/17482631.2017.1358580 (DOI)000407951700001 ()28812449 (PubMedID)
Projects
TOP-LEVEL WOMEN FOOTBALL COACHES: TRACING EXCEPTIONAL CAREER PATHWAYS
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, 2013-0048, 2014-0198
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, E.-C., Hildingh, C. & Linnér, S. (2017). Children’s stories about team selection: a discourse analysis. Leisure Studies, 36(5), 633-644
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s stories about team selection: a discourse analysis
2017 (English)In: Leisure Studies, ISSN 0261-4367, E-ISSN 1466-4496, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 633-644Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of our study was to identify and problematise messages and value principles visible in children’s stories about team selection in sport. To achieve this, we adopted a discourse analysis approach. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 children aged 10–11 years who participated in four team sports in 12 different Swedish sports clubs. Based on the children’s stories, the findings reveal two discourses of team selection: one participation/inclusion-oriented and one performance/ exclusion-oriented discourse in which four different forms of team selection work. The participation/inclusion-oriented discourse constructs sport as a fun game that involves all participating children. The performance/exclusionoriented discourse shows that coaches select the best children in the team to obtain the best chance of winning games. Some of the coaches have given conflicting messages that align with both discourses, which are revealed by both the girls’ and the boys’ voices in varying degrees. The findings also demonstrate that children’s reasons for playing sport are in harmony with the participation/inclusive-oriented discourse. This discourse represents a child’s perspective, promoting every child’s right to participate under the same conditions. However, the selection procedure in both discourses exhibits strong classification, since coaches are the ones who possess the power to select. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2017
Keywords
Children, children’s rights, discourse analysis, sport
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35138 (URN)10.1080/02614367.2016.1272624 (DOI)000410769900003 ()2-s2.0-85008392092 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8345-8994

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