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Ryan, P., Evers, N., Smith, A. & Andersson, S. (2019). Local horizontal network membership for accelerated global market reach. International Marketing Review, 36(1), 6-30
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local horizontal network membership for accelerated global market reach
2019 (English)In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 6-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain how some born global firms can leverage the rich social capital in their local (home country) horizontal network for accelerated international market entry and growth. Horizontal networks warrant separate attention from their vertical counterparts, which, along with those focussed on external international contexts, dominate most network studies in the realm of born global research.

Design/methodology/approach – The study utilises a multi-level qualitative approach in the study of a multi-firm population of animators in Ireland that, due to the small domestic market for their product, needed to pursue global customers from inception. The case study domain was purposely selected as a critical exemplar of a local horizontal network operating in a highly globalised industry. The authors collected data through in-depth interviews with 16 company founders. This primary interview data were complemented by interviews with staff at the apposite industry association and triangulated with secondary data on the local and global industry conditions, members’ international successes and awards.

Findings – The results demonstrate how active membership of a local horizontal network can be leveraged for the acquisition of international market knowledge and customers for born global ventures. This arises from the sharing of collective market knowledge and communal global customer information within the network to mutual benefit.

Originality/value – Although limited by the specific conditions in this highly globalised, non-competitiveindustry context, this study is unique in that it finds that cooperative interpersonal and inter-firm relationships embedded in a local horizontal social network, and mediated in part by an institutional support actor, emerge as important levers for a born global’s accelerated acquisition of foreign market knowledge and of global customers. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
Keywords
International marketing, Social capital, Intermediaries, Horizontal networks, Local networks
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38788 (URN)10.1108/IMR-03-2017-0061 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057023602 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2019-01-24Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, N. P. .., Laurell, H., Lindgren, J., Pehrsson, T., Andersson, S. & Svensson, G. (2018). A cross-country comparison and validation of firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices. Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, 18(3), 408-424
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A cross-country comparison and validation of firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices
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2018 (English)In: Corporate Governance : The International Journal of Effective Board Performance, ISSN 1472-0701, E-ISSN 1758-6054, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 408-424Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare and validate firms’ internal and external stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices across business settings. It aims to assess the validity and reliability of a stakeholder framework appearing in previous studies.

Design/methodology/approach: The study uses a questionnaire survey and a cross-industry sample consisting of the largest firms in corporate Sweden. Multivariate analysis tests the stakeholder framework. Each of the 294 key informants was initially identified and contacted by telephone, generating a response rate of 36.5 per cent.

Findings: The tested stakeholder framework appears valid and reliable across countries to assess the internal stakeholders of focal firms, as well as their up- and downstream, market and societal stakeholders. This study provides additional empirical support to categorize firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices.

Research limitations/implications: This study validates previous findings in terms of Swedish firms’ considerations of internal and external stakeholders in sustainable business practices in relation to one similar country (Norway) and one different country (Spain). The study also shows how the three countries perceive the focal company and societal stakeholders differently. Practical implications: The tested framework sheds light on focal firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices and elucidates the extent to which firms’ account for their internal and external stakeholders in sustainable business practices.

Originality/value: This study contributes to the development of valid and reliable stakeholder theory across contexts and through time. In particular, it contributes to the development of a valid and reliable framework to categorize firms’ stakeholder considerations in sustainable business practices. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Stakeholders, Corporate social responsibility, Supply chain management
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36493 (URN)10.1108/CG-07-2017-0131 (DOI)000433897200003 ()2-s2.0-85043459490 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Andersson, S., Aagerup, U., Awuah, G. B. & Wictor, I. (2018). Building Brand Personality in a Business-to-Business Context – the Case of Born Globals. In: : . Paper presented at The 22nd McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, 22-24 September, 2018, Halmstad, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building Brand Personality in a Business-to-Business Context – the Case of Born Globals
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Branding has for a long time been in focus in strategic decision making for firms in a business-to-consumer context. Brands has been used as a tool to differentiate products and position firms’ offers towards competitors. In a business-to business context branding has not been in focus in the same way. Strategic decisions have more dealt with technology innovation and market expansions. In recent times, a greater interest for brand building in a business to business (B2B) context has emerged, both in practice and academia, especially for globally active B2B firms that strive to create a unified look of their products and firms. The hard global competition has made it difficult to compete on product quality alone, services around the product and intangible features has been important parts of B2B firms’ offers. The B2B firms’ more complex offers can be incorporated under a common brand that differentiates the firms’ offer from competitors. Although that the practical importance of B2B branding has been acknowledge lately, research dealing with B2B branding is still relatively limited. Most studies on B2B branding attempt to describe what brands are, how they affect companies, or vice versa. Research on the process of B2B brand building is however scarce. Also, when B2B brands are in focus of a study, it is usually their tangible characteristics that are examined. In B2C brand literature, intangible aspects and, the metaphor to see the brand as a person is widely discussed (Aaker, 1997). However, there is very little research on brand as a person element in the B2B context. Brand personality is normally defined as the human characteristics associated with a brand, More research into the brand personality building processes in a B2B context are therefore needed. Following the above discussion this study’s aim is to investigate how brand personality is built in B2B companies.

A qualitative approach has been adopted to enable us to investigate, in-depth, an under-researched area (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010; and Yin, 1989) The key factor underpinning the selection of the two cases was conceptual relevance rather than representative grounds, so we used theoretical sampling (Miles and Huberman 1994). We combined secondary data research and field interviews and workshops with the CEOs in the case firms. The researchers constructed an interview-guide based on earlier literature and discussion in a workshop. Our aim and research question served as the basic structure for data analysis.  The study contributes to the literature by integrating theory on brand building from the marketing fields with the research dealing with the born global phenomenon discussed in the international entrepreneurship field.

Keywords
Born globals, Business to Business, Brand building. Brand personalities
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37789 (URN)
Conference
The 22nd McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, 22-24 September, 2018, Halmstad, Sweden
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2018-09-25Bibliographically approved
Andersson, S. & Servais, P. (2018). Different types of International New Ventures Based on Different Commercialization Processes in a Business-to-Business Context. In: : . Paper presented at The 22nd McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, 22-24 September, 2018, Halmstad, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different types of International New Ventures Based on Different Commercialization Processes in a Business-to-Business Context
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An emerging topic in the field of International Entrepreneurship (IE) is currently focused on international new ventures (INVs) and/or born-globals (Oviatt and McDougall, 1997; Madsen and Servais, 1997; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996) which are, by theoretic definition, start-ups that become international at inception or very shortly thereafter. More concretely, INVs have been previously defined as “a business organization that, from inception, seeks to derive significant competitive advantage from the use of resources and the sale of outputs in multiple countries” (Oviatt and McDougall, 1994: 49; McDougall et al., 1994:470). Quite similarly, Knight and Cavusgil (1996:11) conceptualise the born-global firm as ““small, [usually] technology-oriented companies that operate in international markets from the earliest days of their establishment”.

Even if the born global research has grown rapidly during the last decades, most studies have focused on entrepreneurs, resources and networks and only a few researchers are observant about the context in which the born global firms are established and thrives. Literature reviews in international entrepreneurship has shown that most research in this area is based on business to business firms (Jones et al, 2012). However, we have not found any studies which go deeper in the different customer-supplier relationships that exist in a B2B context.

Adaptation on B2B markets is important to make a relationship more productive, according to Hagberg-Anderson (2006).  There are structural factors, in the relationship between sellers and buyers which make different internationalization strategies more likely to succeed (Andersson, 2000).In this article we thoroughly discuss and review scientific articles that highlights the variation, differentiation and typology of international new venture. We complement this review with literature dealing with buyer-seller relationship in a B2B context. Based on these two strands on literature we develop a framework of different types of international new ventures in a business to business context. The framework gives theoretical contributions to the area of international entrepreneurship research but also managerial implication, showing how different types of relationships with customers make different internationalization strategies more or less likely to succeed.

Keywords
International new ventures, Business-to Business, Commercialization process
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37790 (URN)
Conference
The 22nd McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, 22-24 September, 2018, Halmstad, Sweden
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
Andersson, S., Evers, N. & Gliga, G. (2018). Entrepreneurial marketing and born global internationalisation in China. Qualitative Market Research, 21(2), 202-231
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial marketing and born global internationalisation in China
2018 (English)In: Qualitative Market Research, ISSN 1352-2752, E-ISSN 1758-7646, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 202-231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This study aims to explore the entrepreneurial marketing (EM) behaviour of Swedish born globals entering the Chinese market through their international networks. Drawing from the network theory of small firm internationalisation, this study is positioned in the domain of EM, and thus captures the relevance of EM behaviour to explain how born globals internationalise through their networks.

Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative case study approach of two Swedish born global companies active in the Chinese market is used. The network theory helps analyse the data in the three phases of firm internationalisation processes.

Findings: The study shows the importance of networks for the enactment of EM for born globals. The study traces the evolution of network development in the market entry process of born globals and highlights the importance of aligning network leverage with contextual factors for market performance.

Research limitations/implications: The generalisation of the findings is limited due to the exploratory nature of the study and the size of the research sample.

Practical implications: Management of different types of networks is essential in the entry process and further growth of born globals in the Chinese market. In addition, born globals operating in psychically distant and complex institutionally contexts can especially gain support from intermediary networks.

Originality/value: This study extends knowledge of international entrepreneurship by demonstrating that born global managers can enact EM behaviour by leveraging networks to gain rapid entry into the Chinese market. It further highlights the role of firms’ networks in the EM activities in their internationalisation. The conceptual underpinnings of EM and network theory provide greater understanding of how born globals enter and grow their psychically distant markets.

 © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
China, Sweden, Networks, Entrepreneurial marketing, Born globals
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36684 (URN)10.1108/QMR-11-2016-0115 (DOI)2-s2.0-85045656945 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-04-26 Created: 2018-04-26 Last updated: 2018-04-27Bibliographically approved
Andersson, S. (2018). Job creation in Swedish born globals. In: Irene Mandl & Valentina Patrini (Ed.), European born globals: Job creation in young international businesses (pp. 41-62). London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Job creation in Swedish born globals
2018 (English)In: European born globals: Job creation in young international businesses / [ed] Irene Mandl & Valentina Patrini, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 41-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sweden has large firms, which are very international (e.g. Electrolux, Volvo, Saab, Scania), however 97 % of Swedish firms are SMEs. Most of these SMEs are focusing on the home market. Although most Swedish SMEs are not focusing on international growth strategies, there are some Swedish new ventures that already from inception regard the world as their market - so called born globals. The number of born globals in Sweden is limited, and these companies only employ 0.75% of the overall number of employees working in Swedish SMEs. Still, born globals are important for the Swedish economy. They show higher willingness to grow and a greater employment growth than other companies Born globals are found in all sectors but are over-represented in high-tech sectors. In this chapter it is shown how born globals can continue to growth and create jobs. It is also illustrated how the growing creative industries sector are creating born globals and jobs. The chapter ends with policy and managerial implications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2018
Series
Routledge Studies in International Business and the World Economy ; 72
Keywords
Born globals, job creation, international growth, mature born globals, Sweden, creative industries
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35177 (URN)9781138713956 (ISBN)9781315231136 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-10-10 Created: 2017-10-10 Last updated: 2017-10-11Bibliographically approved
Singh, J. B., Wood, G., Callaghan, M., Svensson, G. & Andersson, S. (2018). Operationalizing business ethics in organizations: The views of executives in Australia, Canada and Sweden. European Business Review, 30(4), 494-510
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Operationalizing business ethics in organizations: The views of executives in Australia, Canada and Sweden
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2018 (English)In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 494-510Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Codes of ethics have become the mainstay of the ethics programs of corporations. Many studies have explored their contents, but few have examined what makes them effective. This international study aims to identify the measures viewed as being important by top executives in determining the worth to their organizations of corporate codes of ethics. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected by questionnaires sent to the top 500 companies ranked by revenue operating in the private sectors in Australia, Canada and Sweden. By analyzing the survey results from the top corporate executives in these countries, the research team was able to test for a number of determinants of effectiveness for codes of ethics. Findings: In a statistically significant model, it was found that four factors related to the internal management of the corporation are positively correlated to executives’ perceptions of the value of their corporate codes of ethics. Research limitations/implications: Future research may seek to address features of this study that limit its generalizability, as it was conducted on the largest of companies in each country and thus this sample may not reflect the way that business ethics are managed in smaller organizations in those countries. Originality/value: If executives see particular items as important to their business ethics success, one could postulate that this has arisen from a perception that implementing these measures has been effective for their organizations. This provides guidance to other organizations on what items could enhance the effectiveness of their codes of ethics. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Codes of ethics, Cross-cultural study, Codes effectiveness
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37345 (URN)10.1108/EBR-05-2017-0101 (DOI)2-s2.0-85048466515 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-27 Created: 2018-06-27 Last updated: 2018-06-28Bibliographically approved
Laurell, H., Karlsson, N., Lindgren, J., Andersson, S. & Svensson, G. (2018). Re-testing and validating a triple bottom line dominant logic for business sustainability. Management of environmental quality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Re-testing and validating a triple bottom line dominant logic for business sustainability
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2018 (English)In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The triple bottom line (TBL) is still commonly explored in research without joint consideration of economic, social and environmental elements of business sustainability (BS). The purpose of this paper is to re-test and validate a BS framework based on the TBL approach.This study is based on a questionnaire survey consisting of the largestfirms in corporate Sweden. A total of 107 usable questionnaires were ultimately received, for a response rate of 36.5 percent. The findings validate and extend a framework of a TBL-dominant logic for BS. A total of 19 dimensions indicating satisfactory validity and reliability of the BS framework were identified. The BS framework offers relevant insights to monitor and assess a TBL-dominant logic for BS. It also provides opportunities for further research. Managers can use the BS framework as a tool to map firm priorities in connection with BS. Each dimension of the BS framework offers insights into how to monitor and assess firms’ efforts in the TBL.This study contributes to validate and extend the TBL-dominant logic for BS. The BS framework also offers a timely and relevant contribution to both scholars and practitioners engaging in business sustainability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
Keywords
Sweden, Validation, Business sustainability, Triple bottom line
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38171 (URN)10.1108/MEQ-02-2018-0024 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053262807 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-17 Created: 2018-10-17 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Correa da Cunha, H., Amal, M., Floriani, D. E. & Andersson, S. (2018). The moderating effects of formal institutional distance on the relationship between cultural distance and performance: The case of foreign subsidiaries in Latin America. In: : . Paper presented at 6th Copenhagen Conference on: 'Emerging Multinationals': Outward Investment from Emerging Economies, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11-12 October, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The moderating effects of formal institutional distance on the relationship between cultural distance and performance: The case of foreign subsidiaries in Latin America
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates how Cultural and Formal Institutional distances and their interaction affect the performance of subsidiary firms in Latin America. We show that using Kogut and Singh (1988) index or attributing the positive and negative signals for distances in opposite directions fail to capture asymmetry as it treats distance as either symmetric or opposing symmetric. In order to overcome this limitations distance in opposite directions are measured separately and independently in a way that allows verifying its asymmetrical effects. Tests include 1466 subsidiaries and 168 combinations of home and host countries for a period ranging from 2013 to 2015. Findings confirm that formal and cultural distances are asymmetric as the effects depend on the direction. Moreover not all formal institutional distances affect in a negative manner the performance of developed country subsidiaries operating in less developed countries as these firms know how to interpret and respond to different regulatory quality conditions in the host countries. We show that Latin American firms are in advantage dealing with formal institutional distances while they are affected in the same manner by cultural distances when compared to other emerging market firms from outside Latin America. Findings indicate that emerging market firms are affected in a positive manner when operating in less developed countries and in a negative way when institutions in the host country are superior to its home country. Finally, results show that formal institutional distances moderate in a positive manner the relationship between cultural distance and performance. 

Keywords
Institutional distance, Cultural Distance, Subsidiary Performance, Moderation
National Category
Business Administration Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38185 (URN)
Conference
6th Copenhagen Conference on: 'Emerging Multinationals': Outward Investment from Emerging Economies, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11-12 October, 2018
Available from: 2018-10-19 Created: 2018-10-19 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Andersson, S., Evers, N., Chen, X. & Zhang, Y. (2017). Business and Social Networking for Rapid SME Market Entry and Development in China. In: Natasha Evers (Ed.), : . Paper presented at The 21st McGill International Entrepreneurship conference, Galway, Ireland, Aug. 30th - Sept. 1st, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business and Social Networking for Rapid SME Market Entry and Development in China
2017 (English)In: / [ed] Natasha Evers, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article explores how the firm’s business and social relationships influence how adolescent Swedish born globals and Born Again Globals develop their customer base following post market entry into China. Using the network perspective and extant research on Chinese Guanxi, this study shows how Swedish manufacturing exporters leverage their network relationships in different phases the internationalisation process, in term of the extension, penetration and integration upon entry and post-market entry into China. A qualitative case study approach of three Swedish manufacturing adolescent born global and born again firms, on the Chinese market is employed. A framework developed from a network perspective is used to analyze the data. The study demonstrates the importance, and the degrees of impact, of business and social networks in market and post market entry into China. Business networks emerge as most important in the first part of the market entry process and when networks were integrated between China and other markets. However, social relationships had greater impact in facilitating the firm’s commitment of resources and its market penetration into China. The study also shows that business and social networks were interpreted as synonymous in the Chinese business context, in that social relationships (Guanxi) were considered just as important as business relationships from the Chinese perspective. Hence managing social dimensions of the relationship (Guanxi) were just as important as the business dimensions when conducting relationships with their Chinese customer and business partners.

Keywords
Networks, Market entry, China, Born Globals, Post-market entry, Guanxi, Internationalization
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34884 (URN)
Conference
The 21st McGill International Entrepreneurship conference, Galway, Ireland, Aug. 30th - Sept. 1st, 2017
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-09-05 Created: 2017-09-05 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8194-2053

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