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Bodin, H., Ehde, P. M. & Weisner, S. (2018). Attenuation of Pharmaceutical Substances: Phytoremediation using Constructed Wetlands. In: 13th Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) Europe Chapter Meeting: Management of Wetland Ecosystem Services: Issues, Challenges and Solutions. Paper presented at 13th SWS Europe Chapter Meeting, Ohrid, Macedonia, April 30-May 4, 2018 (pp. 19-22).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attenuation of Pharmaceutical Substances: Phytoremediation using Constructed Wetlands
2018 (English)In: 13th Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) Europe Chapter Meeting: Management of Wetland Ecosystem Services: Issues, Challenges and Solutions, 2018, p. 19-22Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Currently, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) do not efficiently remove pharmaceutical substances (PS). Thus, such substances are now frequently found in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Also, concentrations of some PS in treated effluents exceed Environmental Quality Standards proposed by EU legislation. One resource-efficient option for increasing PS removal in WWTP effluents is to use constructed wetlands (CWs) as an attenuation step (Breitholtz et al. 2012; Li et al. 2014). However, very little research has been done on how to maximize the PS attenuation capacity of CWs. Therefore, a project with the aim to investigate reduction of different pharmaceutical substances in CWs with different vegetation compositions and water depths, was performed at the Experimental Wetland Area (EVA) located 20 km north of Halmstad, Sweden. 

National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38046 (URN)
Conference
13th SWS Europe Chapter Meeting, Ohrid, Macedonia, April 30-May 4, 2018
Funder
The Crafoord Foundation, 20140950Magnus Bergvall Foundation, 2015-00818
Note

This work was financially supported by the Crafoord Foundation [grant number 20140950], The Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry [grant number H14-0049-CFH and H14-0049-AKF] and Magnus Bergvalls Foundation [grant number 2015-00818].

Available from: 2018-09-24 Created: 2018-09-24 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
Johannesson, K. M., Tonderski, K. S., Ehde, P. M. & Weisner, S. E. B. (2017). Temporal phosphorus dynamics affecting retention estimates in agricultural constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, 103(Part B), 436-445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal phosphorus dynamics affecting retention estimates in agricultural constructed wetlands
2017 (English)In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 103, no Part B, p. 436-445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Data from seven constructed wetlands (CWs) in the south of Sweden were analyzed to investigate the effects of water flow and season on inflow phosphorus (P) concentrations and temporal P retention variations in CWs receiving runoff from arable land. The form of P (dissolved or particulate) during different water flows (high and low) and seasons (warm and cold) was investigated using the results of total P (TP) and phosphate analyzed in grab samples that had been collected regularly or occasionally during two to nine years, along with continuous water flow measurements.

The form of inflow and outflow P (particulate or dissolved P) differed between CWs, and also varied with season and flow. For instance, in three of the CWs, particulate P (PP) dominated the inflow during the cold period with high flow, while during the other periods the proportion of PP was approximately 50%. In one CW situated in a catchment with high clay content, PP dominated both inflow and outflow at all times. The average clay content in catchment top soils was positively correlated to the flow-weighted inflow TP concentrations.

In three CWs receiving runoff through drainage pipes, the relationship between TP concentrations (TPin) and water flow was positive, both during high and low flow, and during warm and cold period. However, in four CWs that received surface water runoff, the relationship between TPin and water flow was positive during high flow periods (i.e. the 25% sampling occasions with the highest flow), and during low flow and warm period, the relationship was negative in these four wetlands, indicating either anoxic stagnant water upstream or influence from rural wastewater.

The temporal dynamics of P concentrations mean that in some of the CWs, the main part of the annual P retention may occur during a few days with high water flows. The correlation between concentration and water flow suggests that the water sampling strategy may have a considerable impact on retention estimates, as exemplified by some calculation examples. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Constructed wetlands, Agricultural catchments, Flow–concentration relationships, Phosphorus retention estimates, Sampling strategy
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33874 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.11.050 (DOI)000402830800014 ()2-s2.0-84949654372 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasMistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Note

Additional financiers: Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF), Bertebos foundation & Sparbanksstiftelsen Kronan

Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Weisner, S., Johannesson, K., Thiere, G., Svengren, H., Ehde, P. M. & Tonderski, K. S. (2016). National Large-Scale Wetland Creation in Agricultural Areas—Potential versus Realized Effects on Nutrient Transports. Water, 8(11), Article ID 544.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>National Large-Scale Wetland Creation in Agricultural Areas—Potential versus Realized Effects on Nutrient Transports
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2016 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 544Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During 2007–2013, the Swedish Board of Agriculture granted support within a national program to about 1000 wetlands, corresponding to a 5300-hectare wetland area, with the dual goal to remove nutrients from water and to improve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on nutrient transports that are realized within the national program to what could be obtained with the same area of wetlands if location and design of wetlands were optimized. In single, highly nutrient-loaded wetlands, a removal of around 1000 kg nitrogen and 100 kg phosphorus per hectare wetland area and year was estimated from monitoring data. Statistical models were developed to estimate the overall nutrient removal effects of wetlands created within the national program. Depending on model, the effect of the national program as a whole was estimated to between 27 and 38 kg nitrogen and between 2.7 and 4.5 kg phosphorus per hectare created wetland area and year. Comparison of what is achieved in individual wetlands to what was achieved in the national program indicates that nutrient removal effects could be increased substantially in future wetland programs by emphasising location and design of wetlands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2016
Keywords
constructed wetlands, nitrogen, phosphorus, removal, retention, catchments
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-32483 (URN)10.3390/w8110544 (DOI)000389660700067 ()2-s2.0-85003678467 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-11-24 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Berglund, B., Khan, G. A., Weisner, S., Ehde, P. M., Fick, J. & Lindgren, P.-E. (2014). Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes. Science of the Total Environment, 476-477, 29-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes
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2014 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476-477, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng x 1(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Antibiotic resistance genes, Antibiotics, Quantitative real-time PCR, Constructed wetlands
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-25133 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.128 (DOI)000333772500004 ()24448029 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84892640876 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Formas, 210-2006-2132
Note

This project was funded by the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (Formas, contract number 210-2006-2132).

Available from: 2014-04-22 Created: 2014-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Waara, S., Gajewska, M., Dvarioniene, J., Ehde, P. M., Gajewski, R., Grabowski, P., . . . Wojciechowska, E. (2014). Towards Recommendations for Design of Wetlands for Post-Tertiary Treatment of Waste Water in the Baltic Sea Region – Gdańsk Case Study. In: : . Paper presented at Linneaus Eco-Tech '14, Kalmar, Sweden, 24-26 November, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Recommendations for Design of Wetlands for Post-Tertiary Treatment of Waste Water in the Baltic Sea Region – Gdańsk Case Study
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2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There are many challenges that need to be addressed if the far reaching objectives on high environmental status as required in the EU Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive will be met in the Baltic Sea Region within the next decade. For wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) this implies, in spite of the many improvements made during the last decade, development and introduction of new technology to further reduce eutrophying compounds, hazardous chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Constructed wetlands when properly designed and operated have been shown to be robust systems with low energy requirements that may not only reduce many types of pollutants but may also provide many additional ecosystem services beyond requirements generally imposed by authorities. For example, they may support and enhance biodiversity and be used to convert brownfield areas in urban landscapes to recreational areas. Reduced cost is possible if treated water is reused in industry or for irrigation. In a project, supported by the Swedish Institute, a group of scientists, a water company and water using industry has together with local authorities through workshops, field studies and literature studies worked on finding a general first recommendation on design and operation. In this paper we will present the scientific rational and legal constraints for the general design and operation of a wetland system for post-tertiary treatment of waste water from WWTPs using Gdańsk as an example. The proposal includes a first part, which mainly will be focusing on pollutant and pathogen removal using particle traps and a HSSF wetland on land owned by the WWTP and a second part consisting of a FWS wetland which, in addition to further polishing the water, will enhance biodiversity and provide recreational areas on derelict land owned by the city.

Keywords
discharge limits, ecosystem services, sustainable cities, treatment wetlands, waste water
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27377 (URN)10.13140/2.1.1140.5123 (DOI)
Conference
Linneaus Eco-Tech '14, Kalmar, Sweden, 24-26 November, 2014
Projects
WETEFF: Towards recommendation for design, operation and monitoring of constructed wetlands for treatment of effluent from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea Region
Note

Financial support: Swedish Institute

Available from: 2015-01-02 Created: 2015-01-02 Last updated: 2017-03-27Bibliographically approved
Bodin, H., Mietto, A., Ehde, P. M., Persson, J. & Weisner, S. (2012). Tracer behaviour and analysis of hydraulics in experimental free water surface wetlands. Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, 49, 201-211
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracer behaviour and analysis of hydraulics in experimental free water surface wetlands
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2012 (English)In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 49, p. 201-211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Effects of inlet design and vegetation type on tracer dynamics and hydraulic performance were investigated using lithium chloride in 18 experimental free water surface wetlands. The wetlands received similar water flow but had different vegetation types: 6 emergent vegetation wetlands (EVWs), 6 submerged vegetation wetlands (SVWs) and 6 free development wetlands (FDWs). Two types of inlet designs were applied: half of each wetland vegetation type had a barrier near the inlet to help distribute incoming tracer solution, while the rest had no barrier. Residence time distribution (RTD) functions were calculated from tracer data using two techniques: method of moments and a novel Gauss modelling approach. RTD functions were used to quantify hydraulic parameters: active wetland volume (e-value), water dispersion (N-value) and hydraulic efficiency (lambda-value). For wetlands without barrier, significantly lower tracer mass recoveries were found from EVWs compared to FDWs and SVWs, signifying a risk of tracer methodological problems in small densely vegetated wetlands. These problems were minimized in wetlands with an inflow construction promoting distribution of incoming tracer solution. Compared to the method of moments, Gauss modelling seemed to produce more reliable lambda-values but less reliable N-values. Data for precise hydraulic quantification were lost by Gauss modelling, as indicated by overall lower variance in these data sets and lower mass recoveries. However, Gauss modelling may minimize uncertainties associated with lithium immobilization/mobilization. Parameters were significantly affected by the RTD data analysis method, showing that the choice of method could affect evaluation of wetland hydraulics. The experimental wetlands in this study exhibited relatively high e-values and low N-values. This was probably caused by the small size of the wetlands and low water flow velocities, emphasizing that hydraulic parameter values obtained in small experimental wetlands may not be applicable to hydraulics in larger wetlands. The method of moments revealed lower e-values from EVWs compared to SVWs and FDWs. It was indicated that lower e-values were mainly caused by vegetation volumes. This highlighted a need for regular maintenance to secure efficient treatment volume in wetlands with dense vegetation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Data analysis, Free water surface wetlands, Gauss modelling, Hydraulic performance, Inlet, Lithium tracer, Vegetation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-19582 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.07.009 (DOI)000320931100029 ()2-s2.0-84868624908 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-09-12 Created: 2012-09-12 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Johannesson, K., Tonderski, K., Wedding, B., Ehde, P. M. & Weisner, S. (2011). Phosphorus load variations and retention in non-point source wetlands in southern Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorus load variations and retention in non-point source wetlands in southern Sweden
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2011 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Data from seven constructed wetlands receiving runoff from agricultural catchments in the south of Sweden were investigated with respect to phosphorus (P) retention. The seven wetlands differed in size (0.22-2 ha), design, land use and catchment characteristics. The hydraulic load varied between 7 and 725 m yr-1, which reflect the different geographical and hydrological conditions. The overall aim of this study was to increase the understanding of how water flow and inflow P concentration varations affect the P retention in constructed wetlands receiving runoff from arable land. Water flow was measured continuously, and time or flow proportional water samples were taken. Grab samples were taken during high flow periods and also to supplement the automatic water sampling. P retention varied between wetlands, from 1 to 58 kg ha-1 yr-1, and was correlated to the P load (R2=0.9, p<0.05). P retention in the wetlands varied strongly between years, and negative retention was recorded for some years and wetlands. When investigating monthly retention for each wetland, release of P corresponded to either high flow or possible anoxic conditions during low-flow periods in summer or during winter when ice covered the wetlands. Analyses of grab samples revealed a relationship between TP concentration and water flow for most wetlands. In some wetlands, P was transported mainly as particulate P (PP), but in other wetlands, soluble P was the dominating form in both inflow and outflow. Incoming concentrations varied greatly between wetlands (1-2000 μg l-1) which reflected the different catchment characteristics, e.g. land use, soil type and topography.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-20141 (URN)978-91-7393-168-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-12-14 Created: 2012-12-14 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Kallner Bastviken, S., Weisner, S. E. .., Thiere, G., Svensson, J. M., Ehde, P. M. & Tonderski, K. S. (2009). Effects of vegetation and hydraulic load on seasonal nitrate removal in treatment wetlands. Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, 35(5), 946-952
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of vegetation and hydraulic load on seasonal nitrate removal in treatment wetlands
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2009 (English)In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 946-952Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optimising nitrate removal and identifying critical factors for nitrate removal in wetlands is an important environmental task in the effort to achieve better surface water quality. In this study, eighteen free water surface wetlands with similar shape and size (22 m2 each) received groundwater with a high nitrate-N concentration (about 11 mg l−1). The effects of two hydraulic loads, 0.13 m d−1 and 0.39 m d−1, and three vegetation types – emergent, submersed and freely developing vegetation – on the nitrate-N removal were investigated through mass inflow and outflow measurements.

No significant difference in nitrate removal between the different hydraulic loads could be detected. Significantly higher area-specific nitrate removal and first-order area-based rate coefficients were found in the basins with emergent vegetation, with no difference between the basins with submersed and freely developing vegetation. The nitrate-N removal increased as the wetlands matured and the vegetation grew denser, emphasizing the role of dense emergent vegetation for nitrate removal at high nitrate concentrations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
Keywords
Hydraulic load, Removal rate coefficient, Season, Vegetation, Wetland nitrate removal
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-2497 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.01.001 (DOI)000266138700036 ()2-s2.0-64649083480 (Scopus ID)2082/2899 (Local ID)2082/2899 (Archive number)2082/2899 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-05-28 Created: 2009-05-28 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Weisner, S., Mietto, A., Ehde, P. M. & Persson, J. (2009). Influence of vegetation on hydraulics in experimental surface-flow wetlands. In: Josep M. Bayona & Joan García (Ed.), 3rd Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2009 - Barcelona. Paper presented at 3rd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2009, Barcelona, Spain (pp. 179-180).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of vegetation on hydraulics in experimental surface-flow wetlands
2009 (English)In: 3rd Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2009 - Barcelona / [ed] Josep M. Bayona & Joan García, 2009, p. 179-180Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-5995 (URN)978-84-692-5587-2 (ISBN)
Conference
3rd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2009, Barcelona, Spain
Available from: 2010-09-27 Created: 2010-09-24 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Ehde, P. M. & Weisner, S. (2009). The influence of vegetation on nitrogen retention in a long-term experimental wetland study. In: Josep M. Bayona & Joan García (Ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd Wetland Polluntat Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2009 - Barcelona. Paper presented at 3rd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2009, 20-24 september, 2009, Barcelona, Spain (pp. 197-198).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of vegetation on nitrogen retention in a long-term experimental wetland study
2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the 3rd Wetland Polluntat Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2009 - Barcelona / [ed] Josep M. Bayona & Joan García, 2009, p. 197-198Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-5996 (URN)978-84-692-5587-2 (ISBN)
Conference
3rd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control - WETPOL 2009, 20-24 september, 2009, Barcelona, Spain
Note

Proceedings on CD

Available from: 2010-09-27 Created: 2010-09-24 Last updated: 2013-11-15Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4297-8683

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