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Johansson, M., Pedersen, E. & Weisner, S. (2019). Assessing cultural ecosystem services as individuals’ place-based appraisals. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 39, 79-88
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing cultural ecosystem services as individuals’ place-based appraisals
2019 (English)In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 39, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Though the existence of cultural ecosystem services is dependent on people’s activities and experiences, these services are still commonly assessed using top–down approaches. In this study, appraisal theory and research into human responses to natural environments formed the basis of a systematic multilevel investigation of appraisals of created wetland areas. The aim was to explore how appraisals could be used as a bottom–up approach to assessing the perceived contribution of wetland areas s to people’s quality of life (QoL). In total, 111 participants assessed environmental perceptions, affective experiences, and restorative potentials on site at three wetlands in Sweden. The results indicate that wetland areas and specific places with different ecological functions within these areas were appraised significantly differently. Moreover these places were perceived to support various QoL aspects to different degrees. Concepts and methods tested here give environmental planners hands-on tools for facilitating communication with expected users about the cultural ecosystem services of created wetland areas. © 2019

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
München: Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Created wetland areas, Cultural ecosystem services, Environmental appraisal, Quality of life
National Category
Social Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39030 (URN)10.1016/j.ufug.2019.02.011 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062238338 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 13/148
Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Song, X., Ehde, P. M. & Weisner, S. (2019). Effects of Water Depth and Phosphorus Availability on Nitrogen Removal in Agricultural Wetlands. Water, 11(12), Article ID 2626.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Water Depth and Phosphorus Availability on Nitrogen Removal in Agricultural Wetlands
2019 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 2626Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Excess nitrogen (N) from agricultural runoff is a cause of pollution inaquatic ecosystems. Created free water surface (FWS) wetlands can be used as buffering systems to lower the impacts of nutrients from agricultural runoff. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate critical factors for N removal in FWSwetlands receiving high nitrate (NO3) loads from agriculture. The study was performed in 12 experimental FWS wetlands in southern Sweden, receiving drainage water from an agricultural field area. The effects of water depth (mean depth of 0.4 m and 0.6 m, respectively) and phosphorus (P) availability (with or without additional P load) were investigated from July to October. The experiment was performed in a two-way design, with three wetlands of each combination of depth and P availability. The effects of P availability on the removal of NO3 and total N were strongly significant, with higher absolute N removal rates per wetland area (g m−2 day−1) as well as temperature-adjusted first-order area-based removal rate coefficients (Kat) in wetlands with external P addition compared to wetlands with no addition. Further, higher N removal in deep compared to shallow wetlands was indicated by statistically significant differences in Kat. The results show that low P availability may limit N removal in wetlands receiving agricultural drainage water. Furthermore, the results support that not only wetland area but also wetland volume may be important for N removal. The results have implications for the planning, location, and design of created wetlands in agricultural areas. © 2019 by the authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
free water surface wetlands, agricultural runoff, nitrogen removal, water depth, phosphorus
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41208 (URN)10.3390/w11122626 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-12-10 Created: 2019-12-10 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Pedersen, E., Weisner, S. & Johansson, M. (2019). Wetland areas' direct contributions to residents' well-being entitle them to high cultural ecosystem values. Science of the Total Environment, 646, 1315-1326
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wetland areas' direct contributions to residents' well-being entitle them to high cultural ecosystem values
2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 646, p. 1315-1326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wetlands in urban areas will be crucial to counteract the effects of climate change, for example, by improving flood protection and regulating local climate. To gain acceptance for larger-scale creation of wetlands, total values must be identified and revealed. Provisioning and regulating ecosystem services can be described as the quantitative effect, but cultural ecosystem services require other assessments. This study sought to determine whether peri-urban and urban wetland areas contribute to the well-being and quality of life of nearby residents, and to capture their value relative to two other types of green areas (i.e., parks and urban forests). A postal questionnaire survey, based on validated environmental psychology instruments, was distributed to residents in three municipalities with wetland areas of different structures and locations. In these municipalities, respondents (n = 474; response rate = 40%) reported that the wetland area contributed to several quality-of-life aspects, such as encountering nature and experiencing beauty. The areas also facilitated activities that support well-being, were perceived to have high restorative qualities, and evoked positive affective responses. All wetland areas were rated high on most of the measured concepts, but their value relative to other green areas differed possibly depending on the accessibility of the wetland and the availability of other green areas. The location and extent to which the wetland area was integrated in the residential area determined what quality-of-life aspects were most satisfied. Wetland areas can be ascribed cultural ecosystem service values based on how residents perceive their contribution to their quality of life. These values can be added to those of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services, forming the basis for planning urban environments. © 2018 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Created wetlands, Cultural ecosystem services, Urban planning, Environmental perception, Quality of life, Environmental psychology
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38018 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.236 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050739044 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 13/148
Available from: 2018-09-19 Created: 2018-09-19 Last updated: 2018-09-19Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, J. E., Liess, A., Ehde, P. M. & Weisner, S. (2019). Will planting of surface-flow wetlands improve nitrogen removal in the long run?. In: Carlos A. Arias, Carlos A. Ramírez-Vargas, Lorena Peñacoba-Antona & Hans Brix (Ed.), Book of Abstracts: 8th International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control. 17 – 21 June, 2019. Aarhus University, Denmark. Paper presented at 8th International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control, Wetpol 2019, Aarhus, Denmark, June 17-21, 2019 (pp. 340-340). Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Will planting of surface-flow wetlands improve nitrogen removal in the long run?
2019 (English)In: Book of Abstracts: 8th International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control. 17 – 21 June, 2019. Aarhus University, Denmark / [ed] Carlos A. Arias, Carlos A. Ramírez-Vargas, Lorena Peñacoba-Antona & Hans Brix, Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2019, p. 340-340Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Initial planting of created wetlands is common practice in order to, for instance, improve nitrogen (N) removal. It has been shown that vegetated surface-flow wetlands remove more N than non-vegetated surface-flow wetlands. However, changes in N removal as differently vegetated wetlands progress from an early successional stage to a mature system are less investigated.

In our study, we followed three different wetland types of initial planting over the course of 12 years, with the aim to examine how planting of newly created wetlands affects long-term N removal. All our data were collected in the experimental wetland facility near Halmstad in south-western Sweden. The facility consist of 18 small (ca. 25 m2) surface-flow wetlands, equal in age, shape and size. At the time of creation, the 18 wetlands were randomly divided into three types. One type was then planted with emergent vegetation, one was planted with submerged vegetation and the last type was left unplanted for free development. Succession of vegetation was thereafter allowed to progress uninhibited in all wetlands.

Our results confirmed that emergent vegetation wetlands initially removed more N than submerged vegetation and free development wetlands. In addition, our results showed that N removal in submerged vegetation and free development wetlands increased with ecosystem age, whereas N removal in emergent vegetation wetlands did not. N removal in all three wetland vegetation types converged when the wetlands reached a more mature state, around year 9 after wetland creation. However, although all wetlands contained emergent vegetation in year 9, proportion cover of emergent vegetation and vegetation composition still differed substantially between wetland types.

We therefore conclude planting of created surface-flow wetlands with emergent vegetation will have a positive effect on N removal, but only during an early successional stage. Our study indicates it is not the emergent vegetation per se which results in higher N removal in more mature wetlands, but the maturation process in itself, since mature wetlands with different emergent vegetation cover achieved similar N removal. Initial planting will not result in higher N removal once the system has reached maturity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2019
National Category
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41116 (URN)978-87-971486-0-0 (ISBN)978-87-971486-1-7 (ISBN)
Conference
8th International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control, Wetpol 2019, Aarhus, Denmark, June 17-21, 2019
Available from: 2019-12-04 Created: 2019-12-04 Last updated: 2019-12-17Bibliographically approved
Bodin, H., Ehde, P. M. & Weisner, S. (2018). Attenuation of Pharmaceutical Substances: Phytoremediation using Constructed Wetlands. In: 13th Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) Europe Chapter Meeting: Management of Wetland Ecosystem Services: Issues, Challenges and Solutions. Paper presented at 13th SWS Europe Chapter Meeting, Ohrid, Macedonia, April 30-May 4, 2018 (pp. 19-22).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attenuation of Pharmaceutical Substances: Phytoremediation using Constructed Wetlands
2018 (English)In: 13th Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) Europe Chapter Meeting: Management of Wetland Ecosystem Services: Issues, Challenges and Solutions, 2018, p. 19-22Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Currently, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) do not efficiently remove pharmaceutical substances (PS). Thus, such substances are now frequently found in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Also, concentrations of some PS in treated effluents exceed Environmental Quality Standards proposed by EU legislation. One resource-efficient option for increasing PS removal in WWTP effluents is to use constructed wetlands (CWs) as an attenuation step (Breitholtz et al. 2012; Li et al. 2014). However, very little research has been done on how to maximize the PS attenuation capacity of CWs. Therefore, a project with the aim to investigate reduction of different pharmaceutical substances in CWs with different vegetation compositions and water depths, was performed at the Experimental Wetland Area (EVA) located 20 km north of Halmstad, Sweden. 

National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38046 (URN)
Conference
13th SWS Europe Chapter Meeting, Ohrid, Macedonia, April 30-May 4, 2018
Funder
The Crafoord Foundation, 20140950Magnus Bergvall Foundation, 2015-00818
Note

This work was financially supported by the Crafoord Foundation [grant number 20140950], The Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry [grant number H14-0049-CFH and H14-0049-AKF] and Magnus Bergvalls Foundation [grant number 2015-00818].

Available from: 2018-09-24 Created: 2018-09-24 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
Johansson, J., Holmquist, M., Jonasson, M., Mattsson, M., Ulvenblad, P.-O. & Weisner, S. (2017). Slututvärdering av det svenska landsbygdsprogrammet 2007–2013: DELRAPPORT IV : Synteser för en hållbar landsbygdsutveckling : Utvärdering av programmets samlade effekter (1ed.). Jönköping: Jordbruksverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Slututvärdering av det svenska landsbygdsprogrammet 2007–2013: DELRAPPORT IV : Synteser för en hållbar landsbygdsutveckling : Utvärdering av programmets samlade effekter
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2017 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Denna rapport är en del av utvärderingen av landsbygdsprogrammet 2007–2013. Fyra grupper med forskare från universitet och högskolor har gjort slututvärderingen. Den publiceras i fyra delrapporter varav detta är en. Frågor som handlar om hela programmet besvaras huvudsakligen i delrapport IV. Frågor om enskilda åtgärder besvaras i de tre andra delrapporterna. En översikt av vilka frågor som besvaras i vilken rapport finns på följande sidor.

Slututvärderingen görs för att besvara EU-gemensamma och specifika svenska utvärderingsfrågor om vilka effekter programmet har haft, i vilken utsträckning det har bidragit till att uppfylla målen och hur effektivt detta har gjorts.

Utvärderingssekretariatet vid Jordbruksverket ansvarar för att de svenska EU-programmen där Jordbruksverket är förvaltande myndighet blir utvärderade. Det innebär att utvärderingssekretariatet beställer och genomför utvärderingar av landsbygdsprogrammet, havs- och fiskeriprogrammet samt programmet för lokalt ledd utveckling inom regionalfonden och socialfonden. Programmen utvärderas dels var för sig men också tillsammans. Utvärderingarna görs i relation till målen i programmen och de övergripande EU 2020-målen.

De flesta utvärderingarna genomförs av externa aktörer. Vi tar hjälp av forskare för att kvalitetsgranska rapporterna innan de publiceras. I slutet av rapporterna finns ett utlåtande från granskarna. Rapporterna publiceras i en särskild rapportserie och rapportförfattarna är ansvariga för slutsatserna. Slutsatserna utgör inte Jordbruksverkets officiella ståndpunkt.

/Utvärderingssekretariatet vid Jordbruksverket

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jordbruksverket, 2017. p. 253 Edition: 1
Series
Utvärderingsrapport 2016:5
Keywords
Utvärdering, Landsbygdsutveckling, Syntesutvärdering
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33425 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Johannesson, K. M., Tonderski, K. S., Ehde, P. M. & Weisner, S. E. B. (2017). Temporal phosphorus dynamics affecting retention estimates in agricultural constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, 103(Part B), 436-445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal phosphorus dynamics affecting retention estimates in agricultural constructed wetlands
2017 (English)In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 103, no Part B, p. 436-445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Data from seven constructed wetlands (CWs) in the south of Sweden were analyzed to investigate the effects of water flow and season on inflow phosphorus (P) concentrations and temporal P retention variations in CWs receiving runoff from arable land. The form of P (dissolved or particulate) during different water flows (high and low) and seasons (warm and cold) was investigated using the results of total P (TP) and phosphate analyzed in grab samples that had been collected regularly or occasionally during two to nine years, along with continuous water flow measurements.

The form of inflow and outflow P (particulate or dissolved P) differed between CWs, and also varied with season and flow. For instance, in three of the CWs, particulate P (PP) dominated the inflow during the cold period with high flow, while during the other periods the proportion of PP was approximately 50%. In one CW situated in a catchment with high clay content, PP dominated both inflow and outflow at all times. The average clay content in catchment top soils was positively correlated to the flow-weighted inflow TP concentrations.

In three CWs receiving runoff through drainage pipes, the relationship between TP concentrations (TPin) and water flow was positive, both during high and low flow, and during warm and cold period. However, in four CWs that received surface water runoff, the relationship between TPin and water flow was positive during high flow periods (i.e. the 25% sampling occasions with the highest flow), and during low flow and warm period, the relationship was negative in these four wetlands, indicating either anoxic stagnant water upstream or influence from rural wastewater.

The temporal dynamics of P concentrations mean that in some of the CWs, the main part of the annual P retention may occur during a few days with high water flows. The correlation between concentration and water flow suggests that the water sampling strategy may have a considerable impact on retention estimates, as exemplified by some calculation examples. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Constructed wetlands, Agricultural catchments, Flow–concentration relationships, Phosphorus retention estimates, Sampling strategy
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33874 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.11.050 (DOI)000402830800014 ()2-s2.0-84949654372 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasMistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Note

Additional financiers: Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF), Bertebos foundation & Sparbanksstiftelsen Kronan

Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Pedersen, E., Johansson, M. & Weisner, S. (2017). Värdering av kulturella ekosystemtjänster baserat på bidrag till livskvalitet: slutrapport. Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Värdering av kulturella ekosystemtjänster baserat på bidrag till livskvalitet: slutrapport
2017 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Rapporten presenterar resultaten av forskningsprojektet Värdering av kulturella ekosystemtjänster baserat på bidrag till livskvalitet, ett av sju projekt som ingår i forskningssatsningen Värdet av ekosystemtjänster. I projektet undersöks om etablerade teorier, begrepp och metoder från miljöpsykologisk forskning kring interaktionen mellan människa och naturmiljö kan bidra till förståelsen av kulturella ekosystemtjänster och deras värde.

Projektet visar att värdet av grönområden kan beskrivas utifrån hur områ­ dena bidrar till närboendes livskvalitet genom att de ger möjlighet till miljö­ upplevelser, känsloresponser och aktiviteter som främjar hälsan, inte minst återhämtning. Slutsatsen är att kulturella ekosystemtjänster kan värderas ickemonetärt med utgångspunkt från väletablerade teorier, begrepp och metoder. Men forskarna ser att den kompetens som finns bland tjänstemän som arbetar med kulturella ekosystemtjänster idag behöver kompletteras med kunskap i beteendevetenskap.

Ekosystemtjänster är grunden för vår välfärd. Ändå tar vi dem ofta för givna. Genom en ökad medvetenhet om och värdering av ekosystemtjänster kan vi påverka vår framtida välfärd och livskvalitet. Politiker, myndigheter, kommuner, företag och organisationer kan därigenom fatta mer välunderbyggda beslut.

Rapporten är författad av Eja Pedersen och Maria Johansson, Miljöpsykologi, Institutionen för arkitektur och byggd miljö, Lunds universitet och Stefan Weisner, Våtmarkscentrum, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. Eja Pedersen har varit projektledare och organiserat resultatrapporteringen. Maria Johansson har ansvarat för de miljöpsykologiska teorierna och metoderna. Stefan Weisner har deltagit i projektet som expert på anlagda våtmarker. Samarbetspartners var Länsstyrelsen i Skåne, Hässleholms kommun, Staffanstorps kommun och Helsingborgs stad.

Forskningssatsningen Värdet av ekosystemtjänster är en central insats för att nå ett av etappmålen inom miljömålssystemet genom att öka kunskapen om hur ekosystemtjänster bättre kan användas i olika beslutssituationer. Etappmålet innebär att betydelsen av biologisk mångfald och värdet av ekosystemtjänster senast 2018 ska vara allmänt kända och integreras i ekonomiska ställningstaganden, politiska avväganden och andra beslut i samhället där så är relevant och skäligt. Sju olika forskargrupper ingår i den omfattande satsningen som började 2014.

Författarna tackar alla som bidragit med kunskap och erfarenhet under projektets gång. För projektets genomförande och analyser av resultaten, tack till Beatrice Marschke, Emilie Björling, Eva Hedenfelt, Lina Haremst, Linnea Saarela, Lukas Österling och Sanna Stålhammar. För värdefulla synpunkter i slutskedet av rapporteringen tackar projektet David Barton och Eeva Furman. Och till alla som deltagit i fokusgrupper och strukturerade vandringar, svarat på enkäter och deltagit i workshopar – ett stort tack!!

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket, 2017. p. 79
Series
Rapport Naturvårdsverket, ISSN 0282-7298 ; 6756
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33633 (URN)978-91-620-6756-4 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2017-03-30 Created: 2017-03-30 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Weisner, S., Johannesson, K., Thiere, G., Svengren, H., Ehde, P. M. & Tonderski, K. S. (2016). National Large-Scale Wetland Creation in Agricultural Areas—Potential versus Realized Effects on Nutrient Transports. Water, 8(11), Article ID 544.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>National Large-Scale Wetland Creation in Agricultural Areas—Potential versus Realized Effects on Nutrient Transports
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2016 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 544Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During 2007–2013, the Swedish Board of Agriculture granted support within a national program to about 1000 wetlands, corresponding to a 5300-hectare wetland area, with the dual goal to remove nutrients from water and to improve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on nutrient transports that are realized within the national program to what could be obtained with the same area of wetlands if location and design of wetlands were optimized. In single, highly nutrient-loaded wetlands, a removal of around 1000 kg nitrogen and 100 kg phosphorus per hectare wetland area and year was estimated from monitoring data. Statistical models were developed to estimate the overall nutrient removal effects of wetlands created within the national program. Depending on model, the effect of the national program as a whole was estimated to between 27 and 38 kg nitrogen and between 2.7 and 4.5 kg phosphorus per hectare created wetland area and year. Comparison of what is achieved in individual wetlands to what was achieved in the national program indicates that nutrient removal effects could be increased substantially in future wetland programs by emphasising location and design of wetlands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2016
Keywords
constructed wetlands, nitrogen, phosphorus, removal, retention, catchments
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-32483 (URN)10.3390/w8110544 (DOI)000389660700067 ()2-s2.0-85003678467 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-11-24 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Weisner, S., Johannesson, K. & Tonderski, K. (2015). Näringsavskiljning i anlagda våtmarker i jordbruket: Analys av mätresultat och effekter av landsbygdsprogrammet. Jönköping: Jordbruksverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Näringsavskiljning i anlagda våtmarker i jordbruket: Analys av mätresultat och effekter av landsbygdsprogrammet
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I denna rapport sammanställs och analyseras tidigare mätningar av avskiljning av fosfor och kväve i anlagda våtmarker. Resultaten indikerar hur hög fosfor­ och kväveavskiljning som kan uppnås i anlagda våtmarker i jordbrukslandskap i Sverige. Resultaten har även använts för att ta fram nya modeller för beräkning av avskiljning av fosfor och kväve i våtmarker där mätningar inte gjorts. Slutligen har dessa modeller använts för att beräkna hur hög avskiljning som kommer att uppnås i våtmarker som beviljats stöd inom landsbygdsprogrammet åren 2007– 2013 och hur mycket transporten av kväve och fosfor till havet kommer att minskas genom att dessa våtmarker har anlagts.

De nya mätresultaten visar att fosforavskiljning underskattats i tidigare mätningar och i modeller som använts i tidigare utvärderingar. I enskilda väl utformade och placerade våtmarker kan 100 kilo fosfor och 1 000 kilo kväve per hektar våtmarksyta och år avskiljas. De nya resultaten indikerar även att man i framtida program för anläggning av våtmarker i jordbrukslandskapet bör kunna uppnå en genomsnittlig fosfor­ och kväveavskiljning på 50 respektive 500 kilo per hektar våtmarksyta och år, förutsatt att näringsavskiljning kan prioriteras vid placering och utformning av våtmarker. Kostnaden för avskiljning uppskattas till cirka 100 kronor per kilo fosfor och cirka 10 kronor per kilo kväve för sådana våtmarker om 50 procent av kostna­ derna fördelas till andra ekosystemtjänster och biologisk mångfald.

Modellberäkningar på ett urval av våtmarker inom landsbygdsprogrammet som skalats upp till de 5 261 hektar som beviljats stöd under 2007–2013 visar att transporten av fosfor och kväve till lokala vattendrag kommer att minskas med cirka 25 ton fosfor per år och cirka 200 ton kväve per år. Det innebär att minsk­ ningen av transporten till havet som åstadkoms genom dessa våtmarker blir cirka 18 ton fosfor per år och cirka 170 ton kväve per år, vilket motsvarar 1,9 respektive 0,5 procent av transporten till havet från jordbruksmark.

Anläggningen av våtmarker inom landsbygdsprogrammet har således haft betydelse för att minska fosfor­ och kvävetransporter såväl till lokala vattendrag som till havet. En jämförelse av genomsnittlig avskiljning per hektar våtmarksyta mellan landsbygdsprogrammet och den avskiljning som uppnås i individuella våtmarker visar emellertid att effektiviteten skulle kunna höjas betydligt i framtiden genom en bättre placering och utformning av våtmarker i landskapet.

Abstract [en]

Measurements of removal of phosphorus and nitrogen in created wetlands in agricultural areas in Sweden have been compiled and analysed. The results indicate the level of phosphorus and nitrogen removal that can be achieved in created wetlands in agricultural areas in Sweden. The results have also been used to develop new models for calculating removal of phosphorus and nitrogen in created wetlands in which measurements have not been done. Finally, these models have been used to estimate the removal effects that can be expected in the wetlands that have received financial support within the Swedish Rural Develop­ ment Programme in 2007–2013, and how much the transport of phosphorus and nitrogen to the sea will decrease due to the creation of these wetlands.

The new results show that phosphorus removal has been underestimated in earlier measurements as well as in models used in previous evaluations. In individual well designed and located wetlands, a removal of 100 kilo phosphorus and 1 000 kilo nitrogen per hectare wetland area and year can be obtained. The new results also indicate that it should be possible to achieve a removal of 50 kilo phosphorus and 500 kilo nitrogen per hectare wetland area and year in wetland creation programs prioritizing wetlands that are located and designed primarily for nutrient removal. The costs are estimated to 100 SEK per kilo phosphorus and 10 SEK per kilo nitrogen, if 50 percent of the costs are allocated to biodiversity and other ecosystem services.

Model calculations based on a selection of representative wetlands within the Rural Development Programme were scaled up to the 5 261 hectare wetland area that have been granted financial support during 2007–2013. The evaluation show that the Rural Development Programme will result in a reduced transport to local waters­ heds of about 25 tons of phosphorus and 200 tons of nitrogen per year. Therefore, the transport to the sea will decrease with about 18 tons of phosphorus per year and about 170 tons of nitrogen per year, corresponding to 1.9 and 0.5 percent, respectively, of the transport to the sea from agricultural land.

Creation of wetlands within the Rural Development Programme has thus resulted in significant decreases of transports of phosphorus and nitrogen to inland waters and the coastal sea. However, a comparison of removal per hectare wetland area and year between what has been achieved within the Rural Development Programme and in individual wetlands suggests that the effect could be substantially increased with a better location and design of wetlands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jordbruksverket, 2015. p. 39
Series
Jordbruksverket Rapport, ISSN 1102-3007 ; 2015:7
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-28417 (URN)SJV-R-15/7-SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2015-06-05 Created: 2015-06-05 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Projects
CINDERELLA [2014-1745_Formas]; Halmstad University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5181-0391

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