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Bocharova, I., Kudryashov, B., Rabi, M., Lyamin, N., Dankers, W., Frick, E. & Vinel, A. (2019). Characterizing Packet Losses in Vehicular Networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 68(9), 8347-8358
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterizing Packet Losses in Vehicular Networks
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 8347-8358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To enable testing and performance evaluation of new connected and autonomous driving functions, it is important to characterize packet losses caused by degradation in vehicular (V2X) communication channels. In this paper we suggest an approach to constructing packet loss models based on the socalled Pseudo-Markov chains (PMC). The PMC based model needs only short training sequences, has low computational complexity, and yet provides more precise approximations than known techniques. We show how to learn PMC models from either empirical records of packet receptions, or from analytical models of fluctuations in the received signal strength. In particular, we validate our approach by applying it on (i) V2X packet reception data collected from an active safety test run, which used the LTE network of the AstaZero automotive testing site in Sweden, and (ii) variants of the Rician fading channel models corresponding to two models of correlations of packet losses. We also show that initializing the Baum-Welch algorithm with a second order PMC model leads to a high accuracy model. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Autonomous vehicles, cooperative ITS, VANET, V2X, channel estimation, hidden Markov models, fading channels
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40265 (URN)10.1109/TVT.2019.2930689 (DOI)000487191500006 ()
Projects
AstaMoCA ”Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

A short version of this paper has been presented at 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) which was held on July 7-12, 2019 in Paris, France.

Funding: the Knowledge Foundation in the framework of AstaMoCA ”Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019), COST Action CA15127 (”Resilient communication services protecting end-user applications from disaster-based failures – RECODIS”) supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology), Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) in the framework of Strategic Mobility Program (2019-2020), from the Estonian Research Council under the grant PRG49 and from the ELLIIT Strategic Research Network.

Available from: 2019-07-25 Created: 2019-07-25 Last updated: 2019-10-21Bibliographically approved
Lyamin, N., Vinel, A. & Bellalta, B. (2019). Configuring the Decentralized Congestion Control for ETSI ITS-G5 C-ITS Applications. IEEE Communications Letters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configuring the Decentralized Congestion Control for ETSI ITS-G5 C-ITS Applications
2019 (English)In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) is one the central components of inter-vehicular communications protocol stack enabling Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS). In this letter we first present an analytical framework that allows to tune parameters of the DCC algorithm specified by ETSI. Then we suggest two approaches to optimize the DCC configuration using our framework. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the proposed approaches using detailed simulation experiments. We demonstrate that proposed approaches are able to control channel busy ratio stably, while proposed analytical model precisely estimates application level metrics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
C-ITS, VANET, V2X, DCC, ETSI, platooning, congestion control
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38761 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2019-01-16
Evdokimova, E., Vinel, A., Lyamin, N. & Fiems, D. (2019). Internet Provisioning in VANETs: Performance Modeling of Drive-Thru Scenarios. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internet Provisioning in VANETs: Performance Modeling of Drive-Thru Scenarios
2019 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Drive-thru-Internet is a scenario in cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITSs), where a road-side unit (RSU) provides multimedia services to vehicles that pass by. Performance of the drive-thru-Internet depends on various factors, including data traffic intensity, vehicle traffic density, and radio-link quality within the coverage area of the RSU, and must be evaluated at the stage of system design in order to fulfill the quality-of-service requirements of the customers in C-ITS. In this paper, we present an analytical framework that models downlink traffic in a drive-thru-Internet scenario by means of a multidimensional Markov process: the packet arrivals in the RSU buffer constitute Poisson processes and the transmission times are exponentially distributed. Taking into account the state space explosion problem associated with multidimensional Markov processes, we use iterative perturbation techniques to calculate the stationary distribution of the Markov chain. Our numerical results reveal that the proposed approach yields accurate estimates of various performance metrics, such as the mean queue content and the mean packet delay for a wide range of workloads. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
Keywords
Wireless networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, queueing analysis
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39539 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2019.2918075 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationEU, Horizon 2020Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2019-06-05 Created: 2019-06-05 Last updated: 2019-12-10Bibliographically approved
Bocharova, I., Kudryashov, B., Lyamin, N., Frick, E., Rabi, M. & Vinel, A. (2019). Low Delay Inter-Packet Coding in Vehicular Networks. Future Internet, 11(12), Article ID 212.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low Delay Inter-Packet Coding in Vehicular Networks
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2019 (English)In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITSs), vehicles need to wirelessly connect with Roadside units (RSUs) over limited durations when such point-to-point connections are possible. One example of such communications is the downloading of maps to the C-ITS vehicles. Another example occurs in the testing of C-ITS vehicles, where the tested vehicles upload trajectory records to the roadside units. Because of real-time requirements, and limited bandwidths, data are sent as User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets. We propose an inter-packet error control coding scheme that improves the recovery of data when some of these packets are lost; we argue that the coding scheme has to be one of convolutional coding. We measure performance through the session averaged probability of successfully delivering groups of packets. We analyze two classes of convolution codes and propose a low-complexity decoding procedure suitable for network applications. We conclude that Reed–Solomon convolutional codes perform better than Wyner–Ash codes at the cost of higher complexity. We show this by simulation on the memoryless binary erasure channel (BEC) and channels with memory, and through simulations of the IEEE 802.11p DSRC/ITS-G5 network at the C-ITS test track AstaZero.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
V2X, C-ITS, IEEE 802.11p, error-correcting codes, convolutional codes, fading channels
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40702 (URN)10.3390/fi11100212 (DOI)000493523100010 ()2-s2.0-85073783875 (Scopus ID)
Projects
AstaMoCA “Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Funding: 

The research leading to the results reported in this work has received funding from the Knowledge Foundation in the framework of AstaMoCA “Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019), COST Action CA15127 (“Resilient communication services protecting end-user applications from disaster-based failures—RECODIS”) supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology), Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) in the framework of Strategic Mobility Program (2019–2020), from Eesti Teadusagentuur under the grant PRG49 and from the ELLIIT Strategic Research Network.

Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2019-12-10Bibliographically approved
Bocharova, I., Kudryashov, B., Rabi, M., Lyamin, N., Dankers, W., Frick, E. & Vinel, A. (2019). Modeling Packet Losses in Communication Networks. In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory: Proceedings. Paper presented at IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), Paris, France, July 7-12, 2019 (pp. 1012-1016).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling Packet Losses in Communication Networks
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2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory: Proceedings, 2019, p. 1012-1016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An approach to constructing discrete models of packet losses suitable for a wide variety of communication network applications is studied. It is based on estimating parameters of probabilistic automata described via so-called pseudo-Markov chains. The new technique is applied both to approximating a discrete time analog process at the output of known channel models and to the experimental data stream. Comparison of models is performed by computing probabilities of more than m losses out of n transmitted packets (P (m, n)). It is shown that for the Rician fading channel with exponential correlation and correlation determined by a Bessel filter, the obtained rank-two and rank-three discrete modes, respectively, provide high accuracy coincidence of P (m, n) performances. The rank-three discrete model computed on the experimental data stream obtained from the LTE network provides significantly better approximation of P (≥ m, n) performance than that obtained by the Baum-Welch algorithm.

National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40634 (URN)10.1109/ISIT.2019.8849400 (DOI)978-1-5386-9291-2 (ISBN)978-1-5386-9290-5 (ISBN)978-1-5386-9292-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), Paris, France, July 7-12, 2019
Projects
AstaMoCA
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Funder: European Cooperation in Science and Technology & Estonian Research Council

Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Lyamin, N. (2019). Performance evaluation of safety critical ITS-G5 V2V communications for cooperative driving applications. (Doctoral dissertation). Halmstad: Halmstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance evaluation of safety critical ITS-G5 V2V communications for cooperative driving applications
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are aiming to provide innovative services related to different modes of transport and traffic management, and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated and smarter use of transport networks. Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS) support connectivity between vehicles, vehicles and roadside infrastructure, traffic signals as well as with other road users. In order to enable vehicular communications European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) delivered ITS-G5 -- a of set of C-ITS standards. Considering the goals of C-ITS, inter-vehicle communications should be reliable and efficient.

The subject of this thesis is evaluation of the performance, efficiency, and dependability of ITS-G5 communications for cooperative driving applications support. This thesis includes eight scientific papers and extends the research area in three directions: evaluation of the performance of ITS-G5 beaconing protocols; studying the performance of ITS-G5 congestion control mechanisms; and studying the radio jamming Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks and their detection methods.

First, an overview of currently available and ongoing standardization targeting communications in C-ACC/platooning cooperative driving applications is provided. Then, as part of the first research direction, we demonstrate via a number of studies, that the adaptive beaconing approach where message generation is coupled to the speed variation of the originating ITS-s may lead to a message synchronization effect in the time domain when vehicles follow mobility scenarios that involve cooperative speed variation. We explain in detail the cause of this phenomenon and test it for a wide range of parameters. In relation to the second problem, we, first, study the influence of different available ITS-G5 legitimate setups on the C-ACC/platooning fuel efficiency and demonstrate that proper communication setup may enhance fuel savings. Then we thoroughly study the standardization of the congestion control mechanism for ITS-G5, which will affect the operation of all cooperative driving C-ITS applications as a mandatory component. We study the influence of congestion control on application performance and give recommendations for improvement to make the congestion control to target at optimizing the applications performance metrics. In the scope of the last research direction, we propose two real-time jamming DoS detection methods. The main advantage of our detection techniques is their short learning phase that not exceed a few seconds and low detection delay of a few hundreds of milliseconds. Under some assumptions, the proposed algorithms demonstrates the ability to detect certain types of attacks with high detection probability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2019. p. 186
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 53
Keywords
C-ITS, VANET, ITS-G5, IEEE 802.11p, ETSI, platooning, C-ACC, jamming Denial-of-Service attack, congestion control, cooperative awareness, security in C-ITS
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38763 (URN)978-91-88749-15-4 (ISBN)978-91-88749-14-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-01-30, Wigforssalen, Visionen, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-01-17 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Lyamin, N., Kleyko, D., Delooz, Q. & Vinel, A. (2019). Real-time jamming DoS detection in safety-critical V2V C-ITS using data mining. IEEE Communications Letters, 23(3), 442-445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-time jamming DoS detection in safety-critical V2V C-ITS using data mining
2019 (English)In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 442-445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A data mining-based method for real-time detection of radio jamming Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks in IEEE 802.11p vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications is proposed. The method aims at understanding the reasons for losses of periodic cooperative awareness messages (CAM) exchanged by vehicles in a platoon. Detection relies on a knowledge of IEEE 802.11p protocols rules as well as on historical observation of events in the V2V channel. In comparison to the state-of-the-art method, the proposed method allows operating under the realistic assumption of random jitter accompanying every CAM transmission. The method is evaluated for two jamming models: random and ON-OFF. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
C-ITS, VANET, jamming, Denial-of-Service attack, security, platooning, data mining
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38762 (URN)10.1109/LCOMM.2019.2894767 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
Thunberg, J., Lyamin, N., Sjöberg, K. & Vinel, A. (2019). Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications for Platooning: Safety Analysis. IEEE Networking Letters, 1(4), 168-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications for Platooning: Safety Analysis
2019 (English)In: IEEE Networking Letters, ISSN 2576-3156, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 168-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication is the key technology enabling platooning. This paper proposes an analytical framework that combines the characteristics of V2V communication (packet loss probabilities and packet transmission delays) with the physical mobility characteristics of vehicles (speed, distance between vehicles and their brake capacities). First, we present the feasible region of communications delays which guarantees safe emergency braking in platooning scenarios. Second, we derive a bound on the probability of safe braking. The presented framework is applied to understand the performance of the state-of-the-art V2V communication protocol for platooning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
Keywords
Platooning, safety, emergency braking, cooperative intelligent transport system (C-ITS), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, dedicated short range communications (DSRC), ITS-G5
National Category
Communication Systems Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40251 (URN)10.1109/LNET.2019.2929026 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-07-18 Created: 2019-07-18 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
Lyamin, N., Kleyko, D., Delooz, Q. & Vinel, A. (2018). AI-Based Malicious Network Traffic Detection in VANETs. IEEE Network, 32(6), 15-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AI-Based Malicious Network Traffic Detection in VANETs
2018 (English)In: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156X, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 15-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inherent unreliability of wireless communications may have crucial consequences when safety-critical C-ITS applications enabled by VANETs are concerned. Although natural sources of packet losses in VANETs such as network traffic congestion are handled by decentralized congestion control (DCC), losses caused by malicious interference need to be controlled too. For example, jamming DoS attacks on CAMs may endanger vehicular safety, and first and foremost are to be detected in real time. Our first goal is to discuss key literature on jamming modeling in VANETs and revisit some existing detection methods. Our second goal is to present and evaluate our own recent results on how to address the real-time jamming detection problem in V2X safety-critical scenarios with the use of AI. We conclude that our hybrid jamming detector, which combines statistical network traffic analysis with data mining methods, allows the achievement of acceptable performance even when random jitter accompanies the generation of CAMs, which complicates the analysis of the reasons for their losses in VANETs. The use case of the study is a challenging platooning C-ITS application, where V2X-enabled vehicles move together at highway speeds with short inter-vehicle gaps.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018
Keywords
Vehicle safety, Telecommunication traffic, Road traffic, Wireless communication, Networked control systems, Real-time systems, Vehicular ad hoc networks, Intelligent vehicles, Artificial intelligence, Cams, Jamming
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38456 (URN)10.1109/MNET.2018.1800074 (DOI)
Projects
AstaMoCA “Model-Based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety”
Funder
Knowledge FoundationELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2018-11-30 Created: 2018-11-30 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Díez Rodríguez, V., Detournay, J., Vinel, A. & Lyamin, N. (2018). An Approach for Receiver-Side Awareness Control in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 19(4), 1227-1236
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Approach for Receiver-Side Awareness Control in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1227-1236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vehicular Ad hoc networks (VANET) are a key element of cooperative intelligent transport systems. One of the challenges in VANETs is dealing with awareness and congestion due to the high amount of messages received from the vehicles in communication range. As VANETs are used in critical applications, congestion on the receiver side caused by the buffering of the packets is a safety hazard. In this paper, we propose a streamwise queuing system on the receiver side and show how it improves the timeliness of the messages received and maintains the awareness of the system in a congestion situation. © Copyright 2017 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
GCDC 2016, ETSI ITS-G5, vehicular communication, awareness control, priority queue
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35188 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2017.2749966 (DOI)2-s2.0-85030764383 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-12 Created: 2017-10-12 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1460-2988

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