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Linnér, L., Stambulova, N., Eriksson, P., Uebel, M. & Lindahl, K. (2019). Development of a system of dual career support at Swedish National Sports Universities: Swedish national dual career guidelines. In: B. Strauss et al. (Ed.), Abstract book: Building the Future of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Paper presented at The 15th European Congress of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Münster, Germany, Juli 15-20, 2019 (pp. 281-281).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a system of dual career support at Swedish National Sports Universities: Swedish national dual career guidelines
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2019 (English)In: Abstract book: Building the Future of Sport and Exercise Psychology / [ed] B. Strauss et al., 2019, p. 281-281Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In 2012 the European Commission issued European guidelines on dual careers (DC) of athletes to inspire “the formulation and adoption of action-oriented national dual career guidelines and to raise awareness at national level about the concept of dual careers” (p.3). In parallel with the ongoing expansion of the Swedish DC system to include the higher education level, the Swedish Sports Confederation initiated a working group to develop a system of DC support at Swedish National Sports Universities (RIUs) and Elite Sports-friendly Universities (EVLs) summarized in the Swedish national DC guidelines (2018). The working group consisted of four practitioners representing RIUs/EVLs (e.g., DC-coordinators, study counsellors), two Swedish DC researchers, and two officials of the Swedish Sports Confederation. Six two-day working group meetings were conducted during two years (2016-2018) to develop this policy document as a culturally informed synthesis of national and international DC research, EU guidelines on DCs, experiences and knowledge from RIUs and EVLs including best practice examples, and in line with the Swedish strategy for Sports. The Swedish national DC guidelines outline the organizational model for RIUs and EVLs and provide 36 guidelines in how to facilitate (a) an environment for DCs, (b) academic development, (c) athletic development, (d) a balance between sport, studies and private life, and (e) student-athletes’ career transitions. The Swedish national DC guidelines currently set a national standard for DC support across the country and inspire universities to further develop their support in line with recommendations from national and international DC research.

Keywords
dual career, national guidelines, student-athlete, support, university
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40416 (URN)
Conference
The 15th European Congress of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Münster, Germany, Juli 15-20, 2019
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Linnér, L., Stambulova, N. & Lindahl, K. (2019). "Support upon request": Exploring a dual career development environment at a Swedish university. In: B. Strauss et al. (Ed.), Abstract book: The 15th European Congress of Sport and Exercise Psychology – Building the Future of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Paper presented at 15th European Congress of Sport & Exercise Psychology (FEPSAC), Münster, Germany, July 15-20, 2019 (pp. 274-274).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Support upon request": Exploring a dual career development environment at a Swedish university
2019 (English)In: Abstract book: The 15th European Congress of Sport and Exercise Psychology – Building the Future of Sport and Exercise Psychology / [ed] B. Strauss et al., 2019, p. 274-274Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This presentation shares a case study of a dual career development environment (DCDE) at a Swedish university based on the holistic ecological approach (Henriksen & Stambulova, 2017). The goal of the study was to explore the DCDE’s structure, DC processes, and philosophy of the DC support team. Data were collected through 10 semi-structured interviews (with eight university and sports staff members and two collaborative partners) and two focus groups (with four student-athletes, and four coaches). Participants were asked about their perceptions of the environment, key relationships, philosophy, and support. Observation of real-life events (e.g. meetings, training sessions), informal talks with 13 student-athletes and 21 staff members and stakeholders during eight full days, and analysis of relevant documents (e.g. webpage) provided additional insights into the environment. Results highlighted that the structure of the environment was characterized by a strong regional sports culture and collaboration between stakeholders with geographical and relational proximity and strong DC coordination. The coach-athlete relationship was the key relationship for DC support. The central DC processes were university regulations providing the student-athletes with the right to study flexibly, integrated DC planning between the coach and the athlete, and access to expert support. The philosophy of the DC support team was characterized by treating the student-athletes as "whole persons" and responsible grown-ups, meaning that no support was provided if the student-athletes did not request it. Implications of the approach taken by this DCDE are outlined at the conclusion of this presentation.

National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40415 (URN)
Conference
15th European Congress of Sport & Exercise Psychology (FEPSAC), Münster, Germany, July 15-20, 2019
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-10-11
Linnér, L., Stambulova, N., Lindahl, K. & Wylleman, P. (2019). Swedish university student-athletes’ dual career scenarios and competences. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish university student-athletes’ dual career scenarios and competences
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The paper presents the Swedish data on university student-athletes’ dual career (DC) competences and coping, from the European project “Gold in Education and Elite Sport” (GEES). A cross-sectional quantitative design was implemented with the objectives to explore: (a) the student-athletes’ perceived need to develop DC competences in order to successfully combine sport and study, (b) if the student-athletes experienced and how they coped with specific DC scenarios, and (c) the magnitude of the association between the student-athletes’ possession of prioritized DC competences for each scenario and their scenario-specific coping. Seventy-one university student-athletes with a mean age of 25.21 completed the DC competency questionnaires developed within the GEES. The student-athletes reported their perception of importance and possession of 38 DC competences (e.g., cope with stress, prioritizing), as well as coping with seven DC scenarios (e.g., miss significant days of study), and selected the five most important competences (from the list of 38) to cope with each scenario. The results revealed that the student-athletes: (a) perceived a need to develop more than 70% of the DC competences to successfully combine sport and studies, (b) had experienced and coped average-to-good with the DC scenarios, and (c) possession of the top five prioritized competences was moderately-to-strongly related to their coping in three scenarios. The study extends understanding of Swedish university student-athletes’ DC competences and has contributed to development of Swedish National Guidelines for elite athletes’ dual careers (2018). © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
competences, coping, dual career, scenario, student-athlete, university
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39051 (URN)10.1080/1612197X.2019.1611898 (DOI)2.0-85065500238 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was supported by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union through the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency with project reference 557281-EPP-1-2014-1-FR-SPO-SCP.

Available from: 2019-03-15 Created: 2019-03-15 Last updated: 2019-10-15
Linnér, L., Lindahl, K., Eriksson, P. & Stambulova, N. (2018). Idrottares dubbla karriärer. In: Avdelningen Elitidrottsstöd, Riksidrottsförbundet (Ed.), Specialidrott: tränings- och tävlingslära (pp. 237-251). Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Idrottares dubbla karriärer
2018 (Swedish)In: Specialidrott: tränings- och tävlingslära / [ed] Avdelningen Elitidrottsstöd, Riksidrottsförbundet, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 237-251Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker, 2018
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40418 (URN)978-91-7727-026-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-10-11
Linnér, L., Stambulova, N. & Henriksen, K. (2017). Facilitating Student-Athletes’ Development in Sport and Life through Optimizing their Dual Career Development Environment. In: Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson (Ed.), Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’: . Paper presented at Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden, 22-23 November, 2017 (pp. 30-31). Halmstad: Halmstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facilitating Student-Athletes’ Development in Sport and Life through Optimizing their Dual Career Development Environment
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’ / [ed] Krister Hertting & Urban Johnson, Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017, p. 30-31Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35830 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Sport Science Conference – ‘The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: Health Promotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden, 22-23 November, 2017
Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Defruyt, S., Wylleman, P., De Brandt, K., Stambulova, N. & Linnér, L. (2017). Helping dual career athletes to recover from injury: a dual career support providers’ (DCSPs’) perspective. In: : . Paper presented at 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS): Sport Science in a Metropolitan Area, Essen, Germany, 5th-8th July, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Helping dual career athletes to recover from injury: a dual career support providers’ (DCSPs’) perspective
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction

The combination of elite sport and study, called a dual career (DC), can be challenging for athletes. DC Athletes can encounter co-occurring challenges at different domains of development (athletic, psychological, psychosocial, educational/vocational and financial) (Wylleman & Lavallee, 2004). In this challenging period and environment, the burden of an injury is likely to be stressful for DC athletes. Although previous research have looked at how sports stakeholders can support the athletes within the athletic domain, no research up to our knowledge addressed how elite athletes can be supported holistically (i.e. in the different domains of development) outside of the club context. Therefore, current research aimed at gathering good practices of holistic support for DC athletes from a dual career support provider (DCSP) perspective.

Methods

Within the ‘Gold in education and Elite Sport’ (GEES) project, co-funded by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union, focus groups were conducted with a selection of DCSPs. As inclusion criterion for the participants, a DCSP was defined as: ‘a professional consultant, related to an educational institute and/or an elite sport organization – or certified by one of those – that provides support to elite athletes in view of optimizing their DC (combination of elite sport and education).’ One focus group in Sweden with six DCSPs and two focus groups in Belgium with two and three DCSPs were held. Using a phenomenological approach, participants were asked to share their methods used to holistically support DC athletes in coping with an injury.

Results

Five main themes of support emerged from the DCSPs discussions: a) practical support (e.g. support with transport problems if necessary), b) emotional support (e.g. empathic listening), c) reframing the injury in a holistic perspective (e.g. athletes will have more time for studies and family), d) empowerment of self-regulation competences (e.g. encourage the use of a recovery agenda), e) multidisciplinary and multi-organizations’ cooperation (e.g. structural meetings between different DC stakeholders).

Conclusion

Findings underscore the importance of a developmental and empowering approach in holistically supporting DC athletes to recover from an injury. Moreover, the cooperation between stakeholders in a DC support environment is crucial for an optimal recovery. Future research and practice could use current findings to develop injury recovery programs in a DC setting.

References

Wylleman P, Lavallee D. (2004). A Developmental Perspective on Transitions Faced by Athletes. In M Weis (Ed.), Developmental sport psychology. Morgantown, WV: Fitness International Technology.

National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34655 (URN)
Conference
22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS): Sport Science in a Metropolitan Area, Essen, Germany, 5th-8th July, 2017
Available from: 2017-07-23 Created: 2017-07-23 Last updated: 2017-08-07Bibliographically approved
Linnér, L., Stambulova, N. & Henriksen, K. (2017). Holistic approach to understanding a dual career environment at a Swedish university. In: G. Si, J. Cruz and J.C. Jaenes (Ed.), Sport psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology. Paper presented at The 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology, Sevilla, Spain, July 10-14th, 2017 (pp. 243-244).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Holistic approach to understanding a dual career environment at a Swedish university
2017 (English)In: Sport psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] G. Si, J. Cruz and J.C. Jaenes, 2017, p. 243-244Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Dual career (DC; combination of sport and studies) research is traditionally focused on student-athletes’ developmental demands and coping resources. To support athletes’ talent development in combination with education, sport federations and universities (and others) co-create high performance centers or DC hubs. Research into these environments is limited. Inspired by the holistic ecological approach, and particularly by the athletic talent development environment model (Henriksen, 2010), we created the dual career development environment (DCDE) working model and then used this model to explore a ‘golf and study’ environment at a Swedish university. The DCDE model is structured into three levels (micro, meso, and macro) and three domains (study, sport, and private) taking into account societal institutions, sport and education systems. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with nine university elite golf-students about perceived support during their transition to, and first year within the environment, and with four stakeholders (e.g., coach, study director) to discover their perspective on the environment and the support they provided. Observations and documents collected from the environment web-page also supported the analysis. Key features of the investigated DCDE related mainly to the micro and meso levels and included: collaborative arrangements between sport and academic stakeholders aimed at facilitating the student-athletes’ DCs, high quality coaching and facilities, stakeholders’ shared focus on a ‘whole person’ including, for example, student- athletes’ physical and psychological well-being. It was also found that the daily life of the student-athletes was concentrated around the campus gym as a place to meet and discuss various sport, study and personal life issues with each other and with their physical coach (also a university teacher). Further study is planned to target the macro level of the environment to advance these findings. 

Keywords
dual career, dual career development environment, holistic development, student-athlete, support
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34651 (URN)978-84-9148-282-6 (ISBN)
Conference
The 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology, Sevilla, Spain, July 10-14th, 2017
Available from: 2017-07-23 Created: 2017-07-23 Last updated: 2017-08-01Bibliographically approved
Linnér, L., Stambulova, N. & Lindahl, K. (2017). Promoting dual career support services: Swedish perspectives and actions taken. In: G. Si, J. Cruz and J.C. Jaenes (Ed.), Sport psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology. Paper presented at The 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology, Sevilla, Spain, July 10-14th, 2017 (pp. 47-47).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promoting dual career support services: Swedish perspectives and actions taken
2017 (English)In: Sport psychology: Linking theory to practice: Proceedings of the 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology / [ed] G. Si, J. Cruz and J.C. Jaenes, 2017, p. 47-47Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this presentation we share: (a) key findings on experiences and competences of Swedish dual career support providers (DCSP) from the European Project “Gold in Education and Elite Sport”, and (b) insights into the actions derived from the Project and taken to advance the dual career (DC) support services in Sweden. Across the country, 31 DCSPs (mean age= 47.4) completed the DCSP survey that measured perceptions of 35 competences to facilitate student-athletes’ development (e.g., be an active and supportive listener) and explored experiences of, and coping with, six DCSP’s scenarios (e.g., supporting a student-athlete when missing days in school). Additionally, six DCSPs took part in a focus group discussion on how they work and what methods they use to support their student-athletes. Overall, the results revealed that the DCSPs demonstrated high awareness of DC and related challenges, possessed necessary competences, managed the relevant scenarios, and reflected on their work in congruence with a whole person perspective. Results also indicated that the DCSPs worked mainly part time, held higher education degrees, but lacked specific DC education and networks. When positioning the findings within the Swedish DC context two major actions were initiated. First, as a DCSP is a new job profile in Sweden that should be developed, planning efforts for a national DCSP education system and a complementary national digital DC support service are currently in progress. Second, with the recent expansion of the Swedish DC system to include the higher education level, a shared basis is needed for sustainable development. Therefore, the Swedish Sport Confederation initiated the action of developing Swedish national DC Guidelines. The Guidelines will be briefly outlined with strategies to facilitate student-athletes’ DC development including different transitions and their search for optimal balance between sport, studies, and private life.

Keywords
GEES, Erasmus+ Sport, dual career, competences, dual career support, national guidelines
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34641 (URN)978-84-9148-282-6 (ISBN)
Conference
The 14th ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology, Sevilla, Spain, July 10-14th, 2017
Available from: 2017-07-23 Created: 2017-07-23 Last updated: 2017-08-01Bibliographically approved
Sandström, E., Linnér, L. & Stambulova, N. (2016). Career profiles of athlete-coach relationships: Descriptions and interpretations. International journal of sports science & coaching, 11(3), 395-409
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Career profiles of athlete-coach relationships: Descriptions and interpretations
2016 (English)In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 395-409Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to explore athlete-coach relationships from an athletic career perspective with the objectives: 1) to create individual career profiles of athlete-coach relationships, 2) to illustrate the career profiles describing athletes’ subjective experiences of working with all the coaches involved in their careers, and (c) to summarize athletes’ views on the dynamics of athlete-coach relationships in the course of their careers. Two case studies using narrative interviews with one team and one individual sport athlete (both Swedish) were made. The Narrative Oriented Inquiry model was used to guide the data collection, treatment and interpretation. The results representing over 20 relationships in total are presented as individual career profiles of athlete-coach relationships followed by interpretive narratives exploring more in detail the different athlete-coach relationships throughout their careers. Poems summarizing the athletes’ perceived dynamics of their relationships with coaches are then presented using only the athletes own words.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2016
Keywords
Coach-athlete relationships, communication, sports coaches, team sport
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29916 (URN)10.1177/1747954116645012 (DOI)000377435800009 ()2-s2.0-84977098279 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-07 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Linnér, L., Stambulova, N., Parker, J. & Ekengren, J. (2016). Dual Career Balance in Student-Athletes University Transition. In: : . Paper presented at 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP), September 28 - October 1, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual Career Balance in Student-Athletes University Transition
2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Balancing studies, a personal life and sports, that is, having a dual career, is considered as a challenge associated with transitional demands in athletic and non-athletic (psychological, psychosocial, academic/vocational, financial) domains (Wylleman, Reints, & De Knop, 2013). The aim of this study was to investigate student-athletes’ university transition with a specific focus on how student-athletes balance different domains of their lives. Twenty-three Swedish university student-athletes (mean age= 21.52; 16 males and 7 females) representing six sports (equestrianism, golf, handball, ice hockey, soccer, table tennis) partook in the study. Participants completed the Dual Career Monitoring Survey (DCMS), weekly, over the first twelve weeks of their university education. The DCMS is developed by the authors and measures student-athletes perceptions of balance, time investments, demands, coping, satisfaction, resources and barriers in relation to sport, studies, private life, social life and financial situation. In exploring student-athletes’ perception of dual career balance throughout the twelve weeks, an intra-class correlation analysis revealed a between-person variance of 0.14 (14%). That is, with regards to balance in their dual careers 86% was due to within-person variance, suggesting that balance is idiosyncratic and that further analysis should investigate within-person change. Encouraged by these findings we continued with a person-centered analysis using the Dynamic P-technique for modeling patterns of data (Nelson, Aylward, & Rausch, 2011). The relationships between changes in balance (i.e., prioritizing sport, studies or other domains of life), demands, coping and satisfaction throughout the twelve weeks will be presented. Our findings contribute to the understanding of balance as a central tenet of athletes’ dual careers (Second author et al., 2015). From our findings we suggest practitioners to take into account the individual dynamics in dual career balance from a whole-person perspective.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-31948 (URN)
Conference
31st Annual Conference of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP), September 28 - October 1, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
Available from: 2016-09-07 Created: 2016-09-07 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5877-7934

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