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Linnér, L., Stambulova, N., Franck, A. & Lindahl, K. (2023). What Matters the Most? Factors Contributing to the Successful Dual Career Coping of Swedish University Student-Athletes. In: : . Paper presented at SVEBI (Svensk Förening för Beteende- och Samhällsvetenskaplig Idrottsforskning) årskonferens, Göteborg, Sverige, 23-24 november, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Matters the Most? Factors Contributing to the Successful Dual Career Coping of Swedish University Student-Athletes
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction and Aim 

Research reveals that athletes might have short- and long-term benefits of combining sport and education, that is, pursuing a dual career (DC) pathway (Stambulova & Wylleman, 2019). To facilitate this challenging pathway, the Swedish Sports Confederation (2018) has developed the Swedish national DC guidelines for the recently established system of National Sports Universities (RIUs) and Elite-sports Friendly Universities (EVLs). The Swedish Sports Confederation invited Halmstad University DC research group to conduct an annual national survey to monitor the DC experiences of RIU/EVL student-athletes for three years (2020-2022). In this presentation we will share the findings from three years of data collection across RIUs/EVLs with an emphasis on what factors contributed to the successful DC coping of Swedish university student-athletes. 

Method

Officially recognized RIU/EVL student-athletes received an invitation by e-mail to take part in the study by liaisons at each RIU/EVL. Across the years we sampled 561 participants (54% female) with a mean age of 23.82 (SD = 3.35). The participants represented all universities in the system (n = 22), 54 sport federations and studied across a variety of educations with an average study pace of 87%.  

The survey was developed for this project based on the Swedish national DC guidelines, the Dual Career Survey (Stambulova et al., 2015) and relevant existing and validated instruments, all informed by national and international DC research (e.g., Brown et al., 2015; Linnér et al., 2019) and findings from two Erasmus+ sports projects: the Gold in Education and Elite Sport project (GEES; e.g., De Brandt et al., 2018) and the Ecology of Dual Career project (ECO-DC; e.g., Henriksen et al., 2020). The instrument covered (a) demographic information, (b) DC-experiences including coping with perceived challenges, the Dual Career Competency Questionnaire for Athletes (De Brandt et al., 2018), health and wellbeing (e.g., Besèr et al., 2014), DC support, and need-supportive interpersonal behaviours from key support providers through the Interpersonal Behaviours Questionnaire (Rocchi et al., 2017), and (c) overall satisfaction with RIU/EVL and DC. 

Results 

Using a classification and regression tree analysis (Machuca et al., 2017) we explored associations between factors related to successful DC coping. Findings of this study indicated that the key factor for coping with the DC is student-athletes’ organization and planning competence (e.g., plan in advance and use time efficiently) and that stakeholders DC support and competence-needs-supportive behaviors can compensate student-athletes’ lack of organization and planning competence. Findings also show that the combination of factors leading to least successful coping is low organization and planning competence in combination with low emotional competence (e.g., stress management). 

Conclusions

Previous research has revealed a plethora of factors and competences (e.g., De Brandt et al., 2018) related to student-athletes’ DC success. This study helps support providers in suggesting what matters the most. These findings provide important implications for how DC support can be improved to facilitate sustainable DCs of athletes at RIUs/EVLs in Sweden. Among such implications is the importance of monitoring students-athletes’ ability to plan and, when necessary, provide DC support to facilitate development of such a competence. 

National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Health Innovation, M4HP
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-52130 (URN)
Conference
SVEBI (Svensk Förening för Beteende- och Samhällsvetenskaplig Idrottsforskning) årskonferens, Göteborg, Sverige, 23-24 november, 2023
Available from: 2023-11-28 Created: 2023-11-28 Last updated: 2023-11-30Bibliographically approved
Linnér, L. (2022). Athletes' dual careers in a changing world: A Scandinavian perspective. In: Proceedings of the 2022 SVEBI Sport in a Changing World Conference: . Paper presented at 2022 SVEBI Sport in a Changing World Conference, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden, June 14–15, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Athletes' dual careers in a changing world: A Scandinavian perspective
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2022 SVEBI Sport in a Changing World Conference, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Grounded in the Scandinavian context and by sharing research findings, good practice examples and recommendations for support, this symposium aims to facilitate understanding of athletes’ dual career (DC) experiences in the process of maintaining balance in the face of challenge, or even global crises. The need to safeguard athletes’ development by facilitating the balance between sport and education has been highlighted by the European Union guidelines on DCs of athletes (2012), and research has since developed and flourished (Stambulova & Wylleman, 2019). After a brief introduction by the organizer the symposium is structured keeping in mind a developmental perspective and moving from research to practice. Researchers and practitioners across three Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) will collectively share knowledge throughout athletes’ DCs in relation to childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and from primary to secondary/high school and university level.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50159 (URN)
Conference
2022 SVEBI Sport in a Changing World Conference, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden, June 14–15, 2022
Available from: 2023-03-22 Created: 2023-03-22 Last updated: 2023-12-13
Linnér, L., Stambulova, N. & Henriksen, K. (2022). Facilitating student-athletes’ dual career transition: A Scandinavian university case study. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 11(2), 107-123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facilitating student-athletes’ dual career transition: A Scandinavian university case study
2022 (English)In: Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, ISSN 2157-3905, E-ISSN 2157-3913, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 107-123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study combines the holistic ecological and holistic developmental approaches through a mixed-methods intrinsic case study with a convergent design to explore how a Dual Career (DC) Development Environment (DCDE) facilitated student-athletes’ transition to a Scandinavian university. The case was explored through multiple sources of data inspired by the research methodology in the holistic ecological approach and the DC-Environment Success Factors (DC-ESF) working model. Semi-structured interviews, with student-athletes and support providers, and documents analysis were complemented by a quantitative monitoring of the student-athletes’ transition experiences. Findings are presented in a joint display by merging the qualitative and quantitative data in an empirical version of the DC-ESF model. The empirical model summarizes the case by situating the environment in student-athletes’ development and showing a challenging transition with athletic and non-athletic demands, and a well-coordinated and supportive environment with a mission of a balanced and synchronized whole and targeting empowerment of the whole person. The student-athletes developed their DC competences and a holistic attitude to development, improved in sport and study, and in their ability to balance their DC. This study contributes to the literature by bridging the gap between transition and environment research. By integrating the two approaches the study explicitly shows the fit between the student-athletes’ needs and the environment’s support leading to the conclusion that effective DCDEs works to meet student-athletes’ needs by helping them to develop DC competencies to create and maintain an optimal DC balance. © 2021. American Psychological Association

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association (APA), 2022
Keywords
Dual career development environment, holistic developmental approach, holistic ecological approach, student-athlete, transition, university
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-45710 (URN)10.1037/spy0000275 (DOI)000733074300001 ()2-s2.0-85119300774 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-10-05 Created: 2021-10-05 Last updated: 2022-08-25Bibliographically approved
Linnér, L. & Stambulova, N. (2022). Supporting an applied practice: The dual career assistance framework. In: 16th European Congress of Sport Psychology: Abstract book. Paper presented at 16th European (FEPSAC) Congress of Sport Psychology, Padova, Italy, 11-16 July, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting an applied practice: The dual career assistance framework
2022 (English)In: 16th European Congress of Sport Psychology: Abstract book, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this presentation we will share the Dual Career Assistance framework (DCA; Linnér, 2021) developed to merge the DC research, that has flourished in recent years (Stambulova & Wylleman, 2019), in a model that can guide applied practice. The DCA framework merges the holistic developmental (Wylleman, 2019) and the holistic ecological (Henriksen & Stambulova, 2017) approaches by suggesting a support that integrates a whole person, whole career, and whole environment perspective. It is based on findings from the PhD studies of Linnér (2021), European DC research (e.g., Brown et al., 2015) and the Erasmus+ projects ‘Gold in Education and Elite Sport’ (e.g., De Brandt, 2017) and ‘Ecology of DC’ (e.g., Henriksen et al., 2020), with a focus on the university level. Briefly explained, the DCA framework sets the aim of DC assistance to be helping student-athletes develop and maintain optimal DC balance to facilitate their striving for career excellence (Stambulova et al., 2015, 2020). Maintaining balance is not without challenges, and the framework points the attention to the DC scenarios and transitions capable of compromising balance (e.g., Linnér et al., 2021). Support providers are guided in helping student-athletes to choose efficient coping strategies to meet their challenges and maintain their DC balance, based on their current possession of DC competences (e.g., De Brandt, 2017) and available DC support (e.g., Knight et al., 2018), or lack thereof, within a DC development environment (Storm et al., 2021). Target areas for DC assistance based on the framework will be discussed.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50160 (URN)
Conference
16th European (FEPSAC) Congress of Sport Psychology, Padova, Italy, 11-16 July, 2022
Available from: 2023-03-22 Created: 2023-03-22 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Linnér, L. & Stambulova, N. (2022). Supporting optimal dual career balance: The dual career assistance framework. In: Proceedings of the 2022 SVEBI Sport in a Changing World Conference: . Paper presented at 2022 SVEBI Sport in a Changing World Conference, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden, June 14–15, 2022 (pp. 62-62).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting optimal dual career balance: The dual career assistance framework
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2022 SVEBI Sport in a Changing World Conference, 2022, p. 62-62Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction and Aim: The professional Dual Career (DC) assistance is emerging across Swedish sports universities stimulated by the Swedish national guidelines for elite athletes’ DCs (Swedish Sports Confederation, 2018). Alongside this development, the research and understanding of athletes’ DCs has increased (Stambulova & Wylleman, 2019), and there is a need to merge the current knowledge in a framework that can guide DC support.

Method: The authors engaged in a series of conceptual discussions to synthesized findings from the PhD studies of Linnér (2021), European DC research (e.g., Brown et al., 2015) and relevant Erasmus+ projects including the Gold in Education and Elite Sport (e.g., De Brandt, 2017) and the Ecology of DC (e.g., Henriksen et al., 2020). A key aspect of such a synthesis was merging the holistic developmental (Wylleman, 2019) and the holistic ecological (Henriksen & Stambulova, 2017) approaches by suggesting a support that integrates a whole person, whole career, and whole environment perspective. The synthesis was summarized in the DC Assistance (DCA) framework to support the development of professional DC support.

Results: The DCA framework is structured as a pyramid embedded in the national DC context and the local DC development environment (Henriksen et al., 2020). The environment and context are dynamic, indicated by a surrounding timeframe. The DCA sets the aim of support provision to be helping student-athletes develop and maintain optimal DC balance (Stambulova et al., 2015) to facilitate their striving for career excellence (Stambulova et al., 2020). That is, supporting a healthy, successful, and long-lasting career in sport and life by helping student-athletes reach their sport and study goals, live satisfying private lives, and maintain health and wellbeing. Maintaining balance is not without challenges, and the framework points the attention to the DC scenarios and transitions capable of compromising balance (e.g., Linnér et al., 2021), and guides DC support providers in helping student-athletes to choose the most efficient coping strategies to meet their challenges and maintain their DC balance, based on their current resources and barriers. These include their DC competences (e.g., Linnér et al., 2019) and available DC support (e.g., Knight et al., 2018), or lack thereof, within a DC development environment (Storm et al., 2021). Depending on the person, situation, and environment, what sometimes is a coping resource, for example, motivation or flexibility, can also be a barrier to deal with. The outcome is expressed as student-athletes’ becoming “winners in the short-and long-run” (Lindahl et al., 2011; Stambulova et al., 2015) meaning being able to manage the challenges of a DC lifestyle and feeling well-prepared for the life after sports.

Discussion and conclusions: The DCA framework stimulates support providers to consider DC assistance in relation to four target areas. These include (a) optimizing student-athletes’ DC awareness and competences, (b) optimizing the everyday DC support based on student-athletes’ needs, (c) optimizing the DC development environments’ structure and philosophy of support, and (d) optimizing student-athletes’ conditions for pursuing a DC.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50158 (URN)
Conference
2022 SVEBI Sport in a Changing World Conference, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden, June 14–15, 2022
Available from: 2023-03-22 Created: 2023-03-22 Last updated: 2023-12-13
Linnér, L., Stambulova, N. & Henriksen, K. (2022). Supporting the dual career pathway towards excellence: A Scandinavian university case study. In: 16th European Congress of Sport Psychology: Abstract book. Paper presented at 16th European (FEPSAC) Congress of Sport Psychology, Padova, Italy, 11-16 July, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting the dual career pathway towards excellence: A Scandinavian university case study
2022 (English)In: 16th European Congress of Sport Psychology: Abstract book, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This presentation will share a good practice example of a how a Dual Career (DC) Development Environment (DCDE) facilitated student-athletes’ transition to a Scandinavian university. We designed the study as a mixed-methods intrinsic case study (Hodge & Sharp, 2016) with a convergent design (Creswell & Creswell, 2018), combining the holistic ecological and holistic developmental approaches (Henriksen & Stambulova, 2017; Wylleman, 2019) and considering DC balance (Stambulova et al., 2015) as the primary concern for support. Using the DC-Environment Success Factors (DC-ESF) working model (Henriksen et al., 2020) as our guide we explored the case through multiple sources of data. Semi-structured interviews, with nine student-athletes and four support providers, and document analysis were complemented with ten-months of quantitative monitoring of the student-athletes’ transition experiences (e.g., DC balance, demands and coping). Findings are summarized in an empirical version of the DC-ESF model which, for example, showed a challenging transition within a well-coordinated and supportive environment; student-athletes taking part in everyday activities infused by a flexible sport-study exchange and support providers emphasizing balance and targeting empowerment of the whole person. Student-athletes improved in sport and study and in their ability to balance their DC. They started to recognize that to develop optimally they needed to consider their needs across life domains. These findings, and more, will be situated as part of the specific bounded case to illustrate how a DCDE can support student-athletes in the process of striving for career excellence in sport and life, by balancing their DC.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-50161 (URN)
Conference
16th European (FEPSAC) Congress of Sport Psychology, Padova, Italy, 11-16 July, 2022
Available from: 2023-03-22 Created: 2023-03-22 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Linnér, L. (2021). Dual Careers of Swedish University Student-Athletes: A Synthesis of Holistic Developmental and Ecological Approaches. (Doctoral dissertation). Halmstad: Halmstad University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual Careers of Swedish University Student-Athletes: A Synthesis of Holistic Developmental and Ecological Approaches
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Elitidrottande studenters dubbla karriärer på högskolenivå i Sverige : En syntes av holistiskt utvecklings- och ekologiskt perspektiv
Abstract [en]

The Swedish dual career (DC) system has a history of providing support at the gymnasium/upper secondary level since the early 1970s. Since 2012, there has been a call from the European Union to member states to develop a support provision throughout athletes’ DCs based on national research. In 2015, the Swedish DC system was expanded to include the university level. Completed in parallel with this development, the aim of this PhD Project has been to study the DC experiences of Swedish university student-athletes from the holistic developmental and the holistic ecological approaches, and to develop a framework for DC support at university level in Sweden. The dissertation is designed as a collection of four studies, with one article per study. In Study I (part of the Erasmus+ project Gold in Education and Elite Sport; GEES), Swedish university student-athletes’ personal resources and coping strategies, known also as DC competences, are explored in relation to challenging DC scenarios (e.g., Miss days of study). Findings for example showed a general need to develop competences to cope successfully with the DC. In Study II the move from exploring demands across student-athletes’ levels of development to integration of demands in DC scenarios, as initiated in the GEES-project, was continued. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six student-athletes with the aim to identify DC scenarios that influenced university student-athletes’ DC balance and factors involved in the coping process. Seven scenarios were identified. An updated definition of DC scenarios and their taxonomy was suggested. Study III (part of the Erasmus+ project Ecology of Dual Career) shifted the attention from the individual to the environment and explored the features of a successful DC development environment (DCDE) at a Swedish university from the holistic ecological approach. The structure and key relationships in the DCDE, for example, coach-to-student-athlete, and the factors influencing the DCDE effectiveness, for example, a DC-support team with a shared DC philosophy, were described.Study IV combined the holistic ecological and holistic developmental approaches through a mixed-methods case study to describe how a DCDE at a Scandinavian university facilitated their student-athletes’ DC transition. The findings suggested that effective DCDEs work to meet student-athletes’ needs by helping them to develop DC competences to create and maintain an optimal DC balance.This PhD Project contributes to the DC research and assistance within the athlete career sport psychology discourse and to the knowledge basis for the continued development of the Swedish DC system. Derived from Studies I-IV and related research, the DC assistance (DCA) framework is presented integrating whole person, whole career, and whole environment perspectives. The DCA framework is aimed at guiding professional DC practice towards helping student-athletes develop and maintain optimal DC balance to facilitate their striving for career excellence, and by means contribute to more sustainable DCs for student-athletes across Swedish sports universities.

Abstract [sv]

Sedan 1970-talet finns i Sverige ett system på gymnasienivå för att stötta idrottares dubbla karriärer (DK), dvs., idrottares kombination av elitidrott och studier. Sedan 2012 finns en uppmaning från EU kommissionen till medlemsländer att utveckla stödet för idrottares dubbla karriärer baserat på nationell forskning. Det svenska systemet för dubbla karriärer expanderades 2015 till att även inkludera högre utbildning, genom Riksidrottsuniversitet och Elitidrottsvänliga lärosäten. Avhandlingsprojektet har genomförts parallellt med denna utveckling och syftat till att studera upplevelsen hos elitidrottande högskolestudenter från ett holistiskt utvecklingsperspektiv och ett holistiskt ekologiskt perspektiv, samt utveckla en modell för DK-stöd på högskolenivå i Sverige. Projektet är designat som en sammanläggningsavhandling med fyra studier och en artikel per studie. I studie I (del av Erasmus+ projektet "Gold in Education and Elite Sport"; GEES) utforskas elitidrottande högskolestudenters personliga resurser och copingstrategier, även kända som DK-kompetenser, i relation till utmanande DK-scenarier (t ex. missa viktiga dagar i skolan). Resultaten visade till exempel att elitidrottande studenter upplevde ett allmänt behov av att utveckla DK-kompetenser för att framgångsrikt hantera sin dubbla karriär. I studie II fortsätter den förflyttning av perspektiv som påbörjades i GEES-projektet med att integrera, snarare än att separera, krav från elitidrottares olika utvecklingsnivåer i DK-scenarier. Semi-strukturerade intervjuer med sex student-idrottare genomfördes med syftet att identifiera DK-scenarier som påverkade elitidrottande högskolestudenters balans i den dubbla karriären samt faktorer i coping-processen. Sju scenarier identifierades. En uppdaterad definition och taxonomi för DK-scenarier föreslås. Studie III (del av Erasmus+ projektet "Ecology of Dual Career") skiftar fokus från individen till utvecklingsmiljön och undersöker egenskaper i en framgångsrik utvecklingsmiljö för dubbla karriärer vid ett svenskt lärosäte utifrån ett holistiskt ekologiskt perspektiv. Utvecklingsmiljön beskrivs utifrån dess struktur och nyckelrelationer (t ex. tränare-till-elitidrottande student) samt faktorer som bidrar till miljöns effektivitet (t ex. ett DK-stödteam som delar en filosofi om hur de ger stöd). Studie IV kombinerar ett holistiskt ekologiskt och ett holistiskt utvecklingsperspektiv genom en fallstudie med mixad metod för att beskriva hur en utvecklingsmiljö för dubbla karriärer vid ett skandinaviskt lärosäte främjade elitidrottande studenters övergång och anpassning under första läsåret. Resultaten tyder på att en effektiv utvecklingsmiljö för dubbla karriärer arbetar för att möta elitidrottande studenters behov genom att hjälpa dem att utveckla DK-kompetenser för att skapa och upprätthålla en optimal balans i den dubbla karriären. Avhandlingen bidrar till diskursen om dubbla karriärer som utvecklats inom forskningsområdet idrottares karriärutveckling i idrottspsykologi, och till kunskapsbasen för den fortsatta utvecklingen av systemet för dubbla karriärer i Sverige. Med bas i genomförda studier och relaterad forskning presenteras en modell för DK-stöd som sammanför ett helhetsperspektiv på individen, karriären och utvecklingsmiljön. Stödmodellen ämnar guida professionellt DK-stöd mot att hjälpa elitidrottande studenter att utveckla och upprätthålla en optimal balans in den dubbla karriären, för att främja deras strävan mot en hälsosam, framgångsrik och långvarig karriär inom idrotten och livet som helhet. På detta sätt möjliggörs mer hållbara dubbla karriärer för elitidrottande studenter vid svenska lärosäte.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2021. p. 88
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 80
Keywords
dual career, student-athlete, university, holistic developmental approach, holistic ecological approach, and dual career assistance, dubbel karriär, elitidrottande student, universitet, holistiskt utvecklingsperspektiv, holistiskt ekologiskt perspektiv, och stödmodell
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-45719 (URN)978-91-88749-69-7 (ISBN)978-91-88749-70-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-11-12, Baertling, Visionen, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-10-12 Created: 2021-10-11 Last updated: 2021-10-12Bibliographically approved
Linnér, L., Stambulova, N. & Henriksen, K. (2021). Facilitating student-athletes' university transition: A case study combining holistic ecological and developmental approaches. Paper presented at International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) 15th World Congress, Online, September 30 - October 4, 2021. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19(S1), 58-59
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facilitating student-athletes' university transition: A case study combining holistic ecological and developmental approaches
2021 (English)In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 19, no S1, p. 58-59Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research into athletes' dual careers has been guided by two main approaches. The holistic developmentalapproach has increased our understanding of the demands student-athletes' face and the competences needed tobalance their DC. The holistic ecological approach has shifted the attention to the developmental context andhow DC development environments (DCDE) support or hinder student-athletes' development. So far, DCDEsand their functioning have been described and deemed effective based on general outcome measures (e.g.,sport and academic achievements, dropout rate), but without a clear link to the student-athletes' actual demandsand supportive needs. In this study we explored how a DCDE facilitated student-athletes' transition to, and firstyear adaptation at university level, by combining the holistic ecological and holistic developmental approachesand considering DC balance as a primary concern for DC support. A mixed-methods intrinsic case study wasimplemented to explore the complexity and uniqueness of a specific bounded case, that is, a Scandinavianuniversity-based DCDE and student-athletes' development within it. Inspired by the holistic ecologicalapproach and the DC-environment success factors (DC-ESF) working model we explored the case usingmultiple sources of data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the transition experiences ofnine student-athletes and the perspectives on the environment and support from four key support providers.This was complemented by documents analysis and a quantitative monitoring of the student-athletes' transitionexperiences (e.g., perceived DC balance, demands, and coping) throughout the educational year. Findings arepresented in a joint display by merging the qualitative and quantitative data in an empirical version of the DCESFmodel. The student-athletes experienced a challenging transition with both athletic and non-athleticdemands. The environment was well-coordinated with support providers centered around a mission of "abalanced and synchronized whole" and targeting empowerment of the whole person. There was convergenceacross sources of information with qualitative and quantitative data showing that the student-athletes improvedin their sport and study, and in their ability to balance their DC while also developing their DC competences.By integrating the holistic ecological and the holistic developmental approaches we were able to situate theenvironment in the student-athletes' development and explicitly show the fit between student-athletes' needs(i.e., perceived demands) and support provided in the DCDE. Based on our finding we believe effectiveenvironments are those that work to optimize their structure and culture to meet student-athletes' needs, helpstudent-athletes develop their DC competencies and maintain their DC balance. © 2021 International Society of Sport Psychology

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Taylor & Francis, 2021
Keywords
Dual career balance, dual career development environment, holistic developmental approach, holistic ecological approach
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-45707 (URN)000700843500061 ()
Conference
International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) 15th World Congress, Online, September 30 - October 4, 2021
Available from: 2021-10-05 Created: 2021-10-05 Last updated: 2021-10-20Bibliographically approved
Linnér, L., Stambulova, N. & Ziegert, K. (2021). Maintaining dual career balance: A scenario perspective on Swedish university student-athletes’ experiences and coping. Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 3, 47-55
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maintaining dual career balance: A scenario perspective on Swedish university student-athletes’ experiences and coping
2021 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, E-ISSN 2596-741X, Vol. 3, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A Dual Career (DC) scenario perspective was introduced in the European project “Gold in Education and Elite Sport” (GEES) and is characterized by integration of student-athletes’ athletic and non-athletic demands into difficult situations or periods (i.e., scenarios) requiring coping efforts. In this study we consider balance as the primary challenge for student-athletes and set out to identify DC scenarios that influenced university student-athletes’ optimal DC balance, and the factors involved in coping with such scenarios. We implemented a post-positivist qualitative design through semi-structured interviews with six university student-athletes. Our thematic analysis generated seven DC scenarios, for example, A sport event coincides with exams, and Finalize degree project and continue to train and compete. The scenarios, their characteristics and student-athletes’ corresponding coping are described. Based on the findings, we suggest an updated definition of DC scenarios and present their taxonomy, with four types of DC scenarios in which student-athletes’ circumstances challenge them to (a) maintain sport and study, (b) maintain study, (c) maintain sport, and (d) maintain personal life. We discuss how these developments can be useful for DC research and practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aalborg: Dansk Idrætspsykologisk Forum, 2021
Keywords
Balance, coping, dual career scenarios, taxonomy, university
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-45704 (URN)10.7146/sjsep.v3i.125734 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-10-05 Created: 2021-10-05 Last updated: 2022-03-16Bibliographically approved
Linnér, L. & Stambulova, N. (2021). The dual career assistance framework: A synthesis of research findings in the context of Swedish sports and higher education. Paper presented at International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) 15th World Congress, Online, September 30 - October 4, 2021. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19(S1), 415-416
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The dual career assistance framework: A synthesis of research findings in the context of Swedish sports and higher education
2021 (English)In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 19, no S1, p. 415-416Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Taylor & Francis, 2021
Keywords
Balance, Career Assistance, Dual Career, Professional Practice
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-45706 (URN)000700843500451 ()
Conference
International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) 15th World Congress, Online, September 30 - October 4, 2021
Available from: 2021-10-05 Created: 2021-10-05 Last updated: 2021-10-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5877-7934

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