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Andersson, L. & Danielsson, M. (2023). Where were you when Facebook went out? Experiences of involuntary disconnection from social media. Convergence. The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Where were you when Facebook went out? Experiences of involuntary disconnection from social media
2023 (English)In: Convergence. The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, ISSN 1354-8565, E-ISSN 1748-7382Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper presents findings from an online questionnaire that collected experiences from the Facebook outage on October 4th, 2021, an event that affected approximately three billion users around the globe. The purpose of the study is to contribute to recent discussions digital disconnection and digital wellbeing by using an extraordinary event of involuntary disconnection as point of departure. Our research questions were: Where were people when the services shut down, what did they think and what did they do? What correlations can be found between usage/attitudes to social media and the experiences of the outage? How can the outage of October 4th be understood as a snapshot of our cultural condition? The questionnaire was distributed to 463 Swedish university students and 191 responses were received. Our analysis shows how the involuntary disconnection caused by the outage was an event that highlights the ambivalence of digital life. It also points to some correlations between general social media use and attitudes, and the experiences and activities during the outage. The paper ends with a discussion on the implications that these findings may have for further research into digital disconnection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
Blackout, breakdown, digital disconnection, digital media, Facebook, infrastructure, outage, platforms, social media
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-52297 (URN)10.1177/13548565231223488 (DOI)
Funder
Åke Wiberg Foundation, H21-0074
Available from: 2023-12-22 Created: 2023-12-22 Last updated: 2023-12-22Bibliographically approved
Danielsson, M. & Andersson, L. (2022). Suddenly disconnected: the Facebook outage, the highly wired, and the affective ambiguities of digital life. In: : . Paper presented at ICA Preconference: Digital Disconnection Studies Beyond Borders: Cross-disciplinary, cross-media and cross-national perspectives, Paris, France, May 26, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suddenly disconnected: the Facebook outage, the highly wired, and the affective ambiguities of digital life
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores how a social media breakdown is experienced in a highly wired context where social media practice has become mundane to the point of invisibility (Chun, 2016; Deuze, 2012). More specifically, it examines how a group of Swedish university students (n=191) responded to the major Facebook outage on the evening of October 4th 2021, when popular services such as Facebook, Instagram and Messenger stopped working for about six hours. Drawing on empirical data from an online survey conducted in the immediate aftermath of this unusual global event of involuntary disconnection, as well as on theory and research on historical blackouts, digital disconnection and digital wellbeing, the paper brings to light and discusses the affective ambiguities of contemporary digital life. For example, the most frequently used words for describing the experience of the outage were “nice” and “relaxing” but also “stressful” and “boring”. By exploring the emotions involved in the experience of being suddenly and collectively disconnected for hours, this paper makes a valuable contribution not only to previous studies on affect and technological failure where the focus is rather on individual responses to more temporary malfunctions (Paasonen, 2015). It also contributes to the growing field of digital disconnection studies by examining experiences of involuntary disconnection instead of practices of voluntary disconnection and abstention from digital media (Syvertsen, 2020; Syvertsen & Enli, 2020).

National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-47413 (URN)
Conference
ICA Preconference: Digital Disconnection Studies Beyond Borders: Cross-disciplinary, cross-media and cross-national perspectives, Paris, France, May 26, 2022
Available from: 2022-06-27 Created: 2022-06-27 Last updated: 2022-10-07Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L. & Danielsson, M. (2022). Where Were You When Facebook Went Out? Experiences of Involuntary Disconnection from Social Media. In: : . Paper presented at Media Breakdown and Recovery: International Symposium, Lund, Sweden (Hybrid), March 16, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Where Were You When Facebook Went Out? Experiences of Involuntary Disconnection from Social Media
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Media and Communications Media Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-47412 (URN)
Conference
Media Breakdown and Recovery: International Symposium, Lund, Sweden (Hybrid), March 16, 2022
Available from: 2022-06-27 Created: 2022-06-27 Last updated: 2022-10-07Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L. & Danielsson, M. (2022). Where Were You When Facebook Went Out? Experiences of Involuntary Disconnection From Social Media. In: Program Schedule and Abstract Book: 72nd Annual ICA Conference May 23 -June 01, 2022. Paper presented at 72nd Annual ICA Conference "One World, One Network", Paris, France (Hybrid), May 26-30, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Where Were You When Facebook Went Out? Experiences of Involuntary Disconnection From Social Media
2022 (English)In: Program Schedule and Abstract Book: 72nd Annual ICA Conference May 23 -June 01, 2022, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents findings from an online questionnaire that collected experiences from the Facebook outage on October 4th 2021. This outage was an event that that activates questions of experiencing “one world, one network”, as it affected approximately 3 billion users around the globe. The purpose of the study is to contribute to recent discussions digital disconnection and digital wellbeing by using an extraordinary event of involuntary disconnection as point of departure. Our research questions were: Where were people when the services shut down, what did they think and what did they do? What correlations can be found between usage/attitudes to social media and the experiences of the outage? How can the outage of October 4th be understood as a snapshot of our cultural condition? The questionnaire was distributed to 463 university students and 191 responses were received. Our analysis shows how the involuntary disconnection of October 4th 2021 was an event that highlights the ambivalence of digital life, and point to some correlations between general use and attitudes, and the experiences and activities during the outage. The paper ends with a discussion on the implications that these findings may have for further research into digital disconnection.

National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-47415 (URN)
Conference
72nd Annual ICA Conference "One World, One Network", Paris, France (Hybrid), May 26-30, 2022
Available from: 2022-06-27 Created: 2022-06-27 Last updated: 2022-10-07Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L. & Danielsson, M. (2021). Child participation in the design of media and information literacy interventions: A scoping review and thematic analysis. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 13(1), 14-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child participation in the design of media and information literacy interventions: A scoping review and thematic analysis
2021 (English)In: Journal of Media Literacy Education, ISSN 2167-8715, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 14-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The article presents findings from a review of scientific articles about media and information literacy interventions targeted at children and adolescents. More specifically, the review centers on the quantity and quality of child participation in the design of such interventions. The findings indicate that designs with high levels of child participation constitute a minority in the sample. Most of them aim at “behavior-relevant” outcomes, e.g., reduce smoking or obesity. Interventions aimed at “media-relevant” outcomes, e.g., helping children to become competent media users, seem less widespread. Based on these findings, we argue that top-down initiatives to the promotion of media and information literacy among children and adolescents run the risk of becoming irrelevant to the target group, and that child participation in the design of such interventions should be seen as an end in itself, at least if we subscribe to the idea of children’s rights in the digital age.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kingston: National Association for Media Literacy Education, 2021
Keywords
child participation, information literacy, intervention, media literacy, scoping review
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-44462 (URN)10.23860/JMLE-2021-13-1-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85106220683 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-05-25 Created: 2021-05-25 Last updated: 2021-06-04Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L. (2021). It’s critical: The role of critical thinking in media and information literacy. Media Educational Research Journal (MERJ), 10(1-2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>It’s critical: The role of critical thinking in media and information literacy
2021 (English)In: Media Educational Research Journal (MERJ), ISSN 2040-4530, Vol. 10, no 1-2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores what critical thinking might mean in a media and information literacy (MIL) context by investigating how critical thinking is expressed in three reports that relate MIL to radicalization awareness and counter extremism. The purpose is to engage with recent debates about MIL and research on critical thinking and contribute to a grounded and theoretically informed foundation for discussing MIL competence. Findings indicate a primitive use of the term critical thinking, often bundled up with concepts such as democracy, creativity, and citizenship. More detailed and concrete descriptions about what to expect from critical thinking in a MIL framework display what can be described as a Gnostic impulse: critical thinking as a skill to reveal hidden meanings, to see through propaganda and flawed arguments. In other words, a critical thinking that asks people to doubt what they see. This notion is problematized in relation to writings on media literacy and critical thinking, focusing on the importance of acknowledging reflexivity and identity in the definition of critical thinking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Leighton Buzzard: Auteur Publishing, 2021
Keywords
critical thinking, education, media education, media literacy
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-46072 (URN)10.5281/zenodo.5763719 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-12-08 Created: 2021-12-08 Last updated: 2021-12-10Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L. & Sundin, E. (2021). Mobile bystanders and rubbernecks, disaster tourists, and helpers. Towards a theoretical framework for critically studying action possibilities at accident sites. Mobile Media & Communication, 9(3), 531-545
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mobile bystanders and rubbernecks, disaster tourists, and helpers. Towards a theoretical framework for critically studying action possibilities at accident sites
2021 (English)In: Mobile Media & Communication, ISSN 2050-1579, E-ISSN 2050-1587, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 531-545Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article addresses the phenomenon of mobile bystanders who use their smartphones to film or take photographs at accident scenes, instead of offering their help to people in need or to assist medical units. This phenomenon has been extensively discussed in Swedish news media in recent years since it has been described as a growing problem for first responders, such as paramedics, police, and firefighters. This article aims to identify theoretical perspectives that are relevant for analyzing mobile media practices and discuss the ethical implications of these perspectives. Our purpose is twofold: we want to develop a theoretical framework for critically approaching mobile media practices, and we want to contribute to discussions concerning well-being in a time marked by mediatization and digitalization. In this pursuit, we combine theory from social psychology about how people behave at traumatic scenes with discussions about witnessing in and through media, as developed in media and communication studies. Both perspectives offer various implications for normative inquiry, and in our discussion, we argue that mobile bystanders must be considered simultaneously as transgressors of social norms and as emphatic witnesses behaving in accordance with the digital media age. The article ends with a discussion regarding the implications for further research. © The Author(s) 2021.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
digital media, disaster tourists, mobile bystanders, rubbernecks, social media, witnesses
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-43818 (URN)10.1177/2050157920984828 (DOI)000618493100001 ()2-s2.0-85100551757 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Vardagshjältar och vardagsjournalister
Note

Funding: The Center of Research of Welfare, Health and Sport, School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University

Available from: 2021-02-05 Created: 2021-02-05 Last updated: 2022-12-07Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L. (2019). From closet-fill to toxic sublime: The aesthetics of e-waste. In: 18th Annual STS Conference Graz 2019: Book of Abstracts. Paper presented at 18th Annual Conference of the Science Technology and Society, Graz, Austria, May 6-7, 2019 (pp. 58-59).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From closet-fill to toxic sublime: The aesthetics of e-waste
2019 (English)In: 18th Annual STS Conference Graz 2019: Book of Abstracts, 2019, p. 58-59Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Electronic waste (e-waste) has a peculiar relation to space. It is well-documented how a large part of discarded electronic devices still remain in people’s homes, instead of reaching the recycling centres. This is especially true with digital media and communication technologies such as computers and mobile phones (ironically the devices with the shortest life cycles). This phenomenon has been described by the term “closet-fill” (as opposed to land-fill). However, representations of electronic waste in public discourse such as news reports, seldom focus on this aspect. Instead, they tend to portray e-waste dumping sites as strange, almost alien spaces. Sublime imagery invites the viewer to a contemplation over Western consumerism in a fashion recognizable from visual arts. Consequently, imagery of electronic waste has also become an object of aesthetic value in the works of renowned visual artists such as Pieter Hugo and David LaChapelle, who have gained recognition because of this inclusion of imagery of e-waste in their photographic art. The aim of this paper is to address these aesthetic qualities of electronic waste. The purpose is to contribute to the expanding literature on media materialities and waste with a conceptual understanding of manifestations of electronic waste in popular discourse. The paper draws on theories on media aesthetics, environmental communication and waste management to build an analytic framework that explores the benefits and limitations of presenting electronic waste as an aesthetic object. Empirically it engages in analyses of visual representations of electronic waste. The paper addresses the tension between aesthetic contemplation/appreciation, and critical information. It could be argued that if e-waste is to be presented and understood as an urgent topic, there might be a problem if it is portrayed as something strange, exotic or even beautiful. The concept ”toxic sublime” has been used in analyses of visual representations of pollution, and Peeples (2011: 383) argues that this construction of the toxic as sublime comes with a risk: “It may predispose people to look for toxins in the extraordinary, as opposed to on the shelves of their garages”. It could be argued that e-waste faces a similar problem. The focus on the sublime strangeness of e-waste “dumping sites” is an ineffective way of creating proximity and urgency to the e-waste problem, something that takes place somewhere else than in our homes. LeBel (2015) argues that e-waste aesthetics fails to address the temporal dimension of waste (e.g. planned obsolescence, toxicity). This paper intends to add to that argument by highlighting the tension between the closet-fill and the toxic sublime

Keywords
Media, e-waste, aesthetics, digitalization
National Category
Media and Communications Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39333 (URN)
Conference
18th Annual Conference of the Science Technology and Society, Graz, Austria, May 6-7, 2019
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L. (2019). I’m a 21st century digital boy – skatepunk masculinity. In: Peter Jakobsson & Fredrik Stiernstedt (Ed.), Fritt från fältet: om medier, generationer och värden. Festskrift till Göran Bolin (pp. 69-88). Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>I’m a 21st century digital boy – skatepunk masculinity
2019 (English)In: Fritt från fältet: om medier, generationer och värden. Festskrift till Göran Bolin / [ed] Peter Jakobsson & Fredrik Stiernstedt, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2019, p. 69-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2019
Series
Mediestudier vid Södertörns högskola, ISSN 1650-6162 ; 2019:1
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39270 (URN)978-91-88663-62-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-04-25 Created: 2019-04-25 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L. (2019). It’s critical: The role of critical thinking in media and information literacy. In: Challenging the field: Communication, Creativity and Imagination. Paper presented at NordMedia 2019, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden, August, 21-23, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>It’s critical: The role of critical thinking in media and information literacy
2019 (English)In: Challenging the field: Communication, Creativity and Imagination, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim with this paper is to explore the question what critical thinking might mean in a media and information literacy (MIL) context, and do so by investigating how critical thinking is expressed in three reports that relate MIL to radicalization awareness and counter extremism. The purpose is to engage with recent debates about MIL and new research on critical thinking, and contribute to a grounded and theoretically informed foundation for discussing MIL competences. The analysis shows how critical thinking for the most part was referred to in casual terms together with concepts such as democracy, creativity, citizenship. Those descriptions that were more detailed and concrete about what to expect from critical thinking in a MIL-framework come close to what can be described as a gnostic influence: critical thinking as a skill to reveal hidden meanings, to see through propaganda and flawed arguments. In other words, a critical thinking that asks people to doubt what they see.  This understanding is problematized in relation to writings on media literacy and critical thinking.

National Category
Media Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40455 (URN)
Conference
NordMedia 2019, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden, August, 21-23, 2019
Available from: 2019-08-26 Created: 2019-08-26 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
Projects
Effects of an intervention designed for identifying misinformation, desinformation and conspiracy theories [2021-06266_VR]; Halmstad University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4697-5394

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