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Weman Josefsson, KarinORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4608-7300
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Teixeira, P. J., Marques, M. M., Silva, M. N., Brunet, J., Duda, J. L., Haerens, L., . . . Hagger, M. S. (2020). Classification of Techniques Used in Self-Determinationheory-Based Interventions in Health Contexts: An Expert Consensus Study. Motivation Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification of Techniques Used in Self-Determinationheory-Based Interventions in Health Contexts: An Expert Consensus Study
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2020 (English)In: Motivation Science, ISSN 2333-8113Article in journal (Other academic) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

While evidence suggests that interventions based on self-determination theory can be effective in motivating adoption and maintenance of health-related behaviors, and in promoting adaptive psychological outcomes, the motivational techniques that comprise the content of these interventions have not been comprehensively identified or described. The aim of the present study was to develop a classification system of the techniques that comprise self-determination theory interventions, with satisfaction of psychological needs as an organizing principle. Candidate techniques were identified through a comprehensive review of self-determination theory interventions and nomination by experts. The study team developed a preliminary list of candidate techniques accompanied by labels, definitions, and function descriptions of each. Each technique was aligned with the most closely-related psychological need satisfaction construct (autonomy, competence, or relatedness). Using an iterative expert consensus procedure, participating experts (= 18) judged each technique on the preliminary list for redundancy, essentiality, uniqueness, and the proposed link between the technique and basic psychological need. The procedure produced a final classification of 21 motivation and behavior change techniques (MBCTs). Redundancies between final MBCTs against techniques from existing behavior change technique taxonomies were also checked. The classification system is the first formal attempt to systematize self-determination theory intervention techniques. The classification is expected to enhance consistency in descriptions of self-determination theory-based interventions in health contexts, and assist in facilitating synthesis of evidence on interventions based on the theory. The classification is also expected to guide future efforts to identify, describe, and classify the techniques that comprise self-determination theory-based interventions in multiple domains. © 2020, American Psychological Association.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association (APA), 2020
Keywords
Self-determination theory interventions, Autonomous motivation, Autonomy support, Need satisfaction, Motivational technique
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41058 (URN)10.1037/mot0000172 (DOI)
Note

Funding: Business Finland (grant # 1801/31/2105) & Marie-Sklodowska-Curie (EDGE) Fellowship programme (grant agreement No. 713567)

Available from: 2019-12-01 Created: 2019-12-01 Last updated: 2020-03-16
Rhodes, R. E., Boudreau, P., Weman Josefsson, K. & Ivarsson, A. (2020). Mediators of Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions among Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Health Psychology Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mediators of Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions among Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
2020 (Swedish)In: Health Psychology Review, ISSN 1743-7199, E-ISSN 1743-7202Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

An understanding of physical activity through mediators of behaviour change is important to evaluate the efficacy of interventions. The purpose of this review is to update prior reviews with meta-analysis to evaluate the state of physical activity interventions that include proposed mediators of behaviour change. Literature was identified through searching for five key databases. Studies were eligible if they described a published experimental or quasi-experimental trial in English examining the effect of an intervention on physical activity behaviour and mediators in non-clinical adult populations with the necessary statistical information to be included in the meta-analytic structural equation modelling analysis. Fifty-one articles (49 samples) met the eligibility criteria. Small overall effects were identified for mediation paths a (r = .16; 95% CI = .10 to .22), b (r = .21; 95% CI .16 to .27), and c (r = .24; 95% CI .12 to .35), c′ (r = .05 to .19) and ab (r = .02 to .07) that showed similar findings by theory and construct. The effect sizes seen in physical activity interventions are mediated by our current theories, but the effects are very small and no one construct/theory appears to be a critical driver of the mediated effect compared to any other. Innovation and increased fidelity of interventions is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2020
Keywords
exercise, social cognitive theory, theory of planned behavior, self-determination theory
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41264 (URN)10.1080/17437199.2019.1706614 (DOI)000506280800001 ()31875768 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Canadian Cancer Society, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

Available from: 2019-12-16 Created: 2019-12-16 Last updated: 2020-02-17
Lindwall, M., Weman Josefsson, K., Stenling, A. & Markland, D. (2019). Approaching a broadened view on behavioral regulation in exercise: A closer look at different facets of introjected regulation using the revised BREQ-4. In: Abstract Book: 7th International Conference on Self-Determination Theory. May 20-24, 2019, The Netherlands. Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Self-Determination Theory, Amsterdam, Netherlands, May 20-24, 2019. , Article ID 12D-096.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Approaching a broadened view on behavioral regulation in exercise: A closer look at different facets of introjected regulation using the revised BREQ-4
2019 (English)In: Abstract Book: 7th International Conference on Self-Determination Theory. May 20-24, 2019, The Netherlands, 2019, article id 12D-096Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Identifying different types of motivation that regulate behavior in an exercise context has been of high interest in exercise psychology science. One of the most widely used instruments for this purpose is the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2; Markland & Tobin, 2004), which recently has been revised (BREQ-3, Cid et al., 2018) to include also integrated regulation. In previous work, questions have been raised about the nature of introjected regulation, suggesting it can be divided into two different types of regulations, mirroring avoidance and approach.  Therefore, BREQ-3 has been further revised to include items that measure: two facets of introjected regulation (approach and avoidance), resulting in a 28-item instrument (named BREQ-4) measuring seven types of exercise regulation.

The purpose of this paper is to examine: (i) the factorial structure of the new and revised instrument BREQ-4; and (ii) associations between the two newly developed facets of introjected regulation (approach and avoidance), exercise behavior and the other types of regulation in the context of exercise.

Two subsamples, one from the UK consisting of 412 younger (mean age: 21.6 years) adults recruited from various Facebook groups, and one from Sweden, consisting of 369 middle aged (mean age: 40.7) working individuals, also recruited via Facebook, were used. In both samples, data was collected online through Qualtrics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine factorial validity and associations between latent constructs of exercise regulation in BREQ-4 and self-reported exercise behavior.

Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the 28-item 7-factor model displayed acceptable fit to data in both samples. Configural and metric invariance, but not scalar invariance, between the two samples was established. Avoidance regulation was unrelated to exercise behavior in both samples, whereas approach regulation was weakly and positively associated with exercise in the UK sample. Avoidance and approach was moderately to strongly associated in both samples. In terms of patterns of associations with the other types of regulations, results were similar in both samples: avoidance was more strongly associated with extrinsic regulation whereas approach was more robustly associated with self-determined types of motivation (identified, integrated and intrinsic motivation).  

Keywords
self-determination theory, BREQ-4, introjected regulation, motivation
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39500 (URN)
Conference
7th International Conference on Self-Determination Theory, Amsterdam, Netherlands, May 20-24, 2019
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-09-04Bibliographically approved
Lindwall, M., Stenling, A. & Weman Josefsson, K. (2019). Motivation inom träning, hälsa och idrott: Ett självbestämmande perspektiv (1ed.). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivation inom träning, hälsa och idrott: Ett självbestämmande perspektiv
2019 (Swedish)Book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019. p. 414 Edition: 1
Keywords
motivation, motion, träning, idrott, självbestämmandeteorin
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40893 (URN)978-91-44-11602-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K. (2019). The value of motivational theory in education. In: The IAFOR Conference series 2019: Independence & Interdependence, Programme & Abstract Book. Paper presented at The IAFOR Conference series 2019 – Independence & Interdependence, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, January 3-5, 2019 (pp. 58-58).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The value of motivational theory in education
2019 (English)In: The IAFOR Conference series 2019: Independence & Interdependence, Programme & Abstract Book, 2019, p. 58-58Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Motivation is the driving force behind all behaviors, from posting cat pictures on Facebook to finishing an exam on time - and motivation determines how much, how often and how passionately we do it. Besides providing expertise and knowledge, teachers can create good opportunities for commitment, learning and development among their learners – or the opposite – by influencing the motivational climate.  Self-determination theory (SDT) describes how teachers’ communication style can affect motivation, which in turn affects learning, achievement, development and commitment among learners. SDT also provides reliable methods based on the significance of basic psychological needs considered essential for motivation and self-regulation in all humans; autonomy, competence and relatedness. The need for autonomy involves volition and self-determination, the need for competence is about feeling effective and capable, and the need for relatedness is about feeling affiliated to other people. Social contexts that satisfy these needs nourish personal involvement, sustainable motivation and wellbeing. When the needs contrarily are thwarted, e.g. by using punishments, force or guilt, learners will feel controlled, incapable and excluded, which is related to cheating, nonattendance and boredom. To inspire interest and dedication teachers could therefore benefit from applying SDT in the classroom to stimulate a favorable motivational environment where learners have the opportunity to grow and thrive, not only within the specific subject, but also as a person. Such a social climate will also loop back and influence the teacher’s own experience, basic need satisfaction and motivation; constituting the dependence and interdependence of classroom dynamics. 

National Category
Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39296 (URN)
Conference
The IAFOR Conference series 2019 – Independence & Interdependence, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, January 3-5, 2019
Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K. & Back, J. (2019). The value of motivational theory to influence active transport behaviors – a Swedish example. In: The IAFOR Conference series 2019: Independence & Interdependence, Programme & Abstract Book. Paper presented at The IAFOR Conference series 2019 – Independence & Interdependence, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, January 3-5, 2019 (pp. 107-107).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The value of motivational theory to influence active transport behaviors – a Swedish example
2019 (English)In: The IAFOR Conference series 2019: Independence & Interdependence, Programme & Abstract Book, 2019, p. 107-107Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cycle commuting have been shown to promote major health effects, studies showing as much as 41% lower overall mortality compared to car or collective transport (Celis-Morales et al 2017). Yet, for many of us, there are significant behavioral barriers in changing our transport behavior. On the positive note, studies have shown that bikes providing electric assistance when pedaling (pedelecs) also have positive effects on cardiovascular health and helps people meet physical activity recommendations. It is possible that pedelecs could facilitate active transport by reducing some perceived behavioral barriers by enhancing autonomous motivation in line with self-determination theory (SDT).   The overall purpose was to examine underlying motives for using the pedelec above passive transport (car, bus). Semi-structured interviews (N=14) were used to study motivational aspects of participation in a community based pedelec project. Qualitative content analysis revealed that motives to choose the pedelec was health reasons (regular exercise), economic reasons (e.g. avoid having two cars), environmental reasons (to reduce environmental impact) and personal values (e.g. related to exercise identity).   These four motivational themes can be related to the tenets of SDT and the significance of autonomous motivation for behavioral regulation. The step from passive to active transport might be challenging, but facilitating use of pedelecs and appropriate communication policy might facilitate such a transition. Application of SDT and addressing the motivational themes found in this study could shed some light on motivational drives for active transport and inform community interventions and policies design to adopt sustainable transport behaviors.

National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39295 (URN)
Conference
The IAFOR Conference series 2019 – Independence & Interdependence, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, January 3-5, 2019
Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K. & Jonsson, L. (2018). Motivation inom idrotten. In: Idrottens Ledarskap: (pp. 61-81). Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivation inom idrotten
2018 (Swedish)In: Idrottens Ledarskap, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 61-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker, 2018
Keywords
motivation, träning, idrott, självbestämmandeteorin
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40894 (URN)978-91-7727-020-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K. & Back, J. (2018). Motivational perspectives of a community based electric bike project in Sweden. In: Abstract book for the ISBNPA 2018 Annual Meeting in Hong Kong: . Paper presented at Advancing Behaviour Change Science, Hongkong, China, June 3-6, 2018 (pp. 134-135).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivational perspectives of a community based electric bike project in Sweden
2018 (English)In: Abstract book for the ISBNPA 2018 Annual Meeting in Hong Kong, 2018, p. 134-135Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Objective

A community in Sweden runs a project aiming to stimulate citizens to choose active transport to reduce city car traffic, emissions and noise; and to promote residents' health by increased physical activity. Citizens can borrow an electric bike providing electric assistance when pedaling (pedelec) for free for three months to “try and feel”, and are then offered to buy the bike after this period to a reduced price. The project has engaged approximately 500 participants over three years (2015-2017) distributed in three groups per year. Drawing from self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to examine underlying motives for choosing to use the pedelec above passive transport (car, bus) during and after the three month period.  

 Methods

Semi-structured interviews were performed with eight informants who had participated in the project during 2014-2016. These will be complemented with another 8-10 interviews from the 2017 participant groups. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore and describe attitudes, behaviors, goals and barriers regarding informants’ motives to physical activity in general, as well as specifically directed towards using pedelecs. The interviews were complemented with quantitative measures in two of the groups from 2017 before, during and after participation (N=19).

 Results

Analyses revealed four main themes of motivation. The informants chose the pedelec as a means of transport for health reasons (regular exercise), for economic reasons (avoid having two cars, reducing gasoline and parking costs), for environmental reasons (to reduce environmental impact) and for personal values (related to exercise identity and/or environmental-friendly). Those who used the pedelec regularly felt that their fitness improved and that they had more energy in everyday life. Participants also felt that the pedelec facilitated cycling to a larger extent, and in addition to using it for transport for work or school, they also used it for shopping and leisure activities.

 Conclusions

The step from passive to active transport might be challenging, but a pedelec might facilitate such a transition and reduce perceived behavioral barriers. This study could shed some light on how community interventions can be designed to facilitate autonomous motivation towards more sustainable transport behaviors.

Keywords
self-determination, motivation, physical activity, electric bike
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-37065 (URN)978-1-7324011-0-5 (ISBN)
Conference
Advancing Behaviour Change Science, Hongkong, China, June 3-6, 2018
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2018-07-02Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K., Johnson, U. & Lindwall, M. (2018). Short report: moderations in exercise motivation – gender and age moderates the relations of motivation quality and exercise behavior. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, 6(1), 93-103
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short report: moderations in exercise motivation – gender and age moderates the relations of motivation quality and exercise behavior
2018 (English)In: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, E-ISSN 2164-2850, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Self-determined motivation has been found to be an important predictor of exercise behavior. Findings on gender and age differences are however mixed and previous research has called for studies to examine gender and age as potential moderating factors as they might influence how motivation quality affects exercise behavior.

Methods: Embedded in a controlled trial of a digital intervention aiming to promote exercise motivation, this study examined specific (longitudinal) pathways related to motivation quality, psychological need satisfaction and exercise behavior within the self-determination theory (SDT) process model in a sample of 318 adult employees. The participants completed web-based versions of Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale, Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire three times during a six weeks period.

Results: Moderation analyses revealed significant gender and age differences in the associations of motivation quality, basic psychological needs and exercise behavior over time. Several paths in the SDT-process model, linking psychological needs and motivation quality to exercise behavior, were moderated by gender and age. The stipulated mechanisms between exercise, motivation and psychological need satisfaction in the SDT-processmodel revealed to be stronger for women than for men, and stronger for older adults than for younger and middle-aged adults. The effect of amotivation on exercise was also significantly moderated by age in the full sample, by positively predicting light exercise for younger adults.

Conclusions: Future recommendations are related to the examination of potential differences in opportunities of autonomy support in the social context based on factors such as gender and age, and also to further examine these factors as potential moderators instead of statistically controlling them as default.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
motivation, self-determination, gender, age, moderation
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38227 (URN)10.1080/21642850.2018.1462706 (DOI)000472538400006 ()
Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2020-02-03Bibliographically approved
Weman Josefsson, K., Johnson, U. & Lindwall, M. (2018). Zooming in on the Effects: a Controlled Trial on Motivation and Exercise Behaviour in a Digital Context. Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), 37(1), 250-262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Zooming in on the Effects: a Controlled Trial on Motivation and Exercise Behaviour in a Digital Context
2018 (English)In: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 250-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is a description of a short-term digital exercise intervention based on the theoretical framework self-determination theory and tested in a controlled trial. The sample consisted of 318 adult women (n = 279) and men (n = 40) aged 23–67 years (M = 46.7; SD = 9.4) participating in a digital step contest provided by their employer. All participants completed study baseline measures via validated web-based versions of the following instruments: Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale, Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. These measures were repeated twice, 3 weeks (post-intervention) and 6 weeks (follow-up) after study baseline. The experimental group had access to the intervention platform for three weeks. Data were analysed by analyses of covariance and mediation variable analysis. Results showed the intervention to affect exercise level and intensity as well as basic psychological need satisfaction and behavioural regulations. Intervention effects on amotivation post-intervention were found to mediate total exercise behaviour at follow-up. Moderation analyses showed intervention effects on light exercise to be stronger for those participants engaging in moderate or high levels of light activities at study baseline. Also, the effect on identified regulation was stronger for those with low levels of identified regulation at study baseline. This study adds to the knowledge on exercise motivation based on short-term intervention effects on level and intensity of exercise and physical activity. The use of mediating and moderating analyses uncover processes underlying the main intervention effects. Findings are discussed in relation to self-determination theory and previous research. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2018
Keywords
Exercise Intervention Mediation Moderation Self-determination
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-32123 (URN)10.1007/s12144-016-9508-1 (DOI)000427195600026 ()2-s2.0-84988942781 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Funded by Halmstad University, University of Gothenburg and the Swedish KK-foundation.

Available from: 2016-10-02 Created: 2016-10-02 Last updated: 2020-02-03Bibliographically approved
Projects
GoFaR - Digital support systems for sustainable motivation to physical activity and health [2019-00962_Vinnova]; Halmstad University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4608-7300

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