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Bocharova, I., Kudryashov, B., Rabi, M., Lyamin, N., Dankers, W., Frick, E. & Vinel, A. (2019). Characterizing Packet Losses in Vehicular Networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 68(9), 8347-8358
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterizing Packet Losses in Vehicular Networks
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 8347-8358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To enable testing and performance evaluation of new connected and autonomous driving functions, it is important to characterize packet losses caused by degradation in vehicular (V2X) communication channels. In this paper we suggest an approach to constructing packet loss models based on the socalled Pseudo-Markov chains (PMC). The PMC based model needs only short training sequences, has low computational complexity, and yet provides more precise approximations than known techniques. We show how to learn PMC models from either empirical records of packet receptions, or from analytical models of fluctuations in the received signal strength. In particular, we validate our approach by applying it on (i) V2X packet reception data collected from an active safety test run, which used the LTE network of the AstaZero automotive testing site in Sweden, and (ii) variants of the Rician fading channel models corresponding to two models of correlations of packet losses. We also show that initializing the Baum-Welch algorithm with a second order PMC model leads to a high accuracy model. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Autonomous vehicles, cooperative ITS, VANET, V2X, channel estimation, hidden Markov models, fading channels
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40265 (URN)10.1109/TVT.2019.2930689 (DOI)000487191500006 ()
Projects
AstaMoCA ”Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

A short version of this paper has been presented at 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) which was held on July 7-12, 2019 in Paris, France.

Funding: the Knowledge Foundation in the framework of AstaMoCA ”Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019), COST Action CA15127 (”Resilient communication services protecting end-user applications from disaster-based failures – RECODIS”) supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology), Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) in the framework of Strategic Mobility Program (2019-2020), from the Estonian Research Council under the grant PRG49 and from the ELLIIT Strategic Research Network.

Available from: 2019-07-25 Created: 2019-07-25 Last updated: 2019-10-21Bibliographically approved
Hilt, B., Berbineau, M., Vinel, A., Jonsson, M. & Pirovano, A. (Eds.). (2019). Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 14th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2019, Colmar, France, May 16–17, 2019, Proceedings. Heidelberg: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 14th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2019, Colmar, France, May 16–17, 2019, Proceedings
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2019 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heidelberg: Springer, 2019. p. 119
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11461
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40261 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-25529-9 (DOI)978-3-030-25529-9 (ISBN)978-3-030-25528-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-07-22 Created: 2019-07-22 Last updated: 2019-07-23Bibliographically approved
Lyamin, N., Vinel, A. & Bellalta, B. (2019). Configuring the Decentralized Congestion Control for ETSI ITS-G5 C-ITS Applications. IEEE Communications Letters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configuring the Decentralized Congestion Control for ETSI ITS-G5 C-ITS Applications
2019 (English)In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) is one the central components of inter-vehicular communications protocol stack enabling Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS). In this letter we first present an analytical framework that allows to tune parameters of the DCC algorithm specified by ETSI. Then we suggest two approaches to optimize the DCC configuration using our framework. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the proposed approaches using detailed simulation experiments. We demonstrate that proposed approaches are able to control channel busy ratio stably, while proposed analytical model precisely estimates application level metrics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
C-ITS, VANET, V2X, DCC, ETSI, platooning, congestion control
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38761 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2019-01-16
Zhang, K., Mao, Y., Leng, S., Maharjan, S., Vinel, A. & Zhang, Y. (2019). Contract-theoretic Approach for Delay Constrained Offloading in Vehicular Edge Computing Networks. Journal on spesial topics in mobile networks and applications, 24(3), 1003-1014
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contract-theoretic Approach for Delay Constrained Offloading in Vehicular Edge Computing Networks
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2019 (English)In: Journal on spesial topics in mobile networks and applications, ISSN 1383-469X, E-ISSN 1572-8153, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 1003-1014Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) is a promising solution to improve vehicular services through offloading computation to cloud servers in close proximity to mobile vehicles. However, the self-interested nature together with the high mobility characteristic of the vehicles make the design of the computation offloading scheme a significant challenge. In this paper, we propose a new Vehicular Edge Computing (VEC) framework to model the computation offloading process of the mobile vehicles running on a bidirectional road. Based on this framework, we adopt a contract theoretic approach to design optimal offloading strategies for the VEC service provider, which maximize the revenue of the provider while enhancing the utilities of the vehicles. To further improve the utilization of the computing resources of the VEC servers, we incorporate task priority distinction as well as additional resource providing into the design of the offloading scheme, and propose an efficient VEC server selection and computing resource allocation algorithm. Numerical results indicate that our proposed schemes greatly enhance the revenue of the VEC provider, and concurrently improve the utilization of cloud computing resources. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Springer-Verlag New York, 2019
Keywords
Vehicular network, Cloud, Mobile edge computing, Contract theory
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36337 (URN)10.1007/s11036-018-1032-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066246860 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No.61374189, the joint fund of the Ministry of Education of P.R. China and China Mobile under Grant MCM20160304.

Available from: 2018-02-22 Created: 2018-02-22 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Amadeo, M., Campolo, C., Molinaro, A., Harri, J., Rothenberg, C. E. & Vinel, A. (2019). Enhancing the 3GPP V2X Architecture with Information-Centric Networking. Future Internet, 11(9), Article ID 199.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing the 3GPP V2X Architecture with Information-Centric Networking
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2019 (English)In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications allow a vehicle to interact with other vehicles and with communication parties in its vicinity (e.g., road-side units, pedestrian users, etc.) with the primary goal of making the driving and traveling experience safer, smarter and more comfortable. A wide set of V2X-tailored specifications have been identified by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) with focus on the design of architecture enhancements and a flexible air interface to ensure ultra-low latency, highly reliable and high-throughput connectivity as the ultimate aim. This paper discusses the potential of leveraging Information-Centric Networking (ICN) principles in the 3GPP architecture for V2X communications. We consider Named Data Networking (NDN) as reference ICN architecture and elaborate on the specific design aspects, required changes and enhancements in the 3GPP V2X architecture to enable NDN-based data exchange as an alternative/complementary solution to traditional IP networking, which barely matches the dynamics of vehicular environments. Results are provided to showcase the performance improvements of the NDN-based proposal in disseminating content requests over the cellular network against a traditional networking solution. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
5G, vehicle-to-everything, information centric networking, 3GPP, named data networking
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40609 (URN)10.3390/fi11090199 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Evdokimova, E., Vinel, A., Lyamin, N. & Fiems, D. (2019). Internet Provisioning in VANETs: Performance Modeling of Drive-Thru Scenarios. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internet Provisioning in VANETs: Performance Modeling of Drive-Thru Scenarios
2019 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Drive-thru-Internet is a scenario in cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITSs), where a road-side unit (RSU) provides multimedia services to vehicles that pass by. Performance of the drive-thru-Internet depends on various factors, including data traffic intensity, vehicle traffic density, and radio-link quality within the coverage area of the RSU, and must be evaluated at the stage of system design in order to fulfill the quality-of-service requirements of the customers in C-ITS. In this paper, we present an analytical framework that models downlink traffic in a drive-thru-Internet scenario by means of a multidimensional Markov process: the packet arrivals in the RSU buffer constitute Poisson processes and the transmission times are exponentially distributed. Taking into account the state space explosion problem associated with multidimensional Markov processes, we use iterative perturbation techniques to calculate the stationary distribution of the Markov chain. Our numerical results reveal that the proposed approach yields accurate estimates of various performance metrics, such as the mean queue content and the mean packet delay for a wide range of workloads. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
Keywords
Wireless networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, queueing analysis
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39539 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2019.2918075 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationEU, Horizon 2020Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2019-06-05 Created: 2019-06-05 Last updated: 2019-08-09
Lien, S.-Y., Kuo, Y.-C., Deng, D.-J., Tsai, H.-L., Vinel, A. & Benslimane, A. (2019). Latency-Optimal mmWave Radio Access for V2X Supporting Next Generation Driving Use Cases. IEEE Access, 7, 6782-6795
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latency-Optimal mmWave Radio Access for V2X Supporting Next Generation Driving Use Cases
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 6782-6795Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the facilitation of the fifth generation (5G) New Radio (NR), Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) applications have entered a brand new era to sustain the next generation driving use cases of advanced driving, vehicle platooning, extended sensors and remote driving. To deploy these driving use cases, the service requirements however include low latency, high reliability, and high data rates, which thus render utilizing millimeter wave (mmWave) carriers (spectrum above 6 GHz) as a remedy to empower the next generation driving use cases. However, suffering from severe signal attenuation, transmission range of mmWave carriers may be very limited, which is unfavorable in mobile network deployment to offer seamless services, and compel directional transmission/reception using beamforming mandatory. For this purpose, both a transmitter and a receiver should sweep their beams toward different directions over time, and a communication link can be established only if a transmitter and a receiver arrange their beam directions toward each other at the same time (known as beam alignment). Unfortunately, latency of performing beam sweeping to achieve beam alignment turns out the be a dominating challenge to exploit mmWave, especially for the next generation driving use cases. In this paper, we consequently derive essential principles and designs for beam sweeping at the transmitter side and receivers side, which not only guarantee the occurrence of beam alignment but also optimize the latency to achieve beam alignment. Based on the availabilities of a common geographic reference and the knowledge of beam sweeping scheme at the transmitter side, we derive corresponding performance bounds in terms of latency to achieve beam alignment, and device corresponding latency-optimal beam sweeping schemes. The provided engineering insights therefore pave inevitable foundations to practice the next generation driving use cases using mmWave carriers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
NR V2X, next generation driving use cases, mmWave, low latency, beam sweeping
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38664 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2888868 (DOI)2-s2.0-85058987989 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: This research is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) under the contracts MOST 106- 2221-E-194 -065 -MY2 and MOST 107-2218-E-009-046-, and is partially supported by the Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-tech Innovation (AIM-HI) from the Featured Area Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan.

Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2019-01-25Bibliographically approved
Bocharova, I., Kudryashov, B., Lyamin, N., Frick, E., Rabi, M. & Vinel, A. (2019). Low Delay Inter-Packet Coding in Vehicular Networks. Future Internet, 11(12), Article ID 212.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low Delay Inter-Packet Coding in Vehicular Networks
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2019 (English)In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITSs), vehicles need to wirelessly connect with Roadside units (RSUs) over limited durations when such point-to-point connections are possible. One example of such communications is the downloading of maps to the C-ITS vehicles. Another example occurs in the testing of C-ITS vehicles, where the tested vehicles upload trajectory records to the roadside units. Because of real-time requirements, and limited bandwidths, data are sent as User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets. We propose an inter-packet error control coding scheme that improves the recovery of data when some of these packets are lost; we argue that the coding scheme has to be one of convolutional coding. We measure performance through the session averaged probability of successfully delivering groups of packets. We analyze two classes of convolution codes and propose a low-complexity decoding procedure suitable for network applications. We conclude that Reed–Solomon convolutional codes perform better than Wyner–Ash codes at the cost of higher complexity. We show this by simulation on the memoryless binary erasure channel (BEC) and channels with memory, and through simulations of the IEEE 802.11p DSRC/ITS-G5 network at the C-ITS test track AstaZero.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
V2X, C-ITS, IEEE 802.11p, error-correcting codes, convolutional codes, fading channels
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40702 (URN)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Funding: European Cooperation in Science and Technology & Eesti Teadusagentuur (PRG49)

Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2019-10-11
Bocharova, I., Kudryashov, B., Rabi, M., Lyamin, N., Dankers, W., Frick, E. & Vinel, A. (2019). Modeling Packet Losses in Communication Networks. In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory: Proceedings. Paper presented at IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), Paris, France, July 7-12, 2019 (pp. 1012-1016).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling Packet Losses in Communication Networks
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2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory: Proceedings, 2019, p. 1012-1016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An approach to constructing discrete models of packet losses suitable for a wide variety of communication network applications is studied. It is based on estimating parameters of probabilistic automata described via so-called pseudo-Markov chains. The new technique is applied both to approximating a discrete time analog process at the output of known channel models and to the experimental data stream. Comparison of models is performed by computing probabilities of more than m losses out of n transmitted packets (P (m, n)). It is shown that for the Rician fading channel with exponential correlation and correlation determined by a Bessel filter, the obtained rank-two and rank-three discrete modes, respectively, provide high accuracy coincidence of P (m, n) performances. The rank-three discrete model computed on the experimental data stream obtained from the LTE network provides significantly better approximation of P (≥ m, n) performance than that obtained by the Baum-Welch algorithm.

National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40634 (URN)10.1109/ISIT.2019.8849400 (DOI)978-1-5386-9291-2 (ISBN)978-1-5386-9290-5 (ISBN)978-1-5386-9292-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), Paris, France, July 7-12, 2019
Projects
AstaMoCA
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Funder: European Cooperation in Science and Technology & Estonian Research Council

Available from: 2019-09-27 Created: 2019-09-27 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Campolo, C., Molinaro, A., Berthet, A. & Vinel, A. (2019). On Latency and Reliability of Road Hazard Warnings over the Cellular V2X Sidelink Interface. IEEE Communications Letters, 23(11), 2135-2138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Latency and Reliability of Road Hazard Warnings over the Cellular V2X Sidelink Interface
2019 (English)In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2135-2138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages (DENMs) are generated by a vehicle upon detection of an accident or other hazards on the road, and need to be promptly and reliably transmitted. Delayed or lost messages may have fatal consequences, especially in critical driving situations, such as automated overtake and emergency braking, when vehicles can be very close to each other. In this letter, the DENM latency and reliability performances are characterized over the Cellular Vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) sidelink (PC5 interface). The conducted study uses analytical tools, among which stochastic geometry, to derive performance results, then validated by simulations. Results are applied to the case of DENMs for emergency electronic brake lights, and helpful insights are provided for this crucial case and for other more general DENM-assisted V2X use cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Cellular V2X, PC5, DENM, stochastic geometry
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40344 (URN)10.1109/LCOMM.2019.2931686 (DOI)
Projects
SafeSmart ”Safety of Connected Intelligent Vehicles in Smart Cities” Synergy project (2019–2023)Strategic Mobility Program (2019-2020)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2019-07-29 Created: 2019-07-29 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4894-4134

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