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Pelliccione, P., Knauss, E., Ågren, S. M., Heldal, R., Bergenhem, C., Vinel, A. & Brunnegård, O. (2020). Beyond connected cars: A systems of systems perspective. Science of Computer Programming, Article ID 102414.
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2020 (English)In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, article id 102414Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

The automotive domain is rapidly changing in the last years. Among the different challenges OEMs (i.e. the vehicle manufacturers) are facing, vehicles are evolving into systems of systems. In fact, over the last years vehicles have evolved from disconnected and “blind" systems to systems that are (i) able to sense the surrounding environment and (ii) connected with other vehicles, the city, pedestrians, cyclists, etc. Future transportation systems can be seen as a System of Systems (SoS). In an SoS, constituent systems, i.e. the units that compose an SoS, can act as standalone systems, but their cooperation enables new emerging and promising scenarios. While this trend creates new opportunities, it also poses a risk to compromise key qualities such as safety, security, and privacy.

In this paper we focus on the automotive domain and we investigate how to engineer and architect cars in order to build them as constituents of future transportation systems. Our contribution is an architectural viewpoint for System of Systems, which we demonstrate based on an automotive example. Moreover, we contribute a functional reference architecture for cars as constituents of an SoS. This reference architecture can be considered as an imprinting for the implementations that would be devised in specific projects and contexts. We also point out the necessity for a collaboration among different OEMs and with other relevant stakeholders, such as road authorities and smart cities, to properly engineer systems of systems composed of cars, trucks, roads, pedestrians, etc. This work is realized in the context of two Swedish projects coordinated by Volvo Cars and involving some universities and research centers in Sweden and many suppliers of the OEM, including Autoliv, Arccore, Combitech, Cybercom, Knowit, Prevas, ÅF-Technology, Semcom, and Qamcom. ©2020 Published by Elsevier.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Software engineering, Systems of systems, Automotive, Architecture framework, Software architecture
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41563 (URN)10.1016/j.scico.2020.102414 (DOI)
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2020-02-04 Created: 2020-02-04 Last updated: 2020-02-05
Ni, Y., Cai, L., He, J., Vinel, A., Li, Y., Mosavat-Jahromi, H. & Pan, J. (2020). Toward Reliable and Scalable Internet-of-Vehicles: Performance Analysis and Resource Management. Proceedings of the IEEE, 108(2), 325-340
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Reliable and Scalable Internet-of-Vehicles: Performance Analysis and Resource Management
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2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE, ISSN 0018-9219, E-ISSN 1558-2256, Vol. 108, no 2, p. 325-340Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reliable and scalable wireless transmissions for Internet-of-Vehicles (IoV) are technically challenging. Each vehicle, from driver-assisted to automated one, will generate a flood of information, up to thousands of times of that by a person. Vehicle density may change drastically over time and location. Emergency messages and real-time cooperative control messages have stringent delay constraints while infotainment applications may tolerate a certain degree of latency. On a congested road, thousands of vehicles need to exchange information badly, only to find that service is limited due to the scarcity of wireless spectrum. Considering the service requirements of heterogeneous IoV applications, service guarantee relies on an in-depth understanding of network performance and innovations in wireless resource management leveraging the mobility of vehicles, which are addressed in this article. For single-hop transmissions, we study and compare the performance of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) beacon broadcasting using random access-based (IEEE 802.11p) and resource allocation-based (cellular vehicle-to-everything) protocols, and the enhancement strategies using distributed congestion control. For messages propagated in IoV using multihop V2V relay transmissions, the fundamental network connectivity property of 1-D and 2-D roads is given. To have a message delivered farther away in a sparse, disconnected V2V network, vehicles can carry and forward the message, with the help of infrastructure if possible. The optimal locations to deploy different types of roadside infrastructures, including storage-only devices and roadside units with Internet connections, are analyzed. © 2019 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020
Keywords
Internet-of-Vehicles (IoV), reliability, scalability, wireless communications
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-41305 (URN)10.1109/JPROC.2019.2950349 (DOI)2-s2.0-85076826764 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile CommunicationsKnowledge Foundation
Note

Funding: The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Compute Canada, Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC), the 111 Project, under Grant B12018; in part by the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant 61973218.

Available from: 2019-12-25 Created: 2019-12-25 Last updated: 2020-02-17
Lyamin, N., Bellalta, B. & Vinel, A. (2019). Age-of-Information-Aware Decentralized Congestion Control in VANETs. IEEE Networking Letters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age-of-Information-Aware Decentralized Congestion Control in VANETs
2019 (English)In: IEEE Networking Letters, E-ISSN 2576-3156Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) is one the central components of inter-vehicular communications protocol stack enabling Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS). In this letter we first present an analytical framework that allows to tune parameters of the DCC algorithm specified by ETSI. Then we suggest two approaches to optimize the DCC configuration using our framework. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the proposed approaches using detailed simulation experiments. We demonstrate that proposed approaches are able to control channel busy ratio stably, while proposed analytical model precisely estimates application level metrics. © 2019 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
C-ITS, VANET, V2X, DCC, ETSI, platooning, congestion control
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38761 (URN)10.1109/LNET.2020.2970695 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2020-02-18
Bocharova, I., Kudryashov, B., Rabi, M., Lyamin, N., Dankers, W., Frick, E. & Vinel, A. (2019). Characterizing Packet Losses in Vehicular Networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 68(9), 8347-8358
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 8347-8358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To enable testing and performance evaluation of new connected and autonomous driving functions, it is important to characterize packet losses caused by degradation in vehicular (V2X) communication channels. In this paper we suggest an approach to constructing packet loss models based on the socalled Pseudo-Markov chains (PMC). The PMC based model needs only short training sequences, has low computational complexity, and yet provides more precise approximations than known techniques. We show how to learn PMC models from either empirical records of packet receptions, or from analytical models of fluctuations in the received signal strength. In particular, we validate our approach by applying it on (i) V2X packet reception data collected from an active safety test run, which used the LTE network of the AstaZero automotive testing site in Sweden, and (ii) variants of the Rician fading channel models corresponding to two models of correlations of packet losses. We also show that initializing the Baum-Welch algorithm with a second order PMC model leads to a high accuracy model. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Autonomous vehicles, cooperative ITS, VANET, V2X, channel estimation, hidden Markov models, fading channels
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40265 (URN)10.1109/TVT.2019.2930689 (DOI)000487191500006 ()2-s2.0-85073793712 (Scopus ID)
Projects
AstaMoCA ”Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

A short version of this paper has been presented at 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) which was held on July 7-12, 2019 in Paris, France.

Funding: the Knowledge Foundation in the framework of AstaMoCA ”Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019), COST Action CA15127 (”Resilient communication services protecting end-user applications from disaster-based failures – RECODIS”) supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology), Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) in the framework of Strategic Mobility Program (2019-2020), from the Estonian Research Council under the grant PRG49 and from the ELLIIT Strategic Research Network.

Available from: 2019-07-25 Created: 2019-07-25 Last updated: 2020-02-03Bibliographically approved
Hilt, B., Berbineau, M., Vinel, A., Jonsson, M. & Pirovano, A. (Eds.). (2019). Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 14th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2019, Colmar, France, May 16–17, 2019, Proceedings. Heidelberg: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 14th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2019, Colmar, France, May 16–17, 2019, Proceedings
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2019 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heidelberg: Springer, 2019. p. 119
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11461
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40261 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-25529-9 (DOI)978-3-030-25529-9 (ISBN)978-3-030-25528-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-07-22 Created: 2019-07-22 Last updated: 2019-07-23Bibliographically approved
Zhang, K., Mao, Y., Leng, S., Maharjan, S., Vinel, A. & Zhang, Y. (2019). Contract-theoretic Approach for Delay Constrained Offloading in Vehicular Edge Computing Networks. Mobile Networks and Applications , 24(3), 1003-1014
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contract-theoretic Approach for Delay Constrained Offloading in Vehicular Edge Computing Networks
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2019 (English)In: Mobile Networks and Applications , ISSN 1383-469X, E-ISSN 1572-8153, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 1003-1014Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) is a promising solution to improve vehicular services through offloading computation to cloud servers in close proximity to mobile vehicles. However, the self-interested nature together with the high mobility characteristic of the vehicles make the design of the computation offloading scheme a significant challenge. In this paper, we propose a new Vehicular Edge Computing (VEC) framework to model the computation offloading process of the mobile vehicles running on a bidirectional road. Based on this framework, we adopt a contract theoretic approach to design optimal offloading strategies for the VEC service provider, which maximize the revenue of the provider while enhancing the utilities of the vehicles. To further improve the utilization of the computing resources of the VEC servers, we incorporate task priority distinction as well as additional resource providing into the design of the offloading scheme, and propose an efficient VEC server selection and computing resource allocation algorithm. Numerical results indicate that our proposed schemes greatly enhance the revenue of the VEC provider, and concurrently improve the utilization of cloud computing resources. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY: Springer-Verlag New York, 2019
Keywords
Vehicular network, Cloud, Mobile edge computing, Contract theory
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-36337 (URN)10.1007/s11036-018-1032-0 (DOI)000469238500024 ()2-s2.0-85066246860 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No.61374189, the joint fund of the Ministry of Education of P.R. China and China Mobile under Grant MCM20160304.

Available from: 2018-02-22 Created: 2018-02-22 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Amadeo, M., Campolo, C., Molinaro, A., Harri, J., Rothenberg, C. E. & Vinel, A. (2019). Enhancing the 3GPP V2X Architecture with Information-Centric Networking. Future Internet, 11(9), Article ID 199.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing the 3GPP V2X Architecture with Information-Centric Networking
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2019 (English)In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications allow a vehicle to interact with other vehicles and with communication parties in its vicinity (e.g., road-side units, pedestrian users, etc.) with the primary goal of making the driving and traveling experience safer, smarter and more comfortable. A wide set of V2X-tailored specifications have been identified by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) with focus on the design of architecture enhancements and a flexible air interface to ensure ultra-low latency, highly reliable and high-throughput connectivity as the ultimate aim. This paper discusses the potential of leveraging Information-Centric Networking (ICN) principles in the 3GPP architecture for V2X communications. We consider Named Data Networking (NDN) as reference ICN architecture and elaborate on the specific design aspects, required changes and enhancements in the 3GPP V2X architecture to enable NDN-based data exchange as an alternative/complementary solution to traditional IP networking, which barely matches the dynamics of vehicular environments. Results are provided to showcase the performance improvements of the NDN-based proposal in disseminating content requests over the cellular network against a traditional networking solution. © 2019 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
5G, vehicle-to-everything, information centric networking, 3GPP, named data networking
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40609 (URN)10.3390/fi11090199 (DOI)000487748900011 ()2-s2.0-85073802798 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Evdokimova, E., Vinel, A., Lyamin, N. & Fiems, D. (2019). Internet Provisioning in VANETs: Performance Modeling of Drive-Thru Scenarios. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internet Provisioning in VANETs: Performance Modeling of Drive-Thru Scenarios
2019 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Drive-thru-Internet is a scenario in cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITSs), where a road-side unit (RSU) provides multimedia services to vehicles that pass by. Performance of the drive-thru-Internet depends on various factors, including data traffic intensity, vehicle traffic density, and radio-link quality within the coverage area of the RSU, and must be evaluated at the stage of system design in order to fulfill the quality-of-service requirements of the customers in C-ITS. In this paper, we present an analytical framework that models downlink traffic in a drive-thru-Internet scenario by means of a multidimensional Markov process: the packet arrivals in the RSU buffer constitute Poisson processes and the transmission times are exponentially distributed. Taking into account the state space explosion problem associated with multidimensional Markov processes, we use iterative perturbation techniques to calculate the stationary distribution of the Markov chain. Our numerical results reveal that the proposed approach yields accurate estimates of various performance metrics, such as the mean queue content and the mean packet delay for a wide range of workloads. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
Keywords
Wireless networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, queueing analysis
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39539 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2019.2918075 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationEU, Horizon 2020Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2019-06-05 Created: 2019-06-05 Last updated: 2019-12-10Bibliographically approved
Lien, S.-Y., Kuo, Y.-C., Deng, D.-J., Tsai, H.-L., Vinel, A. & Benslimane, A. (2019). Latency-Optimal mmWave Radio Access for V2X Supporting Next Generation Driving Use Cases. IEEE Access, 7, 6782-6795
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latency-Optimal mmWave Radio Access for V2X Supporting Next Generation Driving Use Cases
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 6782-6795Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the facilitation of the fifth generation (5G) New Radio (NR), Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) applications have entered a brand new era to sustain the next generation driving use cases of advanced driving, vehicle platooning, extended sensors and remote driving. To deploy these driving use cases, the service requirements however include low latency, high reliability, and high data rates, which thus render utilizing millimeter wave (mmWave) carriers (spectrum above 6 GHz) as a remedy to empower the next generation driving use cases. However, suffering from severe signal attenuation, transmission range of mmWave carriers may be very limited, which is unfavorable in mobile network deployment to offer seamless services, and compel directional transmission/reception using beamforming mandatory. For this purpose, both a transmitter and a receiver should sweep their beams toward different directions over time, and a communication link can be established only if a transmitter and a receiver arrange their beam directions toward each other at the same time (known as beam alignment). Unfortunately, latency of performing beam sweeping to achieve beam alignment turns out the be a dominating challenge to exploit mmWave, especially for the next generation driving use cases. In this paper, we consequently derive essential principles and designs for beam sweeping at the transmitter side and receivers side, which not only guarantee the occurrence of beam alignment but also optimize the latency to achieve beam alignment. Based on the availabilities of a common geographic reference and the knowledge of beam sweeping scheme at the transmitter side, we derive corresponding performance bounds in terms of latency to achieve beam alignment, and device corresponding latency-optimal beam sweeping schemes. The provided engineering insights therefore pave inevitable foundations to practice the next generation driving use cases using mmWave carriers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2019
Keywords
NR V2X, next generation driving use cases, mmWave, low latency, beam sweeping
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38664 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2888868 (DOI)000457074300001 ()2-s2.0-85058987989 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding: This research is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) under the contracts MOST 106- 2221-E-194 -065 -MY2 and MOST 107-2218-E-009-046-, and is partially supported by the Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-tech Innovation (AIM-HI) from the Featured Area Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan.

Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
Bocharova, I., Kudryashov, B., Lyamin, N., Frick, E., Rabi, M. & Vinel, A. (2019). Low Delay Inter-Packet Coding in Vehicular Networks. Future Internet, 11(12), Article ID 212.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low Delay Inter-Packet Coding in Vehicular Networks
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2019 (English)In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITSs), vehicles need to wirelessly connect with Roadside units (RSUs) over limited durations when such point-to-point connections are possible. One example of such communications is the downloading of maps to the C-ITS vehicles. Another example occurs in the testing of C-ITS vehicles, where the tested vehicles upload trajectory records to the roadside units. Because of real-time requirements, and limited bandwidths, data are sent as User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets. We propose an inter-packet error control coding scheme that improves the recovery of data when some of these packets are lost; we argue that the coding scheme has to be one of convolutional coding. We measure performance through the session averaged probability of successfully delivering groups of packets. We analyze two classes of convolution codes and propose a low-complexity decoding procedure suitable for network applications. We conclude that Reed–Solomon convolutional codes perform better than Wyner–Ash codes at the cost of higher complexity. We show this by simulation on the memoryless binary erasure channel (BEC) and channels with memory, and through simulations of the IEEE 802.11p DSRC/ITS-G5 network at the C-ITS test track AstaZero.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
V2X, C-ITS, IEEE 802.11p, error-correcting codes, convolutional codes, fading channels
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-40702 (URN)10.3390/fi11100212 (DOI)000493523100010 ()2-s2.0-85073783875 (Scopus ID)
Projects
AstaMoCA “Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019)
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Note

Funding: 

The research leading to the results reported in this work has received funding from the Knowledge Foundation in the framework of AstaMoCA “Model-based Communication Architecture for the AstaZero Automotive Safety” project (2017–2019), COST Action CA15127 (“Resilient communication services protecting end-user applications from disaster-based failures—RECODIS”) supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology), Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) in the framework of Strategic Mobility Program (2019–2020), from Eesti Teadusagentuur under the grant PRG49 and from the ELLIIT Strategic Research Network.

Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2019-12-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4894-4134

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