hh.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Möllerström, E., Gipe, P., Beurskens, J. & Ottermo, F. (2019). A historical review of vertical axis wind turbines rated 100 kW and above. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 105, 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A historical review of vertical axis wind turbines rated 100 kW and above
2019 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 105, p. 1-13Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper summarizes and introduces all vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) projects where 100 kW or larger turbines have been installed. The basis for the review is both existing literature and personal correspondence with people once involved in the different developments. By citing the most relevant work for each project, the paper will also work as an information hub, making information on these projects more accessible.

Since the 1970s, there have been several VAWT projects with installed turbines of significant size, either as attempts to commercialize VAWTs, or as university led research projects, or as a combination of the two. Most have involved Darrieus turbines built in North America during the 1980s. However, H-rotors, which have always been a favored concept in Europe, have seen a revival during the 2010s.

The reason VAWTs have never fully challenged the success of the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) is too broad a question to answer here. However, the reasons some VAWT projects have failed are addressed in this paper. Besides the fact that many of the prototypes had terminal failures, most of the installed medium or large-scale VAWTs have to some extent had problems with metal fatigue and durability. Additionally, a lack of long-term interest from governmental or private funders, as well as the introduction of reliable HAWTs, was a recurring theme from those involved in VAWT development, regarding the reason VAWTs so far have failed to succeed. © 2018 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kidlington: Pergamon Press, 2019
Keywords
Vertical axis wind turbine, VAWT, Darrieus-turbine, H-rotor, Wind turbine history
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38798 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2018.12.022 (DOI)000460121000001 ()2-s2.0-85060475951 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-27 Created: 2019-01-27 Last updated: 2019-03-21Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E. & Ottermo, F. (2019). Comparison of inflow-turbulence and trailing-edge noise models with measurements of a 200-kW vertical axis wind turbine. Paper presented at WindEurope Conference and Exhibition 2019, Bilbao, Spain, 2–4 April, 2019. Journal of Physics, Conference Series, 1222, Article ID 012028.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of inflow-turbulence and trailing-edge noise models with measurements of a 200-kW vertical axis wind turbine
2019 (English)In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 1222, article id 012028Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Models of inflow-turbulence noise and turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge noise are compared to earlier measurements of a 200-kW vertical axis wind turbine so that conclusions regarding the origin of the aerodynamic noise can be drawn. The measurement campaigns, which aimed at establishing the noise emission value and locating the aerodynamic noise sources with a microphone array, are here both compared to further modified versions of the trailing-edge and inflow-turbulence models respectively. Unlike the case for horizontal axis wind turbine, inflow-turbulence noise is deemed as the prevailing noise mechanism. Reducing the self-induced turbulence could then be an effective way of lowering the noise levels for vertical axis wind turbines. Also, looking at the directivity of the inflow-turbulence noise model which indicate most noise in the cross-wind directions, a deviation from the standard downwind measurement position for measuring noise emission is suggested for the VAWT case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-39459 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/1222/1/012028 (DOI)
Conference
WindEurope Conference and Exhibition 2019, Bilbao, Spain, 2–4 April, 2019
Available from: 2019-05-23 Created: 2019-05-23 Last updated: 2019-06-07Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E. (2019). Wind Turbines from the Swedish Wind Energy Program and the Subsequent Commercialization Attempts – A Historical Review. Energies, 12(4), Article ID 690.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wind Turbines from the Swedish Wind Energy Program and the Subsequent Commercialization Attempts – A Historical Review
2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 690Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper summarizes wind turbines of Swedish origin, 50 kW and above. Both the large governmental-funded prototypes from the early 1980s and following attempts to build commercial turbines are covered. After the 1973 oil crisis, a development program for wind turbine technology was initiated in Sweden, culminating in the early 1980s with the 2 and 3-MW machines at Maglarp and Näsudden. However, government interest declined, and Sweden soon lost its position as one of the leading countries regarding wind turbine development. Nevertheless, several attempts to build commercial wind turbines in Sweden were made in the following decades. Most attempts have, like the earlier prototypes, used a two-bladed rotor, which has become synonymous with the Swedish wind turbine development line. The current ongoing Swedish endeavors primarily focus on the niche-concept of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs), which is a demonstration of how far from the broad commercial market of Sweden has moved. Thus far, none of the Swedish attempts have been commercially successful, and unlike countries like Denmark or Germany, Sweden currently has no large wind turbine producer. Suggested reasons include early government interventions focusing on two-bladed prototypes and political disinterest, with wind power grants cut in half by 1985, and the domestic industry not being favored in government policies for deploying wind power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
wind power, Swedish wind energy research program, wind power history
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-38966 (URN)10.3390/en12040690 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-02-20 Created: 2019-02-20 Last updated: 2019-02-28Bibliographically approved
Ottermo, F., Möllerström, E., Nordborg, A., Hylander, J. & Bernhoff, H. (2017). Location of aerodynamic noise sources from a 200 kW vertical-axis wind turbine. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 400, 154-166
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Location of aerodynamic noise sources from a 200 kW vertical-axis wind turbine
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 400, p. 154-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Noise levels emitted from a 200 kW H-rotor vertical-axis wind turbine have been measured using a microphone array at four different positions, each at a hub-height distance from the tower. The microphone array, comprising 48 microphones in a spiral pattern, allows for directional mapping of the noise sources in the range of 500 Hz to 4 kHz. The produced images indicate that most of the noise is generated in a narrow azimuth-angle range, compatible with the location where increased turbulence is known to be present in the flow, as a result of the previous passage of a blade and its support arms. It is also shown that a semi-empirical model for inflow-turbulence noise seems to produce noise levels of the correct order of magnitude, based on the amount of turbulence that could be expected from power extraction considerations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Vertical-axis wind turbine, H-rotor, Noise, Microphone array, Beamforming
National Category
Energy Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33813 (URN)10.1016/j.jsv.2017.03.033 (DOI)000402355100011 ()2-s2.0-85019218669 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUpStiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare
Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-09 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E. (2017). Noise, eigenfrequencies and turbulence behavior of a 200 kW H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise, eigenfrequencies and turbulence behavior of a 200 kW H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today more common and economically feasible horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages which still make them interesting, for example, the VAWTs can have the drive train at ground level and it has been argued that they have lower noise emission. Other proposed advantages are suitability for both up-scaling and floating offshore platforms.

The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between Halmstad University and Uppsala University. A 200-kW semi-guy-wired VAWT H-rotor, owned by Uppsala University but situated in Falkenberg close to Halmstad, has been the main subject of the research although most results can be generalized to suit a typical H-rotor.

This thesis has three main topics regarding VAWTs: (1) how the wind energy extraction is influenced by turbulence, (2) aerodynamical noise generation and (3) eigenfrequencies of the semi-guy-wired tower.

The influence from turbulence on the wind energy extraction is studied by evaluating logged operational data and examining how the power curve and the tip-speed ratio for maximum Cp is impacted by turbulence. The work has showed that the T1-turbine has a good ability to extract wind energy at turbulent conditions, indicating an advantage in energy extraction at turbulent sites for VAWTs compared to HAWTs.The noise characteristics are studied experimentally, and models of the two most likely aerodynamic noise mechanisms are applied. Here, inflow-turbulence noise is deemed as the prevailing noise source rather than turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge noise (TBL-TE) which is the most important noise mechanism for HAWTs. The overall noise emission has also been measured and proven low compared to similar sized HAWTs.

The eigenfrequencies of a semi-guy-wired tower are also studied. Analytical expressions describing the first-mode eigenfrequency of both tower and guy wire has been derived and verified by experiments and simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. p. 89
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1485
Keywords
VAWT, H-rotor, eigenfrequency, semi-guy-wired tower, noise emission, sound power level, microphone array, turbulence intensity, power curve
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33834 (URN)978-91-554-9834-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-04-28, Häggsalen, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-10 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E., Ottermo, F., Hylander, J. & Bernhoff, H. (2016). Noise Emission of a 200 kW Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Energies, 9(1), Article ID 19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise Emission of a 200 kW Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
2016 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The noise emission from a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) has been investigated. A noisemeasurement campaign on a 200 kW straight-bladed VAWT has been conducted, and the result hasbeen compared to a semi-empirical model for turbulent-boundary-layer trailing edge (TBL-TE) noise.The noise emission from the wind turbine was measured, at wind speed 8 m/s, 10 m above ground, to96.2 dBA. At this wind speed, the turbine was stalling as it was run at a tip speed lower than optimaldue to constructional constraints. The noise emission at a wind speed of 6 m/s, 10 m above groundwas measured while operating at optimum tip speed and was found to be 94.1 dBA. A comparisonwith similar size horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) indicates a noise emission at the absolutebottom of the range. Furthermore, it is clear from the analysis that the turbulent-boundary-layertrailing-edge noise, as modeled here, is much lower than the measured levels, which suggests thatother mechanisms are likely to be important, such as inflow turbulence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2016
Keywords
vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), H-rotor, noise, noise emission, sound power level
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27523 (URN)10.3390/en9010019 (DOI)000369501500013 ()2-s2.0-84956619748 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2015-01-19 Created: 2015-01-19 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E., Eriksson, S., Goude, A., Ottermo, F. & Hylander, J. (2016). Turbulence influence on optimum tip speed ratio for a 200 kW vertical axis wind turbine. Paper presented at 6th Science of Making Torque from Wind Conference, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, Oct. 5-7, 2016. Journal of Physics, Conference Series, 753, Article ID 032048.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turbulence influence on optimum tip speed ratio for a 200 kW vertical axis wind turbine
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 753, article id 032048Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of turbulence intensity (TI) on the tip speed ratio for maximum power coefficient, here called λCp-max, is studied for a 200 kW VAWT H-rotor using logged data from a 14 month period with the H-rotor operating in wind speeds up to 9 m/s. The TI - λCp-max relation is examined by dividing 10 min mean values in different turbulence intensity ranges and producing multiple CP(λ) curves. A clear positive relation between TI and λCp-max is shown and is further strengthened as possible secondary effects are examined and deemed non-essential. The established relation makes it possible to tune the control strategy to enhance the total efficiency of the turbine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2016
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-32175 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/753/3/032048 (DOI)000436325701024 ()2-s2.0-84995467631 (Scopus ID)
Conference
6th Science of Making Torque from Wind Conference, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, Oct. 5-7, 2016
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2016-10-09 Created: 2016-10-09 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E., Ottermo, F., Goude, A., Eriksson, S., Hylander, J. & Bernhoff, H. (2016). Turbulence influence on wind energy extraction for a medium size vertical axis wind turbine. Wind Energy, 19(11), 1963-1973
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turbulence influence on wind energy extraction for a medium size vertical axis wind turbine
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1963-1973Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The relation between power performance and turbulence intensity for a VAWT H-rotor is studied using logged data from a 14 month (discontinuous) period with the H-rotor operating in wind speeds up to 9 m/s. The turbine, designed originally for a nominal power of 200 kW, operated during this period mostly in a restricted mode due to mechanical concerns, reaching power levels up to about 80 kW. Two different approaches are used for presenting results, one that can be compared to power curves consistent with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard and one that allows isolating the effect of turbulence from the cubic variation of power with wind speed. Accounting for this effect, the turbine still shows slightly higher efficiency at higher turbulence, proposing that the H-rotor is well suited for wind sites with turbulent winds. The operational data are also used to create a Cp(λ) curve, showing slightly lower Cp compared with a curve simulated by a double multiple streamtube model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
VAWT, H-rotor, turbulence intensity, power coefficient curve
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30366 (URN)10.1002/we.1962 (DOI)000386149700001 ()2-s2.0-84990178448 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2016-02-19 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E., Bolin, K., Ottermo, F., Bååth, L. & Hylander, J. (2015). Noise directivity from a vertical axis wind turbine. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Wind Turbine Noise 2015: . Paper presented at The 6th International Conference on Wind Turbine Noise (WTN2015), Glasgow, Scotland, 20-23 April, 2015. New Brighton: INCE/Europe
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise directivity from a vertical axis wind turbine
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Wind Turbine Noise 2015, New Brighton: INCE/Europe , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The directivity of wind turbine noise is of widespread interest and has received attention over an extended period. The reason for this is partly that noise optimization procedures can be implemented in order to increase the efficiency of the power output. Although directivity of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) are well understood, the directivity pattern around vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are less well investigated.This paper presents measurements of directivity on a 200 kW VAWT, a so called H-rotor, with variable speed and a tower height of 40 m. The turbine, which is situated in a flat agricultural landscape close to Falkenberg at the Swedish west coast, is one of the world’s largest today operational VAWTs. Experimental results as well as a theoretical model based on the turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge (TBL-TE) noise suggest higher noise levels upwind of the rotor and the lowest noise levels in the perpendicular directions. Moreover, modulation analysis of the measurements indicates the presence of modulations but the results are inconclusive.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New Brighton: INCE/Europe, 2015
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-28164 (URN)
Conference
The 6th International Conference on Wind Turbine Noise (WTN2015), Glasgow, Scotland, 20-23 April, 2015
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E. (2015). Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: Tower Dynamics and Noise. (Licentiate dissertation). Uppsala: Uppsala universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: Tower Dynamics and Noise
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today common and economically feasible horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages such as the possibility to put the drive train at ground level, lower noise emissions and better scaling behavior which still make them interesting for research.

The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between the Department of Construction and Energy Engineering at Halmstad University and the Division for Electricity at Uppsala University. A 200 kW VAWT owned by the latter and situated close to Falkenberg in the southwest of Sweden has been the main subject of the research even if most learnings has been generalized to fit a typical vertical turbine. This particular turbine has a wooden tower which is semi-guy-wired, i.e. the tower is both firmly attached to the ground and supported by guy-wires.

This thesis has two main topics both regarding VAWTs: eigenfrequency of the tower and the noise generated from the turbine. The eigenfrequency of a semi-guy-wired tower is studied and an analytical expression describing this is produced and verified by experiments and simulations. The eigenfrequency of the wire itself and how it is affected by wind load are also studied.  The noise characteristics of VAWTs have been investigated, both theoretically and by noise measurement campaigns. Both noise emission and frequency distribution of VAWTs has been studied.

The work has resulted in analytical expressions for tower and wire eigenfrequency of a semi-guy-wired tower as well as recommendations for designing future towers for VAWTs. The noise emission of VAWTs has been studied and proven low compared to HAWTs. The noise frequency distribution of the 200 kW VAWT differs significantly from that of a similar size HAWTs with for example lower levels for frequencies below 3000 Hz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2015. p. 61
Series
UURIE / Uppsala universitet, Institutitionen för teknikvetenskaper, ISSN 0349-8352 ; 340-15L
Keywords
VAWT, H-rotor, eigenfrequency, semi-guy-wired tower, noise emission, sound power level
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27526 (URN)
Presentation
2015-01-16, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala, 13:43 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2015-01-22 Created: 2015-01-19 Last updated: 2015-02-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9982-5317

Search in DiVA

Show all publications