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Ottermo, F., Möllerström, E., Nordborg, A., Hylander, J. & Bernhoff, H. (2017). Location of aerodynamic noise sources from a 200 kW vertical-axis wind turbine. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 400, 154-166
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Location of aerodynamic noise sources from a 200 kW vertical-axis wind turbine
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 400, p. 154-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Noise levels emitted from a 200 kW H-rotor vertical-axis wind turbine have been measured using a microphone array at four different positions, each at a hub-height distance from the tower. The microphone array, comprising 48 microphones in a spiral pattern, allows for directional mapping of the noise sources in the range of 500 Hz to 4 kHz. The produced images indicate that most of the noise is generated in a narrow azimuth-angle range, compatible with the location where increased turbulence is known to be present in the flow, as a result of the previous passage of a blade and its support arms. It is also shown that a semi-empirical model for inflow-turbulence noise seems to produce noise levels of the correct order of magnitude, based on the amount of turbulence that could be expected from power extraction considerations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Vertical-axis wind turbine, H-rotor, Noise, Microphone array, Beamforming
National Category
Energy Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33813 (URN)10.1016/j.jsv.2017.03.033 (DOI)000402355100011 ()2-s2.0-85019218669 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUpStiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare
Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-09 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E. (2017). Noise, eigenfrequencies and turbulence behavior of a 200 kW H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise, eigenfrequencies and turbulence behavior of a 200 kW H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today more common and economically feasible horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages which still make them interesting, for example, the VAWTs can have the drive train at ground level and it has been argued that they have lower noise emission. Other proposed advantages are suitability for both up-scaling and floating offshore platforms.

The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between Halmstad University and Uppsala University. A 200-kW semi-guy-wired VAWT H-rotor, owned by Uppsala University but situated in Falkenberg close to Halmstad, has been the main subject of the research although most results can be generalized to suit a typical H-rotor.

This thesis has three main topics regarding VAWTs: (1) how the wind energy extraction is influenced by turbulence, (2) aerodynamical noise generation and (3) eigenfrequencies of the semi-guy-wired tower.

The influence from turbulence on the wind energy extraction is studied by evaluating logged operational data and examining how the power curve and the tip-speed ratio for maximum Cp is impacted by turbulence. The work has showed that the T1-turbine has a good ability to extract wind energy at turbulent conditions, indicating an advantage in energy extraction at turbulent sites for VAWTs compared to HAWTs.The noise characteristics are studied experimentally, and models of the two most likely aerodynamic noise mechanisms are applied. Here, inflow-turbulence noise is deemed as the prevailing noise source rather than turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge noise (TBL-TE) which is the most important noise mechanism for HAWTs. The overall noise emission has also been measured and proven low compared to similar sized HAWTs.

The eigenfrequencies of a semi-guy-wired tower are also studied. Analytical expressions describing the first-mode eigenfrequency of both tower and guy wire has been derived and verified by experiments and simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. p. 89
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1485
Keywords
VAWT, H-rotor, eigenfrequency, semi-guy-wired tower, noise emission, sound power level, microphone array, turbulence intensity, power curve
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-33834 (URN)978-91-554-9834-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-04-28, Häggsalen, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-10 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E., Ottermo, F., Hylander, J. & Bernhoff, H. (2016). Noise Emission of a 200 kW Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Energies, 9(1), Article ID 19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise Emission of a 200 kW Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
2016 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The noise emission from a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) has been investigated. A noisemeasurement campaign on a 200 kW straight-bladed VAWT has been conducted, and the result hasbeen compared to a semi-empirical model for turbulent-boundary-layer trailing edge (TBL-TE) noise.The noise emission from the wind turbine was measured, at wind speed 8 m/s, 10 m above ground, to96.2 dBA. At this wind speed, the turbine was stalling as it was run at a tip speed lower than optimaldue to constructional constraints. The noise emission at a wind speed of 6 m/s, 10 m above groundwas measured while operating at optimum tip speed and was found to be 94.1 dBA. A comparisonwith similar size horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) indicates a noise emission at the absolutebottom of the range. Furthermore, it is clear from the analysis that the turbulent-boundary-layertrailing-edge noise, as modeled here, is much lower than the measured levels, which suggests thatother mechanisms are likely to be important, such as inflow turbulence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2016
Keywords
vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), H-rotor, noise, noise emission, sound power level
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27523 (URN)10.3390/en9010019 (DOI)000369501500013 ()2-s2.0-84956619748 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2015-01-19 Created: 2015-01-19 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E., Eriksson, S., Goude, A., Ottermo, F. & Hylander, J. (2016). Turbulence influence on optimum tip speed ratio for a 200 kW vertical axis wind turbine. In: : . Paper presented at 6th Science of Making Torque from Wind Conference, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, Oct. 5-7, 2016. Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 753, Article ID 032048.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turbulence influence on optimum tip speed ratio for a 200 kW vertical axis wind turbine
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The influence of turbulence intensity (TI) on the tip speed ratio for maximum power coefficient, here called λCp-max, is studied for a 200 kW VAWT H-rotor using logged data from a 14 month period with the H-rotor operating in wind speeds up to 9 m/s. The TI - λCp-max relation is examined by dividing 10 min mean values in different turbulence intensity ranges and producing multiple CP(λ) curves. A clear positive relation between TI and λCp-max is shown and is further strengthened as possible secondary effects are examined and deemed non-essential. The established relation makes it possible to tune the control strategy to enhance the total efficiency of the turbine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2016
Series
Journal of Physics Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588 ; 753
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-32175 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/753/3/032048 (DOI)2-s2.0-84995467631 (Scopus ID)
Conference
6th Science of Making Torque from Wind Conference, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, Oct. 5-7, 2016
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2016-10-09 Created: 2016-10-09 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E., Ottermo, F., Goude, A., Eriksson, S., Hylander, J. & Bernhoff, H. (2016). Turbulence influence on wind energy extraction for a medium size vertical axis wind turbine. Wind Energy, 19(11), 1963-1973
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turbulence influence on wind energy extraction for a medium size vertical axis wind turbine
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2016 (English)In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1963-1973Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The relation between power performance and turbulence intensity for a VAWT H-rotor is studied using logged data from a 14 month (discontinuous) period with the H-rotor operating in wind speeds up to 9 m/s. The turbine, designed originally for a nominal power of 200 kW, operated during this period mostly in a restricted mode due to mechanical concerns, reaching power levels up to about 80 kW. Two different approaches are used for presenting results, one that can be compared to power curves consistent with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard and one that allows isolating the effect of turbulence from the cubic variation of power with wind speed. Accounting for this effect, the turbine still shows slightly higher efficiency at higher turbulence, proposing that the H-rotor is well suited for wind sites with turbulent winds. The operational data are also used to create a Cp(λ) curve, showing slightly lower Cp compared with a curve simulated by a double multiple streamtube model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
VAWT, H-rotor, turbulence intensity, power coefficient curve
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30366 (URN)10.1002/we.1962 (DOI)000386149700001 ()2-s2.0-84990178448 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2016-02-19 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E., Bolin, K., Ottermo, F., Bååth, L. & Hylander, J. (2015). Noise directivity from a vertical axis wind turbine. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Wind Turbine Noise 2015: . Paper presented at The 6th International Conference on Wind Turbine Noise (WTN2015), Glasgow, Scotland, 20-23 April, 2015. New Brighton: INCE/Europe
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise directivity from a vertical axis wind turbine
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Wind Turbine Noise 2015, New Brighton: INCE/Europe , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The directivity of wind turbine noise is of widespread interest and has received attention over an extended period. The reason for this is partly that noise optimization procedures can be implemented in order to increase the efficiency of the power output. Although directivity of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) are well understood, the directivity pattern around vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are less well investigated.This paper presents measurements of directivity on a 200 kW VAWT, a so called H-rotor, with variable speed and a tower height of 40 m. The turbine, which is situated in a flat agricultural landscape close to Falkenberg at the Swedish west coast, is one of the world’s largest today operational VAWTs. Experimental results as well as a theoretical model based on the turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge (TBL-TE) noise suggest higher noise levels upwind of the rotor and the lowest noise levels in the perpendicular directions. Moreover, modulation analysis of the measurements indicates the presence of modulations but the results are inconclusive.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New Brighton: INCE/Europe, 2015
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-28164 (URN)
Conference
The 6th International Conference on Wind Turbine Noise (WTN2015), Glasgow, Scotland, 20-23 April, 2015
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E. (2015). Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: Tower Dynamics and Noise. (Licentiate dissertation). Uppsala: Uppsala universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: Tower Dynamics and Noise
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today common and economically feasible horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages such as the possibility to put the drive train at ground level, lower noise emissions and better scaling behavior which still make them interesting for research.

The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between the Department of Construction and Energy Engineering at Halmstad University and the Division for Electricity at Uppsala University. A 200 kW VAWT owned by the latter and situated close to Falkenberg in the southwest of Sweden has been the main subject of the research even if most learnings has been generalized to fit a typical vertical turbine. This particular turbine has a wooden tower which is semi-guy-wired, i.e. the tower is both firmly attached to the ground and supported by guy-wires.

This thesis has two main topics both regarding VAWTs: eigenfrequency of the tower and the noise generated from the turbine. The eigenfrequency of a semi-guy-wired tower is studied and an analytical expression describing this is produced and verified by experiments and simulations. The eigenfrequency of the wire itself and how it is affected by wind load are also studied.  The noise characteristics of VAWTs have been investigated, both theoretically and by noise measurement campaigns. Both noise emission and frequency distribution of VAWTs has been studied.

The work has resulted in analytical expressions for tower and wire eigenfrequency of a semi-guy-wired tower as well as recommendations for designing future towers for VAWTs. The noise emission of VAWTs has been studied and proven low compared to HAWTs. The noise frequency distribution of the 200 kW VAWT differs significantly from that of a similar size HAWTs with for example lower levels for frequencies below 3000 Hz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2015. p. 61
Series
UURIE / Uppsala universitet, Institutitionen för teknikvetenskaper, ISSN 0349-8352 ; 340-15L
Keywords
VAWT, H-rotor, eigenfrequency, semi-guy-wired tower, noise emission, sound power level
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27526 (URN)
Presentation
2015-01-16, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala, 13:43 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2015-01-22 Created: 2015-01-19 Last updated: 2015-02-18Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E., Ottermo, F., Hylander, J. & Bernhoff, H. (2014). Avoidance of resonances in a semi-guy-wired vertical axis wind turbine. In: : . Paper presented at EWEA 2014 - European Wind Energy Association – Annual Event (Conference), Barcelona, Spain, 10-13 March, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avoidance of resonances in a semi-guy-wired vertical axis wind turbine
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Resonance analysis for a vertical axis wind turbine is performed. The turbine may be described as semi-guy wired, being bolted stiffly to the ground as well as supported by guy wires. The influence of the first mode eigen frequency of the guy wires and how it is affected by wind load is examined. Using beam theory, an analytical model for calculating the first mode eigen frequency of the guy wire for different wind loads is derived. The analytical model is verified with FEM-simulations and then used to assemble a diagram showing how to combine the wire size, inclination angle and pre-tension for an eigen frequency range over the 3P load for nominal rotational speed and for a certain effective spring force acting on the tower. This diagram, here called an EA-T diagram, may be used as a quick tool for comparing wire setups and a similar diagram can be used for other guy wired structures.

Keywords
VAWT, guy wire, semi-guy-wired, resonance, eigen frequency, natural frequency
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-24884 (URN)
Conference
EWEA 2014 - European Wind Energy Association – Annual Event (Conference), Barcelona, Spain, 10-13 March, 2014
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2014-03-19 Created: 2014-03-19 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E., Ottermo, F., Hylander, J. & Bernhoff, H. (2014). Eigen Frequencies of A Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Tower Made of Laminated Wood and the Effect Upon Attaching Guy Wires. Wind Engineering: The International Journal of Wind Power, 38(3), 277-290
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eigen Frequencies of A Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Tower Made of Laminated Wood and the Effect Upon Attaching Guy Wires
2014 (English)In: Wind Engineering: The International Journal of Wind Power, ISSN 0309-524X, E-ISSN 2048-402X, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 277-290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eigen frequencies of a vertical axis wind turbine tower made out of laminated wood which are both bolted to the ground and supported by guy wires are studied and compared. Using beam theory, an analytical model taking the guy wires into account for calculating the first mode eigen frequency of the tower has been derived. The analytical model is then evaluated by comparing with FEM-simulations and measurements performed on the actual tower. The model is found to be reasonably accurate keeping in mind that the estimated masses and second moments of area are somewhat rough. Furthermore the model can be used to give an indication of the magnitude of change in eigen frequency when modifying a tower or guy wire property.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brentwood, United Kingdom: Multi-Science Publishing, 2014
Keywords
VAWT, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Semi-guy-wired, Natural frequency, Eigen frequency, Resonance
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-25467 (URN)10.1260/0309-524X.38.3.277 (DOI)2-s2.0-84901792518 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2014-06-02 Created: 2014-06-02 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Möllerström, E., Larsson, S., Ottermo, F., Hylander, J. & Bååth, L. (2014). Noise Propagation from a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. In: John Davy, Charles Don, Terry McMinn, Liz Dowsett, Norm Broner & Marion Burgess (Ed.), Proceedings of 43rd International Congress on Noise Control Engineering: Internoise 2014. Paper presented at inter.noise 2014, 43rd International Congress on Noise Control Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, November 16-19, 2014. Brisbane, QLD: Australian Acoustical Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise Propagation from a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
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2014 (English)In: Proceedings of 43rd International Congress on Noise Control Engineering: Internoise 2014 / [ed] John Davy, Charles Don, Terry McMinn, Liz Dowsett, Norm Broner & Marion Burgess, Brisbane, QLD: Australian Acoustical Society , 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Initial noise measurements were performed on a 200kW vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) and results were compared to that of a Vestas V27, a similar size horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). Multiple recording units were placed in line downwind of the turbine to investigate noise propagation. The frequency distribution of the noise were analyzed indicating that the VAWT has lower relative levels for frequencies under 3000 Hz, especially within 600-1200 Hz. Furthermore, VAWT noise seems to occur more around the same frequencies as the natural background noise, increasing masking probability. Results from propagation measurements seemed to indicate that noise declines more rapidly with distance for the VAWT then for the reference HAWT, possibly explained by the lower levels at low frequencies. Further investigation is needed to establish these differences and the 200 kW VAWT creates an opportunity doing so utilizing arguably the largest operational VAWT existing today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brisbane, QLD: Australian Acoustical Society, 2014
Keywords
VAWT, Wind Turbine, Propagation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27107 (URN)2-s2.0-84923595295 (Scopus ID)978-0-909882-02-0 (ISBN)978-0-909882-03-7 (ISBN)978-0-909882-04-4 (ISBN)
Conference
inter.noise 2014, 43rd International Congress on Noise Control Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, November 16-19, 2014
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2014-11-25 Created: 2014-11-25 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9982-5317

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