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  • Shehadeh, Alexandros
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Ted, Gustavsson
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    "Det första jag tänker på är islam": En kvalitativ studie kring uppfattningen om hedersproblematik utifrån intersektionell teori2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hedersproblematik är ett aktuellt ämne som väcker debatt kring dess komplexitet. Som blivande religionslärare står vi inför ett komplicerat uppdrag att undervisa om hedersproblematikens alla dimensioner. Genom att intervjua religionslärare på gymnasieskolor vill vi få en förståelse kring deras uppfattning om hedersproblematik. Vidare kommer vi analysera empirin utifrån den intersektionella teorin och undersöka i vilken grad det återspeglar deras uppfattning. Således är syftet med denna forskning att genom intervjuer kartlägga huruvida deras uppfattning kan tolkas utifrån den intersektionella teorin. Resultatet visar att uppfattningen om hedersproblematik framförallt kopplas till etnicitet, religion, kön samt vistelsetid i Sverige och graden av interaktion med omgivningen. Slutsatsen av studien är att religionslärarnas uppfattning visar på att det finns en komplexitet gällande hedersproblematik. Perspektiv som etnicitet, religion, kön samt vistelsetid i Sverige och graden av interaktion med omgivningen, visar sig i deras uppfattning men saknar flerdimensionella skikt.

  • Berndtson, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    "De är inte längre trögtänkta bönder": En studie av pragmatiska betydelser i texter från populärvetenskapen och Nationalencyklopedin2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning analyserar mängden inferenser i texter från populärvetenskap och uppslagsverk. Inferenser har därför sammanställts från fyra artiklar, vilka berör de två ämnena Alexander den store och Slaget vid Kursk. Två texter från vartdera ämnet valdes från den populärvetenskapliga tidningen Världens historia som har jämförts med två motsvarande texter från Nationalencyklopedin. Teoretiska begrepp från grundläggande pragmatik och relevansteori (relevance theory) har använts i analysen, och iakttagelserna har sedan jämförts för att se hur det pragmatiska textbruket liknar eller skiljer sig åt mellan texttyperna. Analysen visar att de populärvetenskapliga texterna innehöll en större mängd inferenser än de i Nationalencyklopedin. Alltså användes också ett pragmatiskt språkbruk i större utsträckning i de underhållande texterna än i de sakliga i detta material.

  • Banemark, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Eliasson, Pernilla
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Hidradenitis suppurativas påverkan på livet: En allmän litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hidradenitis suppurativa är en kronisk hudsjukdom som drabbar ca 1-4% av befolkningen. Trots att sjukdomssymtomen varit kända sedan mitten av 1800-talet är patofysiologin ännu inte klarlagd och patientgruppen är svårbehandlad. Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka hur livet påverkas av att leva med hidradenitis suppurativa. 

    Metod: Ansatsen som användes var allmän litteraturöversikt. Kvalitativa och kvantitativa artiklar valdes ut inom ämnet och analyserades för att sedan utgöra grunden i studien. Resultat: Resultatet delades in i följande kategorier: fysiska symtom, psykiska konsekvenser samt betydelsen av stöd. Att leva med hidradenitis suppurativa medför ett lidande som påverkar livskvaliteten i varierande omfattning. Prevalensen för psykiska sjukdomar är större hos patienter med hidradenitis suppurativa och de fysiska symtomen orsakar extensiva besvär som vidare kan leda till låg självkänsla och isolering. Slutsatser: Studiens resultat synliggör att det finns kunskapsluckor kring bemötande, omvårdnad och behandling av patienter med HS och många patienter lider av smärtproblematik relaterat till sjukdomen. På grund av de ofta omfattande fysiska symtomen hamnar den psykiska hälsan i skymundan och kan orsaka extensiva nedsättningar i patienternas liv. Behov av stöd från såväl närstående och sjukvård är en önskvärd tillgång för patienter med HS, som på grund av bristande kunskap i dagsläget inte tillräckligt tillgodoses. Med ökad kunskap om sjukdomsbilden blir sjuksköterskan bättre rustad att ge en hälsofrämjande och personcentrerad vård ur ett holistiskt perspektiv. 

  • Engström, Wilma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kaspersson, Emma
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Närstående i beslutsprocessen: Närståendes upplevelser av beslut om livsuppehållande behandling2019Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När en patient inte kan ta beslut för sig själv, ställer det stora krav på närstående att vara delaktiga i beslutsfattandet. Ansvar för andra individers val, särskilt om det är någon som står en nära, är något som kan upplevas stressande. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva närståendes upplevelser av att delta i beslutsprocessen gällande livsuppehållande behandling. Metod: Studien har genomförts som en allmän litteraturstudie där resultatartiklar sökts fram i databaserna PubMed, CINAHL och PsycINFO. Resultat: Resultatet visade på att beslutsprocessen kunde ses utifrån en tidslinje, där olika upplevelser uppstod vid olika tidpunkter i processen. Det framkom tre kategorier utifrån artiklarna med tidslinjen i åtanke: behov av och förståelse av information; osäkerhet och rädsla i beslutsfattandet och emotionella upplevelser. Slutsats: Närstående upplevde att de mottog otillräcklig och fragmenterad information från vårdpersonal. De upplevde även ett behov av tid till att nå insikt för att kunna ta grundade beslut. Närstående upplevde en osäkerhet i rollen vilket resulterade i rädsla för ansvar. Till sist uppkom en emotionell börda eftersom det fanns en ständig oro att fel beslut fattats, eller att patientens önskningar inte tagits i beaktande. 

  • Knezevic, Sabina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Larsson, Annika
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    "Att hamna mellan stolarna": En kvalitativ studie om myndigheters hantering av ärende och bemötande med individer med psykisk ohälsa2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the WHO, mental health increases globally, in the background to this we have chosen to immerse ourselves in how individuals with mental ill-health feel that they are treated and handled by the following Arbetsförmedlingen, Försäkringskassan and Socialförvaltningen. The approach of this study has been a qualitative metodansats with a hermeneutic entrance, which was carried out five qualitative interviews were conducted. The purpose of this study is to gain insight in how the authorities are complying with the laws and regulations that are legislated on the subject of mental illness, as well as to highlight the authorities ' management and staff. Our work has been in the system, and pain, as well, organizational theory and the role/research. The results indicate that the comply with the designated laws, regulations, and guidelines, and that they are able to provide assistance to the clients, and they meet every day in a professional manner. We can conclude that the relationship between the individual and the public authorities are characterised by a certain lack of precision about the process.

  • Svensson, Jessika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Tufvesson, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Ordet sexualitet som ett dilemma: En kvalitativ studie om förskolepersonals resonemang i ett samtal2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete baseras på förskolepersonals resonemang kring sexuella läggningar och vilka språkliga mönster samt förhållningssätt som är utmärkande i diskurserna. Utifrån forskning finns en osäkerhet kring begreppet sexuella läggningar bland förskolepersonal. Syftet med denna studie var att bidra med fördjupad kunskap om vilka resonemang som uppstår i ett samtal om sexuella läggningar med förskolepersonal. Föreliggande studies forskningsfrågor är följande: Vilka språkliga mönster uppträder när förskolepersonal samtalar om sexuella läggningar? Vilka diskurser skapas utifrån förskolepersonals förhållningssätt gentemot begreppet sexuella läggningar? Examensarbetet har utgått ifrån socialkonstruktionism då förskolepersonalens resonemang genom språket analyserades. Den kvalitativa studien genomfördes på två olika förskolor, där sammanlagt sju förskolepersonal, från båda förskolor, medverkade i form av fokusgruppssamtal. Resultatet visar på flera diskurser som förskolepersonal konstruerade under ett samtal kring olika sexualiteter. En diskurs som tillåtande, en diskurs om att inte överdriva diskursen, en diskurs som ett problematiserande förhållningssätt samt en diskurs som ett dilemma. Den sammantagna slutsatsen som föreliggande studie därför har kommit fram till blir att oavsett vilka verktyg förskolepersonalen använder för att skapa en tillåtande diskurs eller på vilket sätt deras förhållningssätt synliggörs utifrån deras resonemang, finns ändå ordet sexualitet som ett dilemma inom verksamheten.

  • Bengtsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Yan, Ella
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Äldres upplevelser av dagligt liv efter höftfraktur: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hip fractures in the elderly will be a major global health problem due to the rapidly growing elderly population. A hip fracture can result in several negative consequences in daily life, thus it is important to highlight how the elderly experience life after the hip fracture. The aim of this study was to illuminate the elderly’s experience of daily life after hip fracture. The study is a literature review with inductive approach through manifest content analysis and consists of ten scientific articles with both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The result is presented in three main categories: experienced changes in daily life, experiences of need of rehabilitation, experiences of need of social support. The elderly experience changes in the daily life after the hip fracture from a physical and mental as well as social perspective. They need different forms of support to be able to return to their functional daily life. Further research should focus on gender-specific knowledge regarding changes in the daily life of the elderly with hip fractures.

  • Nataraj, Vismitha
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Narayanan, Sushmitha
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Resolving Class Imbalance using Generative Adversarial Networks2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Joel, Jaldemark
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Remote control of frequency inverter2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emotron has a frequency inverter on the market that different industries uses in their factories. In case of errors they need to send out service to the factories in order to examine the inverter and find the error. They now want a solution that makes it possible for them to give support without leaving the office by connecting their devices to the cloud which eliminates the need to send out staff to industries. Emotron gave this task to HMS and has been possible with their product Anybus wiress bolt. By connecting the Anybus wireless bolt to the inverter it was possible to communicate with the cloud, MicrosoftAzure, where a static webb application is hosted. The application is made to look like the terminal on the inverter and has similiar structures and functionality. Through the application users can communicate withthe inverter by means of controlling the connected motor, reading registers and also write to certain registers. These registers contain different measurement and option parameters. The purpose of this thesis was to create a Proof-of-Concept solution using the Anybus wireless bolt. The thesis has shown of industries can use Anybus wireless bolt and the tag engine to make it possible to create a link between machines and the ever- growing cloud and is also the first part of a bigger project.

  • Nilsson, Ruth
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Zekolli Januzi, Arbesa
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    På engelska är det lätt att det låser sig: Hur resonerar lärare kring faktorer som påverkar elevers vilja inför muntlig kommunikation på engelska?- En innehållsanalys av lärareintervjuer.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie presenterar problematiken med att elever med åren blir allt mer tysta under sin engelskundervisning; där lärare finner svårigheter med att uppmuntra elever att prata engelska. Studien presenterar tidigare forskning som belyser möjliga anledningar till att elever blir tystare med åldern, vilket enligt forskning, kan bero på oro, dåligt självförtroende och avsaknad av en trygghetskänsla.  Syftet med denna studie var att ta reda på åk 4–6 lärares åsikter om hur mycket elever talar engelska. Denna studie syftar till att besvara frågan: Hur resonerar lärare kring faktorer som kan påverka elevers vilja inför muntlig kommunikation på engelska? Studien presenterar också hypotesen om att lärare kommer att uttrycka att det är viktigt att skapa trygghet hos eleverna. Det är viktigt för elever att upprätthålla en muntlig kommunikation under sin engelskundervisning. I resultatet framkom att lärarna resonerade kring flera faktorer som påverkar elevernas muntliga kommunikation: trygghet, oro och självförtroende. Resultatet gav också stöd för studiens hypotes, där de deltagande lärarna uttryckte att det upplevdes viktigt att skapa en trygghet hos eleverna för att de ska kunna uttrycka sig muntligt under engelskundervisningen. De implikationer som kan dras ur studiens resultat är att lärare bör ta hänsyn till elevers trygghet, oro och självförtroende. Det identifierades i resultatet att eleverna var mer villiga att prata i mindre grupper, vilket i sin tur främjar elevernas muntliga kommunikation under engelskundervisningen.  

  • Hansen, Olivia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Det upplevda bemötandet inom damfotbollen: - En intervjustudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During several years the discussion about equality in soccer has grown and now interests the society at large. This discussion is often focused on economical differences between male and female players, where male players earn more, even though they play at the same level. The equality subject is always more notice when female players talk about their situation and their unfair conditions within the same sport. How do female players experience the way they are treated as a result of the difference in the sport of soccer? The aim of this of this study is to look at how female players perceive treatment within women’s soccer. The research questions of the study are: how are women experiencing that they are being treated, which comments do they get, and what has changed over time within the sport for more equal existence. The theoretical frame of the study is the concepts of: power, intersectionality and globalization. Four semi-structed interviews with active and previously active female players were conducted. The result shows that there is a degrading attitude that lacks respect against female players, but that at the same time there has been a positive development. Further the result shows that through women’s commitment and influences the development continues to be noticed in the right direction. Women’s soccer is dependent on globalization to change the distribution of power.

  • Sufiye, Shooresh
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Industrial Internet of Things Edge Computing: Edge Forensics2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an upcoming prominent technology which is quickly growing. Not all IoTdemands of computing resources can be satisfied by cloud, and obstacles are firmer when it comes to mobility and agility. Thus, edge computing as a suitable middleware can fill the gap between cloud and IoT devices. Refer to the latest researches, edge security is still evolving, and forensics is almost untouched. In this work, we attempt to study available technologies and materials then design and implement an edge computing application which addresses the challenge of log collection from different edge devices. The interaction between edge and cloud is in a fashion that cloud entity can perform log collection from heterogeneous edge devices belong to different owners. On the other hand, due to local computing on the logs, the edge devicecan trust cloud party. Results show that thanks to the crucial topological position of the edge devices, the concept of edge computing can easily solve similar cloud challenges.

  • Månsson, Erica
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    En del av en helhet.: En läromedelsanalys om del av helhet inom tal i bråkform.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Elever både i yngre och äldre åldrar visar otillräckliga kunskaper vid inlärningen av tal i bråkform, vilket är ett återkommande mönster genom alla skolår. Läromedelsbok är dominerande i matematikundervisningen i svenska skolor. Lärare upplever matematikundervisningen som ointressant utan en läromedelsbok att utgå ifrån och vet inte hur de ska undervisa i matematik utan någon läromedelsbok. Syftet med studien är att bidra med kunskaper om hur läromedelsböcker synliggör och utmanar elever i matematikområdet del av helhet inom tal i bråkform. Frågeställningen i studien är: Hur synliggörs del av helhet i matematikläromedel? och På vilken kognitiv nivå möter elever del av helhet inom tal i bråkform? Resultatet visade att del av helhet mestadels synliggörs i form av geometriska figurer dock på en varierad kognitiv nivå.

  • Hansson, Mikael
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Klimatkämpen Greta: En kvalitativ textanalys om Greta Thunbergs medborgarengagemang2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: With particular regard to the traditional media and political participation in Sweden, Iintend to map how and in what way Greta Thunberg protests and the political engagement she expresses.

    Questions:

    • How is Greta Thunberg’s protesting framed and how can it be understood based on theprotest paradigm?

    • How can you understand Greta Thunberg´s political participation on the basis of ideasabout Civic Engagement?

    Method and material: This report is a qualitative study based on a textual analysis. For collectingthe empirical material, I have chosen to use texts from Swedish news articles. I used 27articles from 2 newspapers which is Aftonbladet and Expressen.

    Main results: The study shows that media puts greater focus on Greta Thunberg as a personinstead of the factual content and political agenda she stands for. This contributes to GretaThunberg being marginalized and delegitimized, since she is considered a symbol thatchallenges the political power structure. Greta Thunberg feels responsible for the climateissue and it is her duty to be able to contribute to a democratic society by getting involved.Greta Thunberg considers her participation in the media that she feels a moral obligation toengage with the climate.

  • Åhlén, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Malm, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Erfarenheter av hjärtrehabilitering hos patienter med kardiovaskulära sjukdomar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular diseases is the most common cause of death in the world. Cardiac rehabilitation is an difficult time for the affected. Health professionals need insight in patients experiences of cardiac rehabilitation to be able to provide good and person centered care. The aim of the structured literature study was to explore patients affected by cardiovascular diseases experiences of cardiac rehabilitation. the result of the study was based on 11 scientific articles with a qualitative approach. Three main themes emerged: Experiences of support, Experiences of information and Experiences of physical activity. The result illustrate the significance of peer support in cardiac rehabilitation for participants, both social and psychological. Participants experienced insecurity regarding physical activity, especially because it reminded them of their negative experiences of chest pain and increased heart rate.The information received at the acute phase was hard for the patients to absorb. The information was perceived as general by the patients and not customized for their specific situation. A need for further education about patients experiences for health professionals is seen for them to be able to provide a good and person centered care

  • Elfarran, Amani
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Elfarran, Nada
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    BRISTANDE SOCIALA BAND OCH KRIMINALITET: ’’Om någon sa till mig du får vinna på lotto hundra miljoner, eller lyckas med ett rån på 50 miljoner. Jag hade valt rånet ’’. -Anonym2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The crime rate continues to grow in our society. This paper document will show you why eight ex-criminals lived and had a criminal life style. This study has also been based on which motives that led these men to choose a criminal lifestyle as well as what social consequences have arisen. The study is based on a qualitative approach and empirical data have been gathered with the help of semi-structured in-depth interviews. Theories used for analusis of collected empirics are social ties by Thomas Scheff, social ties by Travis Hirschi and anomie by Emile Durkheim. Motives that has been emerged among other things is a lack of social ties, poorer living conditions when it comes to finances and resident’s segregation. This study has been completed with help by a qualitative

  • Public defence: 2020-02-21 10:00 O103, Halmstad
    Cederholm Björklund, Jennie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Value creation for sustainable rural development – perspectives of entrepreneurship in agriculture2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship and innovation are regarded as key factors in the development of society - not least in the development of sustainable rural areas, where they are emphasised by both authorities and research. This thesis is situated in this field of inquiry and studies entrepreneurship in agriculture. It explores how we can further develop both agriculture and sustainable rural areas. Farmers have traditionally played a significant role in rural areas and rural development, and still do. However in pace with societal development and the reduced number of farms and farm production, their role has changed. Today, they are considered as raw material producers, being the first link in a food chain, and active in landscape conservation in the countryside. However, agriculture plays a significant role in rural development and in Sweden, authorities strive for development of sustainable rural areas by encouraging economic growth and innovation within and between companies (business models, value chains etc.). They work with economic growth strategies, but both their management and results are criticised (OECD, 2019).This thesis states that greater contextualized knowledge is required to facilitate sustainable rural and agricultural development. Against this background, the purpose of this thesis is to explore entrepreneurship in agriculture from different perspectives, to find mechanisms affecting value creation for sustainable rural development.

    To meet the research purpose, Swedish agricultural entrepreneurship was studied from different perspectives and data was collected with different methods enabling significant triangulation of data. Studies of challenges in entrepreneurship and sustainable rural development were conducted from individual farmer and business perspectives as well as from the individual and organisational levels of actors within the support system, actors such as advisors, authorities, policy makers and officials. Thus, it was possible to explore perspectives on entrepreneurship in agriculture and identify mechanisms and structures affecting value creation for sustainable rural development. Mechanisms can be explained as underlying, invisible and sometimes unconscious and non-rational factors, feelings, norms, values or attitudes that affect behaviour in various ways.

    The key theories and literature covered included the concept of entrepreneurship with the intertwined sub-concepts of innovation and management at individual, business, organisational and societal levels.The thesis probed under the surface of rural development, exploring agricultural development at business level by using the concepts of Sustainable Entrepreneurship, Business Model Innovation and Barriers to Sustainable Business Model Innovation when exploring the challenges farmers face. The concepts of Self-leadership, Emotional Intelligence and Entrepreneurial Orientation helped to explore how challenges are approached, by for example understanding mechanisms concerned with feelings and mind-set. Further, the thesis also studied how entrepreneurship was encouraged and supported by the agricultural support system, and, with help from the Complexity Leadership Theory, established the urgent need of adaption to environmental changes and the creation of innovation within the system. The concepts of Agricultural and Rural Entrepreneurship and Embeddedness helped in understanding and shed light on the importance of considering the mutual influence and interplay between farmers, actors within the support system, embeddedness in context and rural entrepreneurship.

    This thesis makes several contributions. It extends knowledge about entrepreneurship in agriculture by highlighting the importance of understanding embeddedness and the concept of agricultural sustainability, and by this providing evidence of the importance of including agriculture in entrepreneurship research. Consequently, this thesis has another viewpoint than previous research which states that farmers are not entrepreneurial and has overlooked agriculture in entrepreneurship research.

    Firstly, it shows that farmers, to a very considerable degree, contribute to sustainable rural development and also play the role of enabler for rural entrepreneurship. Second, by exploring the support system, and thereby providing insights into the challenges within the system, in the organisations and betweenthe organisations, this thesis shows transparency and improved understanding of challenges in for example communication, trust, management and culture. Further, a model contributes suggestions for how to improve the system and create innovation to enable encouragement of entrepreneurship in agriculture. Third, this thesis contributes to business model research by illustrating the importance of including and reflecting on embeddedness in context and the understanding of agricultural sustainabilityin business model innovation. Hence, this thesis extends previous business model research which mainly considered agriculture as the first step in a food production chain, exposed to the same challenges as other non-agricultural companies further up the value chain. By providing insights about challenges to farmers’ entrepreneurship, and how these challenges can be approached as well as how entrepreneurship can be encouraged and supported in agriculture, this thesis can contribute to policies and strategies shifting focus from primarily trying to transform farmers into traditional entrepreneurs to taking advantage of the enabling role played by farmers. This thesis contributes to show the diversity in entrepreneurship, by providing understanding of entrepreneurship in agriculture, where value creation extends far beyond individual companies and competitive advantages, and hence impacts sustainable rural development.

  • qu, Yuan
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Objective Analysis and Development Forecast of Vertical B2B2C E-commerce Mode2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research background - with the popularity of the Internet and the upgrading of electronic equipment, the e-commerce mode has gained an advantageous position in the contest with the traditional business mode. E-commerce has become a necessary way for enterprises to expand the market. In the course of the development of e-commerce, different e-business models have also been produced. They have different adaptability according to the product or target customer orientation of the enterprise. Through the survey, we find that the analysis of professional vertical B2B2C e-commerce mode between enterprises and consumers is still very few.

    Purpose - It is hoped that this paper will provide a reference for e-commerce enterprises to carry out e-commerce activities through the conclusion of the feasibility of vertical B2B2C.

    Research methods - On the basis of reading and collecting a large amount of data in the earlier period, this paper summarizes the collected data according to the grounded theory proposed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, extracts three categories. We objectively summarize the theories put forward by scholars, and then add data support to draw objective conclusions and theories. The main data collection is obtained through a structured interview with the president of the Shangpa, while also using scientific papers, reports, websites and books, and other auxiliary data. The case company is working with B2B2C e-commerce mode in their business.

    Findings - By analyzing the main body of vertical B2B2C e-commerce mode (enterprises, third party platforms and consumers), as well as the economic and policy environment, we summarize the objective environment. Making development forecast through the analysis of the advantages and development difficulties of vertical B2B2C e-commerce.

    Conclusions – The market environment, the policy environment and the promotion of the enterprise's own ability are all beneficial to the enterprise to carry out vertical B2B2C e-commerce in China. However, if the enterprises want to survive in the same subdivision industry, capital investment, team building and logistics warehousing should be the focus of the enterprise.

  • Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Svensson, Adam
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Nulägesanalys av byggarbetsledares användning av IT-verktyg: Digitala verktyg inom byggproduktion2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Use of computer based construction plan programs were introduced as early as in the 1970’s and have since then been under constant develop. Their functions and durability have during the last twenty years gone from only being used in the projection and office stage to being a useful tool at the actual construction site too.

    This report is a status analysis regarding what thoughts and perspectives younger and newly added generation of construction foremen have on the use, implementation and development of digital tools in the Swedish construction business, and the potential information exchange at the construction sites.

    The report is a compilation of interviews with respondents representing four different established Swedish construction companies. The results of the interviews are compared with available literature, which are results of previous research and pilot projects that have been done the subject.

    It also contains a view of how the communication transpire when problems occur on construction plans and how this is managed by the construction foreman. The approach is currently depending on the nature and significance of the problem, and also how far the companies have come in the development and the commitment from their employees.

    The results show that digital tools and the possibility of efficient information technology is available, but the use of these are less frequent than the respondents expected in their role as a construction foremen.The implement, use of modern working methods and the obtaining of digital tools are for example depending on economic and function barriers. The construction business is also currently in a generation change which bring a younger generation in to the business which have more experience of using information technology and digital tools, that have created a difference to the earlier generations, both in use an knowledge.

  • Glimbeck, johan
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Ingemarsson, Olle
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Steel vs Composite, Heavy vs light: Sustainability in construction - a case study investigating two concrete form work systems uning a MCDMmethod2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor thesisis  a  comparison  of  two  different  concrete  forms  viewed  from  a sustainable perspective by using a Multi Criteria Decision Making(MCDM)method. Sustainability  is  a  broad  concept,  often  degraded  in threepartswhich  are  financial-,environmental-and  socialsustainability. This Bachelor thesisstrives  to  determine what sustainability is when it comes to monolithic concrete casting in Sweden. In this Bachelor thesissustainabilityhas   been   degraded   in threeparts,   financial-,environmental-and work environmental sustainability.Although,the  two  different  forms  fill  the  same  function,  they  differ  in  many  areas. The first one, TRIO,is made of steel and plywoodand is heavy, loud, with a big area and in need of a crane to be able toassemblethe form. The second one, DUO,is made from the composite  materialPolytech  and  isalmost  soundless,  with  a  smaller  area and lightweight tobe able to be used without crane.    The purpose of the MCDM-methodis to create a tool with the purpose of facilitating the  choice  of  concrete  forms  for  monolithic  casting  while  taking  sustainability  into account.   The   tool   is   to   ease   the   decision   in   building   production   for   both  the contractor and for designers. The Bachelor thesisis a case study with both qualitative and quantitative methods.To make  a  fair  comparison  between  the  two forms  in  this Bachelor thesis,a  fictitious project  is  created toevaluate  different  criteria  for  sustainability  in  design  and production. This is doneunder the same premises to be able to obtain an equivalent result.In the fictitious project it turned out that TRIO was the best choice from work environment and economic sustainability, from environmental sustainability it turned out that DUO was the best. Furthermore, it has been difficult to obtain full validity in the MCDM method, all criteria have not been fulfilled inthe environmental field. The environmental area has been the most difficult to investigate and to obtain relevant data in.MCDM has good opportunities to provide great benefit if there were more standardized data to put into it. In this work, very much work was done for a small result.

  • Danielsson, Carl
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Frid, Kira
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Patienters upplevelser av hur vårdpersonal bemöter patienter med beroendeproblematik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today's society, alcohol and drug problems are common. Alcohol and drug problems lead to negative changes in everyday life. From a societal perspective, there is the stigma of alcohol and drug problems, which leads to people that avoid seeking care. Purpose: To describe how patients with alcohol and/or drug problems experience the treatment of healthcare professionals in the healthcare sector. Method: General literature study with inductive approach. Result: The result is presented in two themes which are supportive treatment and obstructive treatment. In the result, it was found that the care staff's treatment was experienced as supportive because the care staff listened and treated patients professionally and that the care staff showed that they had good knowledge in the meeting with patients. Furthermore, it emerged in the results that patients perceived the treatment of care staff as an obstacle in the care process because the care staff treated patients insufficiently and unworthily in the form of discrimination, stigmatization and abuse of power. Conclusion: The result is presented in two themes, which are supportive treatment and obstructive treatment. The result can contribute to increased understanding among healthcare professionals who meet people with alcohol and/or drug problems, which can thus contribute to better conditions for good treatment.

  • Rebeca, Johannesson
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nicklas, Odenhage
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Motiverande samtal i diabetesomvårdnad: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health professionals are increasingly working with long-term and chronic diseases. People with diabetes make important decisions daily related to their diabetes management, patient education is an important part of the diabetes care. The most common perceived obstacle in diabetes care is everyday life and acting on the motivation for a change and maintaining it. Motivational interviewing (MI) as such is a communication method which is person-centered and aims to promote lifestyle changes. The purpose of the literature study was to describe how people with diabetes experienced motivational interviewing. The study was conducted as a general literature study. The result was based on eight scientific articles and resulted in four themes: experience of a new approach, self-determination experience, experience of the leader's role and experience of the external factors. People experienced that MI inspired to conduct lifestyle changes. The communication was perceived as person-centered and thus promoted the persons own knowledge. Furthermore, the experience of the non-judgmental attitude resulted in people experiencing that they could speak more openly about their health. The motivational interviewer’s role was perceived as supportive and as promoting self-determination. MI changed the persons perception of themselves, changed their approach and motivated lifestyle change.

  • Public defence: 2020-01-31 13:00 J102 Wigforss, Halmstad
    Fan, Yuantao
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Wisdom of the Crowd for Fault Detection and Prognosis2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring and maintaining the equipment to ensure its reliability and availability is vital to industrial operations. With the rapid development and growth of interconnected devices, the Internet of Things promotes digitization of industrial assets, to be sensed and controlled across existing networks, enabling access to a vast amount of sensor data that can be used for condition monitoring. However, the traditional way of gaining knowledge and wisdom, by the expert, for designing condition monitoring methods is unfeasible for fully utilizing and digesting this enormous amount of information. It does not scale well to complex systems with a huge amount of components and subsystems. Therefore, a more automated approach that relies on human experts to a lesser degree, being capable of discovering interesting patterns, generating models for estimating the health status of the equipment, supporting maintenance scheduling, and can scale up to many equipment and its subsystems, will provide great benefits for the industry. 

    This thesis demonstrates how to utilize the concept of "Wisdom of the Crowd", i.e. a group of similar individuals, for fault detection and prognosis. The approach is built based on an unsupervised deviation detection method, Consensus Self-Organizing Models (COSMO). The method assumes that the majority of a crowd is healthy; individual deviates from the majority are considered as potentially faulty. The COSMO method encodes sensor data into models, and the distances between individual samples and the crowd are measured in the model space. This information, regarding how different an individual performs compared to its peers, is utilized as an indicator for estimating the health status of the equipment. The generality of the COSMO method is demonstrated with three condition monitoring case studies: i) fault detection and failure prediction for a commercial fleet of city buses, ii) prognosis for a fleet of turbofan engines and iii) finding cracks in metallic material. In addition, the flexibility of the COSMO method is demonstrated with: i) being capable of incorporating domain knowledge on specializing relevant expert features; ii) able to detect multiple types of faults with a generic data- representation, i.e. Echo State Network; iii) incorporating expert feedback on adapting reference group candidate under an active learning setting. Last but not least, this thesis demonstrated that the remaining useful life of the equipment can be estimated from the distance to a crowd of peers. 

  • Bengtsson, Emma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Wahlberg, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Tillbaka till skolbänken: Vuxna patienter diagnostiserade med typ 2-diabetes upplevelser av patientundervisning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Type 2-diabetes is a widespread disease that places high demands on knowledge in the patients living with the disease, the complications are many but possible to be affected by the patients themselves. Patients diagnosed with type 2- diabetes require education to obtain good self-care ability, which minimizes the onset of complications. Nurses educate patients diagnosed with type 2-diabetes as part of the nursing work to promote health and reduce complications. The purpose of the literature study was to elucidate how adult patients diagnosed with type 2-diabetes experienced patient education. The study was conducted as a general literature study, with an inductive approach. Four categories emerged in the literature study's results: The learnings activities importance, the character and attitude of the teacher, insight in the disease and self-confidence and the relevance of the information. Both patient education in group form and individually were experienced positive, criticism was directed at the lack of individualized education. It was found in the literature study that the patients' experiences of the teacher affected whether the teaching was favorable or not. Patients' self-care ability was experienced to increase. To a large extent, the patients perceived information given during the education to be relevant. Patients' experiences should be taken into account when designing patient education, training of nurses, and of nurses in clinical practice. The motivation is that teaching should be as beneficial to patients diagnosed with type 2-diabetes as possible.

  • Bergman, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Veragua Velásquez, Dante
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Att vara anhörig till en patient med traumatisk hjärnskada.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Individuals with traumatic brain injury can sustain chronical lasting sequalae’s. Relatives are often involved in their care and present during the whole process. Relatives also have an important role and responsibility in the everyday life. Aim: The aim was to describe relatives’ experiences of living with a next of kin with traumatic brain injury. Method: A general literary study was performed, where eleven articles were analyzed, with content analytic approach. Result: Four categories emerged from the result articles: to take responsibility and adopt different roles, to live in an uncertain and unpredictable situation, to receive support and to find own inner strength. It was a big strain for relatives to take on the caring role of supporting the traumatic brain injured. The uncertainty of the prognose, along with the lack of information and knowledge, putted the relatives in distress. The need of support was multidimensional where the initial support came from healthcare personnel and then from family and community. Relatives had to use own resources and inner strength to manage their situation. Conclusion: To ease life for relatives and traumatic brain injured, health care needs to have better strategies and the community better knowledge and understanding for the disease.

  • Helgesson, Jessica
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Rinter, Charlotte
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    När vardagen inte är som förut: Att hantera måltider efter att ha genomgått en stroke.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Personer som drabbats av stroke får ofta nedsättningar och problem som följd av stroken detta i sin tur påverkar måltiden. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa personers erfarenheter av måltider under rehabiliteringstiden efter genomgången stroke Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie med induktiv ansats. Resultat: Studien är grundad på nio vetenskapliga artiklar som resulterade i fyra kategorier: Upplevda svårigheter, Bedömd och förminskad, Betydelsen av socialt stöd samt Betydelse av kontroll. Personers upplevelser av måltider efter stroke är av blandad karaktär där fysiska och emotionella begränsningar påverkar möjligheten att äta tillsammans med andra. Slutsats: Idag utgår rehabiliteringen ofta utifrån rutinbaserade rehabiliteringsplaner som resulterar i en generalisering i vårdandet. Fokus bör istället utgå ifrån personens tidigare vanor och önskemål inför framtiden och vara riktad till hela personen och dess unika situation. Hela måltidssituationen borde tas i beaktning där social samvaro kan ses som ett stöd för att minska rädsla men även att åter uppleva kontroll under en måltid.

  • Hasselblad, Wilma
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kontaminering av mikroorganismer på hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalens mobiltelefoner: En allmän litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile phones by healthcare workers in healthcare settings has become increasingly common. Research shows that healthcare workers use their mobile phones within near contact with patients in order to facilitate their work. Therefor the aim of this candidate essay was to investigate the presence of microorganisms as a result of the lack of cleaning routines of the healthcare workers mobile phones. The study is written as a general literature study. Data collection was done through specific searches in the databases CINAHL and PubMed. Searches in the two databases finally resulted in 13 articles, which are the basis for the result in this study. The result shows that coagulasenegative staphylococcus and enterobacteria was the most occuring microorganisms on the healthcare workers mobile phones. In addition microorganisms as viruses like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenovirus (AV) was detected on the healthcare workers mobile phones. The result also shows deficiencies regarding the cleaning of the mobile phones where the majority of the mobile phones were never cleaned.

  • Calikus, Ece
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Fan, Yuantao
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Nowaczyk, Sławomir
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Pinheiro Sant'Anna, Anita
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Interactive-cosmo: Consensus self-organized models for fault detection with expert feedback2019In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Interactive Data Mining, WIDM 2019, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagnosing deviations and predicting faults is an important task, especially given recent advances related to Internet of Things. However, the majority of the efforts for diagnostics are still carried out by human experts in a time-consuming and expensive manner. One promising approach towards self-monitoring systems is based on the "wisdom of the crowd" idea, where malfunctioning equipments are detected by understanding the similarities and differences in the operation of several alike systems.

    A fully autonomous fault detection, however, is not possible, since not all deviations or anomalies correspond to faulty behaviors; many can be explained by atypical usage or varying external conditions. In this work, we propose a method which gradually incorporates expert-provided feedback for more accurate self-monitoring. Our idea is to support model adaptation while allowing human feedback to persist over changes in data distribution, such as concept drift. © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • Huttunen Rotevatn, Louise
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Wallgren, Helen
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Bevara rätten till autonomi, integritet och värdighet: Etiska utmaningar i omvårdnaden av personer med demenssjukdom2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Approxmently 50 million people worldwide suffer from dementia today. A number that is expected to triple by year 2050. Dementia is described as chronic and degenerative and has an impact on the person's memory, behavior and ability to perform daily chores. People with dementia are in need of competent nursing based on respect for the person's autonomy, integrity and dignity. In line with the increase more knowledge about dementiacare is needed in order for people with the diagnosis to receive the right and appropriate care. The aim of this study was to highlight ethical challenges in the care of people with dementia. To answer the purpose, a literature study was conducted with article searches in three different databases. It resulted in five categories; Preserve the person's dignity, Lack of competense, Lack of support, Lack of time and resources and Lack of communicative – the unspoken challenge. It is important to have knowledge about the ethical challenges that arise in the care of people with dementia, as it can increase the conditions for a person-centered care and thus preserve the person's autonomy, integrity and dignity.

  • Fabian, Tania
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Fredriksson, Caroline
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kvinnors beslutsfattande vid profylaktisk mastektomi: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prophylactic mastectomy is a treatment where the breasts are surgically removed for preventive purposes. There are various indications why prophylactic mastectomy is being considered. Understanding the concept of decision making is required to describe women’s decision about prophylactic surgery in order to reduce individual uncertainty about treatment choices. Information and support are important aspects for a nurse to provide in order to encourage patient integrity, self-determination and participation. The aim of this literature study was to describe factors related to decision making among women regarding prophylactic mastectomy. The method was a literature study with an inductive approach. Ten scientific articles related to the current purpose were selected to form a result. The result emerged in to three different categories, one with two subcategories and one with three subcategories. Concerns, parenting, gene mutation and experience of information were found to influence the decision making. Few differences in decision making were detected between women who were carriers and non-carriers of gene mutation. Conclusion: Women who faced a decision making in prophylactic mastectomy were all individuals and there for had different preferences regarding need for support, participation in decision making, receiving information and what influenced the decision. Health care professionals should present adequat, evidence based and unanimous information to ease women’s decision making.

  • Andersson, Amanda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nilsson, Isabella
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kompressionsbehandling vid venös insufficiens: Faktorer av betydelse för följsamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Compression therapy is the basic treatment for venous insufficiency and venous leg ulcers. Living with venous leg ulcers has an impact on patients’ well-being and daily life. The nurse has an important role in promoting wound healing through collaboration with the patient. According to studies patients’ adherence to compression therapy is insufficient, which can lead to origin and recurrence of leg ulcers and extended healing time. The purpose of the study was to illustrate significant factors for adherence to compression therapy in patients with venous insufficiency. The study was conducted as a general literature study based on an inductive approach. The result is based on five qualitative studies, four quantitative studies and two studies with a mixed method approach. Two main themes emerged in the result of the literature study: Internal factors and external factors with a total of ten sub themes. The result of the literature study reveals that motivation, mental illness, knowledge and understanding, discomfort, self – image, independence, education, finances and trusting relationship between nurse and patient are key factors in adherence to compression therapy. Further research on the patients’ experiences is needed to gain better understanding, which can develop into guidelines, where it can be stated which nursing actions to prevent and manage the patients that are unwilling to be treated.

  • Jakobsson, Sanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, Rebecka
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Anorexia nervosa: Familjers erfarenheter när en familjemedlem drabbas2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by intentional weight loss. The illness is mainly found in adolescent girls or young women. When a family member suffers from anorexia nervosa, parents and siblings are also affected. Focus is on the illness and the family experience feelings like impotence, concern, guilt and shame. The aim of this study was to illustrate families experiences of living with a family member who is suffering from anorexia nervosa. To achieve the aim, a literature study was made with ten scientific articles. The articles were quality-tested and analysed. The result is presented in six themes. The result shows that many parents feel impotence when their child becomes ill in anorexia nervosa. The illness generates conflicts within the family which leads to a changed family situation and a change in their social lives. Both parents and siblings were concerned for the ill sibling and for the development of the illness. Parents felt guilty and took responsibility for their child’s illness. Parents and siblings experience lack of information and poor treatment from healthcare professionals. Many families who went through Family Based Therapy experienced the treatment as positive. It is important for the nurse to gain knowledge of families experiences to be able to meet their needs.

  • Public defence: 2020-01-31 09:00 R4318, Halmstad
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Health among people with psychotic disorders and effects of an individualized lifestyle intervention to promote health2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the thesis was to increase knowledge of health among people with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and other long-term psychotic conditions. The aim was also to investigate health effects, in terms of clinical health outcomes and self-reported questionnaires, of atwo-year individualized lifestyle intervention implemented in psychiatric outpatient services involving cooperation with the municipal social psychiatry services. The motivation for the study was to generate new knowledge in order to be able to promote health in people with psychotic disorders and to improve the care and support provided for this target group. The thesis consists of four studies. A quantitative study (Study I), was conducted using a cross-sectional design to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the relationships between self-rated salutogenic health, sense of coherence, CVD risk, and body mass index among people with psychoticdisorders (n=57). The study was conducted in four psychiatric outpatient services; questionnaires were completed by the participants and clinical health measurements were collected by the participant’s contact nurse at the psychiatric outpatient services. The participants showed a moderate/high risk of CVD, the mean for BMI was 31.9 (59.6% were obese) and 31.6% were overweight. The results did not reveal any relationships between the subjective and objective measuresof health indicating the need for both subjective and objective assessments of health in psychiatric care. In a qualitative study (Study II), data were collected with semi-structured interviews (n=16) andanalyzed with qualitative content analysis. The interviews resulted in an overall theme “Being regarded as a whole human being by self and others”, which showed the multidimensional nature of health and the issues that enable healthy living among people with severe mental illness. Three categories emerged: (i) everyday structure (ii), motivating life events and (iii) support from significant others. The results indicate that a person with severe mental illness needs to be encountered as a wholeperson if healthy living is to be enabled. In a quasi-experimental study (Study III), the potential effects of participation in the two-year lifestyle intervention (intervention group n=54 and control group (n=13) were investigated. The data were collected at baseline, after 12 months and after 24 months using the self-reported questionnaire the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) and the National Public Health Survey. Measures of clinical healthoutcomes were conducted by the participant’s contact nurse at the psychiatric outpatient services. Multilevel modeling was used to test differences in changes over time. Significant changes were foundin physical activity, HbA1c and waist circumference after participation in individualized lifestyle intervention. The relationship between changes in physical activity, levels of salutogenic health and glycated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) were investigated (n=54) in Study IV. The data were collected atbaseline, after 12 months and after 24 months using the self-reported questionnaires Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) and National Public Health Survey. Within-person changes in physical activity between baseline and at the end of the twenty-four-month intervention were calculated. Selfreported increased physical activity was positively associated with self-rated salutogenic health and negatively associated with level of HbA1c after participation in the intervention. The thesis shows that a well-founded assessment of general health needs must consider both the individual's subjective experiences and objective measurements in order to form a solid foundation for dialogue and shareddecision-making about essential care services. The results also show that it is possible to stimulate healthy behavioral changes with a two-year individualized lifestyle intervention and bring both subjectively and objectively measured health benefits for people with psychotic disorders. The importance of nurses in psychiatric care applying a holistic approach and integrating lifestyle interventions into daily person-centered psychiatric care in collaboration with other healthcare providers to facilitate changes towards a healthy lifestyle in persons with psychotic illness is emphasized in the thesis.

  • Larsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Pihl, Jacob
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Robot Exercise Trainer: Intended for Treating Dementia2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, about 35.7 million people were estimated to be affected by dementia in 2010. One way to treat dementia is by exercising, but human trainers are few and expensive. Robots can be mass produced and work at anytime of the day. This report describes research done for developing a robot exercise coach intended for treating dementia.

    Three main problems for people with dementia were identified: memory, attention and motivation. By using computer vision the robot can help count repetitions, grade exercise correctness and make sure that the user is still paying attention. The Kinect was used for skeleton tracking to count repetitions and provide video.

    For motivation, motivational models and flow theory were used to design the users interaction with the robot and make it more enjoyable and engaging. Feedback was believed to be an important part of this interaction. To provide extra feedback skeleton tracking was turned into the robot mimicking the user. To test which combination of feedback and interaction was most enjoyable, a user study was done.

    The user study consisted of 11 subjects, each interacting with three different systems, each system with varying levels of feedback. After interacting, the subject filled out a survey and had an interview.

    The results from the user study showed evidence that repetition counting and exercise correctness feedback but no mimicking is the most enjoyable. With a statistically significant difference in regards to repetition counting at the 0.05 level. Younger people found the mimicking enjoyable but still preferred the system without it, and older people found it confusing.

    In future systems like this, repetition counting and exercise correctness feedback should be seen as important parts of the interaction.

  • Forsberg, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Frilund, Sofie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Upplevelser av livsstilsförändringar efter genomgången hjärtinfarkt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Myocardial infarction affects the individual's life situation and often requires adjustments in several areas. In order to prevent new infarctions, much focus is needed on lifestyle changes. The nurse's role in caring for individuals with myocardial infarction is to teach and discuss non-pharmacological treatment and to motivate and support lifestyle changes. By highlighting how individuals experience lifestyle changes, the nurse can promote understanding of the changes the individual is facing and undergoing. The aim of this study was to describe individuals experiences of lifestyle changes following a myocardial infarction. A literature study was conducted with an inductive approach. The result was based on ten scientific articles where two themes emerged: factors that limit lifestyle changes and factors that facilitate lifestyle changes. In summary, knowledge of the factors that facilitate and limit the performance of lifestyle changes generates a greater chance for the nurse to provide the individual with individually designed information, guidance and teaching.

  • Erup, Louise
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lettius, Alice
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Mollberg, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskans bemötande till patienter med hepatit B och hepatit C: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hepatitis B and C are currently considered to be the largest infectious diseases with lethal repercussions. The diseases are considered a worldwide burden, which between 2018 and 2019, caused the death of an estimated 1,9 million people. In nursing, nurses are meant to shield patients, work on a personal basis with them, show the respect and not offend them. Patients with hepatitis B and C have expressed a feeling of stigmatization and prejudice towards how they were infected. Therefore, they feel their care could be affected in a negative way. The aim of this literature study was to explore nurses’ attitudes towards patients with hepatitis B and C. The method emanated from a literature study where 13 scientific articles showed results for how nurses’ attitudes towards patients with blood diseases varies. The results showed that nurses’ attitudes towards patient infected with hepatitis B and C can be both positive and negative. Statistically significant associations occurred between a lack of knowledge and worsened attitude in nursing, the reason was often because of fear and preconceptions. Findings showed a relation between using correct safe precautions and confidence in nursing. Conclusion: The attitude towards patients with hepatitis B and C was positive over all but there were some nurses with a stigmatized perception and reluctance to handle those patients.

  • Hermansson, Rickard
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Hodzic, Azur
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    En tickande bomb: Patienters upplevelse av aortaaneurysm2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aortic aneurysm is an asymptomatic disease that mainly affects smoking men. The course of the disease comprises of a slow widening of the aneurysm, which may cause a rupture that is associated with a high risk of mortality. In Sweden, all men over the age of 65 are called for screening for aortic aneurysm, to reduce the disease specific mortality. The disease can either be treated conservatively or surgically. Aim: The aim of this study was to portray patients’ experiences of aortic aneurysm. Method: A literature overview with inductive content analysis was used to analyse ten articles from the databases CINAHL, PubMed and Scopus. Result: After analysis of the articles four themes emerged: Experiences of diagnosis, Experiences of conservative treatment, Experiences of the pre-operative stage and Experiences of the post-operative stage. To be diagnosed with aortic aneurysm reduced patients’ well-being. Patients did not receive sufficient information regarding the disease. To attend screening, follow-up and operation wasn’t perceived as voluntary. Conclusion: It is important that healthcare professionals practice good care through patient-information and establish a good relationship with the affected. Further research is needed to be able to weigh the pros and cons with a national screening program.

  • Petersson, Evelina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Lind, Sofia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    När döden knackar på: Erfarenheter av att vara närstående till en person som är döende i cancer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately every third person in Sweden will be a part of a cancer diagnosis. When the diagnosis is set, the life may change. All of those who get a cancer diagnosis will not die but some will reach a palliative stage where the goal is to ease pain and anxiety instead of curative treatment. The registered nurse is not only responsible for the patient's wellbeing but also the wellbeing of the relatives. It´s important to conduct a family focused nursing care where the inclusion of close relatives is important. The aim of this study was to embrace the relatives´ experiences of living with a person who is dying from cancer. The study was conducted as a general literature study with an inductive approach in which ten result articles were selected. Four main themes and nine sub-themes were formed after the results were processed, where the main themes became: Standing on the side, Pause their own life, Be with and Gratitude. The conclusion of the literature study was that relatives of a person dying from cancer felt a distinct concern that the dying person would die alone or with untreated pain. The relatives were in need of better support and guidance from the registered nurse. By taking part of the relatives´ experiences, the registered nurse can gain an increased understanding, which makes it easier for the relatives to receive support.

  • Louise, Bengtsson
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Pamela, Johansson
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Avstigmatisering och en förtroendefull relation – en förutsättning för personcentrerad vård: Vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med psykisk ohälsa inom somatisk vård2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increased prevalence of mental illness is seen worldwide and it's a major public health issue both in Sweden and global. Physical problems that haven't been taken seriously, self-stigma and healthcare professional´s lack of knowledge are influencing parts that make patients with mental illness less willing to seek care. One of the nurse's fundamental responsibilities is to promote health. In order to promote health among patients with mental illness, better knowledge about mental illness is required. The aim of this study was to illustrate healthcare professional´s experiences of nursing patients with mental illness in the somatic healthcare. A literature study was accomplished with searches in three databases and eight articles were included. The material was analysed with support from content analysis. The result emerged in three categories: Healthcare professional´s experiences of patients with mental illness; Healthcare professional´s experiences of lacking knowledge about mental illness; Healthcare professional´s experiences of organizational structures. The findings revealed that the healthcare professionals experienced a lack of knowledge about mental illness. An unprepared organization characterised by lack of time was also found. The lack of time led to impossibility to establish a trustful relationship. The majority of the healthcare professionals had a benevolence towards the patients with mental illness. A feeling that the patients always fell between the chairs and that nobody takes responsibility for them occurred by the healthcare professionals.

  • Aronsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Huisman, Josefin
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Forensisk omvårdnad: Sjuksköterskans upplevelser av att vårda brottsoffer och gärningsmän2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Forensisk omvårdnad kan beskrivas som länken mellan sjukvård och rättssystem. Sjuksköterskans uppgift inom den forensiska omvårdnaden innebär att hålla ett opartiskt förhållningssätt som främjar patientens rättigheter och en eventuell påföljande rättsprocess. I mötet mellan patient och sjuksköterska ger kunskap om forensisk omvårdnad en möjlighet till samhörighet som skapar god omvårdnad och minskat lidande. Syfte: Syftet var att skildra sjuksköterskors upplevelser och erfarenheter av att arbeta med forensisk omvårdnad inom sjukvården. Metod: Metoden var en allmän litteraturstudie som innefattade tio artiklar. Databearbetning genomfördes med kodning och tematisering och sammanställdes senare till ett resultat med teman och subteman. Resultat: Resultatet delades in i tre huvudteman som var Sjuksköterskans emotionella börda, Forensisk Omvårdnad – utmanande och krävande och Kunskap som brist och tillgång. Därefter tillkom tre subteman Sjuksköterskans hantering av den emotionella bördan, Omvårdnad av familj och Omvårdnad av gärningsmän. Sjuksköterskan upplevde en stor emotionell påverkan av att arbeta med våldsutsatta patienter och belyste behovet av utökad kunskap för att kunna vårda patienter inom forensisk omvårdnad optimalt. Slutsats: Studien tydliggjorde hur den emotionella bördan till följd av forensisk omvårdnad påverkade sjuksköterskan och därmed vårdkvaliteten negativt. Sjuksköterskans upplevelser visade på ett stort behov av kunskap inom området för att samhörigheten mellan sjuksköterska och patient ska kunna växa fram och bidra till att lindra patientens lidande.

  • Sandin, Daniel
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Farah, Ahmed
    Halmstad University.
    3D-Detaljplaner: En kartläggning kring 3D-detaljplaner utifrån ett företags-, kommuns- samt civilt perspektiv.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The zoning plan is considered difficult to interpret and there is a great need to digitize it. Previous studies highlight that BIM and GIS can be applied in the zoning plan, this means that the zoning plan can provide new functions and improve visualization. An implementation can create opportunities for several improvements, such as the zoning plan process, building permit management and communication between actors can be improved.

    The purpose of this study is to map out what problems the relevant users have with today's zoning plan. Also, how a 3D-zoning plan should be applied, and what it can contain further for information and new functions.

    The study is conducted with a qualitative method. By studying literary studies, what possibilities a 3D-zoning plan can offer is examined. In the study, semi-structured interviews are conducted with municipalities, construction companies, architects and private individuals to understand what needs to be developed, and how it should be conducted.

    Analyzing and discussing results in what opportunities a 3D-zoning plan has for an implementation and what it takes to make it a reality.

    An overall conclusion is that a 3D-zoning plan is difficult to implement today. During the study several factors contributing to this conclusion. Common standards between companies, municipalities and architects must be determined. The authors' conclusion is that the zoning plan should not be visualized, instead a new visualization system should be created to support the zoning plan.

  • MUKUNDAN KUMAR, ABHIJITH
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    THOMAS, SAM
    Halmstad University.
    PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OF WORK CHAIRS AND OFFICE CHAIR2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work chair is considered as an important element for the users to improve comfort in work environment. An ergonomic chair design and engineering is therefore considered very important for its usability and comfort view of point for the users. The aim of the thesis is to improve the mobility and ergonomics of the existing chair in all aspects. Ergonomically designed chairs are important for long time seated workers to increase their productivity and also to reduce low back injuries which arise due to the poor design chairs in ergonomic aspects. In addition, ergonomically designed chairs help to increase the seating comfortability of the chair users. QFD and waterfall model was followed for the work execution. In this paper, we discuss a design of an ergonomically efficient chair with simple adjustments which gives more comfortability. This will give us a better likelihood to stay in a neutral position. The Ergonomics of the chair is improved in various steps. This thesis focuses on many ideas in which some of them are implemented and evaluated.

  • Persson, Nellie
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, Mathilda
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Smärtbedömning av personer med demenssjukdom: Ett detektivarbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nurses have a responsibility to identify and relieve pain in order to reduce suffering. They play an important role in facing the needs of a person with dementia. This is accomplished through sensibility, openness and by trying to understand non-verbal clues. Persons with dementia still experience pain to the same extent as they did before the disease. They find it hard to verbally express themselves and to locate their pain, therefore they are at risk of being undertreated. Nurses therefore have a major responsibility to notice persons with dementia’s emotions and expressions. The aim of the study was to describe the nursing staff´s experiences of pain assessment for persons with dementia. The study was conducted as a general literature study. The search resulted in ten articles. They were reviewed and two categories were identified. The first category was Collaboration in a team with subcategories Trust and solidarity and Hierarchical flaws. The second category was Detective work with subcategories Interpret the patient’s clues and Time-consuming. The key findings were that pain assessment of persons with dementia needed to be based on non-verbal cues and it required a lot of time from the nursing staff.

  • Andersson, Angela
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Vasileva, Stefani
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stressen som aldrig tar slut: Akutmottagningens stressfaktorer och dess konsekvenser för sjuksköterskors hälsa och patienternas omvårdnad2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjuksköterskor som arbetar på akutmottagningar utsätts för höga nivåer av arbetsrelaterad stress. Stress kan orsaka negativa konsekvenser i form av fysiska och psykiska besvär. Syftet var att kartlägga faktorer som orsakade arbetsrelaterad stress för sjuksköterskor på akutmottagningar samt stressens konsekvenser för sjuksköterskors hälsa och patienters omvårdnad. Studien var en allmän litteraturstudie. Datainsamlingen utfördes via databaserna Cinahl, PubMed och PsycINFO där 10 vetenskapliga artiklar valdes ut då dess innehåll besvarade studiens syfte. Resultatartiklarna analyserades genom ett induktivt förhållningssätt. I studiens resultat framkom att faktorer som orsakade arbetsrelaterad stress för sjuksköterskor på akutmottagningar kunde bero på organisatoriska och patientrelaterade faktorer. Konsekvenserna av stressen var i form av psykiska, fysiska och omvårdnadsmässiga. Studien resultat bekräftar vikten av att upptäcka symtom av stress i ett tidigt skede då långvarig stress kan leda till större konsekvenser för hälsan. Det är betydelsefullt med regelbunden handledning och uppföljning av sjuksköterskors välmående på arbetsplatsen och utbildning kring stresshantering för att motverka detta.

  • Brask, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Andersson, Evelina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Glöm inte bort att vi är två: Föräldrars erfarenheter av vården i samband med missfall2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore parents’ experience of healthcare in the event of miscarriage. Miscarriage is a complication of pregnancy and affects around half of every pregnancy. Care is often sought by the parents when the woman gets symptoms of miscarriage during pregnancy. Feelings like grief, helplessness, fear, anxious and the feeling that the situation is beyond control is common when miscarrying. The parents may have difficulties in letting expectations they built up for the future go. It is important that parents get care and support during and after the miscarriage. The study was conducted as a general literature study with an inductive approach, where scientific articles with a qualitative design where analysed. The result from the study emerged in three categories: (1) The experience of healthcare environment and the act by healthcare professionals, (2) Experience of information from healthcare and (3) Experience of support from healthcare. The result of the literature study shows that both parents are in need of care when miscarrying. Miscarriage imply both emotional and psychological impact on the parents, where both parents need confirmation, empathy and understanding from the nurse. The parents experienced a need of further information and further support in different forms. To fulfil good care and to meet the parents’ needs in the event of miscarriage, the nurse should inform, meet the parents and answer their questions and thoughts, offer and give support and follow-up care after miscarriage.

  • Lind, Heidi
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Sysenko, Elena
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    - Det här är en KVADRAT, ingen FYRKANT!: En variationsteoretisk studie om matematikundervisning i förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna learning study-inspirerade studie är att undersöka vilken effekt variationen av innehållet i vår egen undervisning har på förskolebarns matematiska lärande. Studien genomfördes med två olika barngrupper i en cyklisk process som omfattade två undervisningstillfällen som började med ett förkunskapstest och avslutades med ett eftertest. I studien användes lek som verktyg för att synliggöra de kritiska aspekterna i undervisningen som var avgörande för förskolebarns förståelse för det matematiska lärandeobjektet - geometriska former. Resultatet kan ses som ett ämnesdidaktiskt bidrag till matematikundervisningen i förskolan för att barn ska kunna använda de rätta begreppen vid benämning av olika geometriska former, att kunna urskilja plana och tredimensionella figurer, förstå att geometriska former och figurer tillhör geometri som är en del av matematik samt betydelsen av att ge stöd och utmaning i processen. I studien används variationsteorin som metod och redskap i planering, undervisning och utvärdering som gör att vi utvecklar både vårt undervisningsinnehåll och barns förståelse för lärandeobjektet med vetenskaplig fokus på lärande. Metod och resultat diskuteras i relation till tidigare forskning och vid analysen används variationsteoretiska begrepp.

  • Bella, Donander
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Madeleine, Andersson
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Den obehagliga undersökningen: Kvinnors erfarenheter av gynekologiska undersökningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of the gynecological examination is to evaluate and promote reproductive health among women. The gynecological examination is divided into three different stages, where the first stage includes an examination of the external parts of the female genital organs. Thereafter an examination of the internal parts of the organ and the abdomen are performed. Aim: The aim of the study was to illuminate women’s experiences of the gynecological examination. Method: A general literature study was used, with the guidance of a simple version of content analysis. The literature study was conducted through structured information retrieval in three databases focusing on nursing research. After the information retrieval was completed, a review and analysis was conducted on chosen qualitative and quantitative articles for further compilation of the result.  Result: The result was allocated into the following main categories: (1) Experiences of discomfort associated with the gynecological examination and (2) Experiences of promotive factors related to the experience of the gynecological examination. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that many women experience the gynecological examination as discomforting, where feelings of anxiety, worry, fear, exposure, loss of control and mistrust illuminated some of the discomfort. The incidence of adequate information, a good approach and communication were some factors that contributed to the experience. Some women found the presence of a nurse during the examination as substantial. 

  • Ingemarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kostnadsnyttoanalys av ortoser för nedre extremiteten baserad på självupplevd hälsa enligt EQ-5D-3L2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund: Ortopedtekniska hjälpmedel har som övergripande syfte att göra det möjligt för människor att i sin vardag och livsstil vara rörliga, aktiva och delaktiga trots en fysisk funktionsnedsättning. För finansiering av ortopedtekniska hjälpmedel i Sverige ansvarar uteslutande det offentliga i form av landsting och regioner, vilka har en begränsad summa pengar att hushålla med. Det ligger därför i samhällets intresse att dessa pengar satsas på insatser som är av god kvalitet och främjar medborgarnas hälsa. Hälsoekonomiska utvärderingar som jämför kostnader och effekter av olika alternativ utgör en del av beslutsunderlaget för sådana prioriteringar. Det saknas emellertid användbara utvärderingar av ortoser och proteser, både vad gäller effekt och kostnadseffektivitet.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att analysera ortoser för nedre extremiteten ur ett hälsoekonomiskt perspektiv baserat på sjukvårdens direkta kostnader och förändring i patienters självupplevda hälsa.

    Metod: Totalt 17 patienter, vid fyra ortopedtekniska mottagningar, som ordinerats ortoser för nedre extremiteten, genomförde EQ-5D-3L-enkäten före och sex veckor efter utprovningstillfället. Hälsoprofiler från enkäterna överfördes via nationella tariffer till hälsoindex som representerar hälsokomponenten i QALY. Nyttan bedömdes genom att jämföra hälsoindex före och sex veckor efter utprovningstillfället. Kostnadsanalysanalys utfördes sedan genom att dividera landstingets/regionens direkta kostnad för ortoserna med skillnaden i hälsoindex.

    Resultat: Studien visar att ortoser för nedre extremiteten inte medför någon förändring i patienters självupplevda hälsa och därför inte kan anses vara kostnadseffektivt. För att kunna utvärdera metoden och göra dra några statistiska slutsatser behöver fler enkäter samlas in.

    Implikation: På lång sikt kan resultat från en kostnadsnyttoanalys, genom att visa patientnyttan med ortopedtekniska hjälpmedel, bidra till en högre kvalitet på den ortopedtekniska verksamheten och även fungera som beslutsstöd vid val av lämpligt hjälpmedel.

     

  • Hagstrand, Lina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Från deltagande till delaktighet inom övervikt- och fetmaprevention riktad till barn: -En scopingstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of overweigth and obesity in children is increasing in the world despite efforts. Studies show that preventive interventions for children and young people have a modest effect. Participatory research has proven to be a way to find sustainable solutions in health interventions. However, there is no comprehensive 

    knowledge on how participation for children and adults can be applied within participant-based obesity interventions targeting children.The purpose of this study was to map participation in participant-based obesity prevention targeting children. How is participation in participant-based obesity prevention applied? To what extent do the children participate?

     

    A literature-based design was used according to Arksey and O’Malley’s scoping review framework, which involves five steps; identifying the research issue, identifying relevant studies, selecting studies, charting data, and collecting, summarizing and reporting results. Studies for the results were collected from the databases Medline, Academic Search Elite, Cinahl and Scopus as well as through manual searches. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed, empirical studies focusing on interventions to prevent obesity for children and adolescents (0–18 years) and with a participatory approach with parents, children or society. Studies in languages ​​other than English or Swedish, studies which did not focus on preventive interventions against obesity for children and studies that did not clearly define the study as participant-based, were excluded. The search initially resulted in 995 articles. The selection process with further examination finally resulted in 34 studies that are included in this study. The degree of participation was further analyzed with Shier's Model, which involves 5 steps; 1. children are listened to, 2. children are supported in expressing their opinions, 3. children's opinions are taken into account, 4. children are involved in the decision-making process, 5. children share power and responsibility in making decisions

     

    The result showed that most interventions took place in school. Both parents, children, teachers and society were involved to varying degrees and within different methods. Several studies reported the participation poorly. In 12 studies, children were excluded as participants. When children participated, they were often older, in their teens. When analyzing children´s participation with Shiers’s Model, most studies were in step 4 (participation in decisions, n=7) and step 3 (consultation, n= 7) followed by step 5 (shared responsibility and power, n=6).

     

    Future research should focus on more fully describing the participatory process, involving younger children and examining how children experience their participation, in order to create meaningful participation. Prevention for obesity requires innovative solutions and the focus of future studies should be on opening up for participation through a participatory starting point, creating opportunities through adequate resources and appropriate methods, and including participation as an embedded policy through the work process.

     

  • Nilsson, Hedvig
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Trlin, Nikolina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Symtomen som begränsar livet: Kvinnors upplevelser och erfarenheter av att leva med polycystiskt ovarialsyndrom (PCOS)2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a chronic condition that affects 6-18 % of all fertile women, PCOS manifests itself through various clinical symptoms, such as hirsutism and obesity. It is also a contributing factor to irregular menstrual cycles, which has an impact on life and future pregnancies. The aim of the literature study was to describe the experiences of women living with PCOS. A systematic literature review was conducted, which resulted in the selection of ten scientific articles. The result of the study is based on three categories: The women’s self-image, the women’s physical and mental well-being and the women’s experience of support. The results of the literature study describe the way the women perceived themselves based on clinical symptoms such as hirsutism and obesity. The experience of the symptoms, the reduced fertility and the constant comparisons made with other women were based on society’s norms. This later on had an emotional impact on women´s physical and mental well-being. In conclusion the women found support through support groups, family members and information online. However, the women perceived a lack of support from healthcare professionals. If healthcare professionals can gain a greater understanding of how women with PCOS experience their symptoms, they can in this way contribute to more person-centred care.