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  • Maloku, Arber
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    El-Makdah, Naame
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Jämställdhet i byggbranschen: En studie med hänsyn till både män och kvinnors perspektiv med utländsk härkomst2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden are building more than ever and the lack of manpower in the construction industry is today greater than the supply. However, since the great migration in 2015, a new workforce has been discovered. Previous studies show that the problem of persons with foreign descent is that cultural differences, communication and discrimination can arise, which in turn leads to the fact that people with foreign descent are not recruited

    The aim of the study is to investigate the perceived causes of a low number of employees with a foreign background with regard to recruiters and foreign employees in the construction industry. The authors have chosen to interview respondents only from the larger company’s and to ensure anonymity, the companies have not been mentioned and the respondents in the study have received fictitious names. The authors did sent a well-formulated email and contact was also taken by phone, to a targeted selection of employees where finally nine (n = 9) people opted to participate. The collection of data was carried out with the aid of semi-structured interviews and via a structured structure three basic topics was elected, which forms the basis of the study's empirical data. The result showed, above all, that the language was considered the fundamental reason of the low number of employees with foreign descent. Discrimination and cultural differences were also seen as an obstacle.

    Keywords: Diversity, culture, cultural differences, integration, immigrants, gender distribution, foreign labor, norms on the construction site, discrimination, communication, immigrants

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  • Roth, Mattias
    Halmstad University.
    Övervikt och fetma: En kvalitativ studie om förebyggande insatser i skolan2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity and obesity among children is a major problem in society. More and more children are suffering from obesity and obesity. It is important to identify obesity and obesity at an early age as they are a high risk that children will also suffer from obesity or obesity in adulthood. Overweight and obesity can lead to various limitations in the individual and also an increased risk of suffering from weight-related diseases. These weight-related illnesses entail increased costs for society. The purpose of this study is to investigate how school nurses work to prevent obesity and obesity in school. To answer the purpose of the study, the following questions have been applied; What factors contribute to obesity and obesity in children? What are some preventative measures for obesity and obesity in school? How does the school work to get parents involved in the prevention of obesity and obesity in children? To collect data, a qualitative research method with semi-structured interview guide has been used as a tool. The interviewees are four school nurses at different schools in southern Sweden. The result showed that the school nurses at the various schools worked preventively against obesity and obesity. They had many similarities in preventive work. Some of their methods used were health conversations, weight checks and collaboration with other school staff.

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  • Nuhic, Minela
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Långberg, Sandra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    En aktiv skoldag varje dag?: En kvalitativ studie om rektorer och lärares uppfattningar till fysisk aktivitet på gymnasieskolor.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In literature, it appears that physical activity decreases for each year of school. Given that principals and teachers are responsible for ensuring that students have opportunities for physical activity throughout the school day, it is important to study their work. Research shows that physical activity promotes health, learning and concentration ability among other things, in school. The aim of this study was to describe which perceptions principals and teachers have about physical activity and what could promote physical activity among students at upper secondary schools.  In relation to the aim of the study, qualitative research method was most suitable to use because interviews enable a deeper understanding of the informants' statements and the focus of the study. The study consists of five semi-structured interviews. The analysis resulted in two main categories that reflected the aim of the study; ​the work to promote physical activity at school ​ and ​perception of the curriculum ​ . The conclusions of the study are that the informants have made conscious decisions to promote physical activity, they try to create awareness through dialogue as well as they try to create integrated movements through brain breaks during class hour. Another conclusion is that principals and teachers expressed that they perceive the curriculum of the upper secondary school as unclear.

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  • Rezk, Nesma
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Exploring Efficient Implementations of Deep Learning Applications on Embedded Platforms2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The promising results of deep learning (deep neural network) models in many applications such as speech recognition and computer vision have aroused a need for their realization on embedded platforms. Augmenting DL (Deep Learning) in embedded platforms grants them the support to intelligent tasks in smart homes, mobile phones, and healthcare applications. Deep learning models rely on intensive operations between high precision values. In contrast, embedded platforms have restricted compute and energy budgets. Thus, it is challenging to realize deep learning models on embedded platforms.

    In this thesis, we define the objectives of implementing deep learning models on embedded platforms. The main objective is to achieve efficient implementations. The implementation should achieve high throughput, preserve low power consumption, and meet real-time requirements.The secondary objective is flexibility. It is not enough to propose an efficient hardware solution for one model. The proposed solution should be flexible to support changes in the model and the application constraints. Thus, the overarching goal of the thesis is to explore flexible methods for efficient realization of deep learning models on embedded platforms.

    Optimizations are applied to both the DL model and the embedded platform to increase implementation efficiency. To understand the impact of different optimizations, we chose recurrent neural networks (as a class of DL models) and compared its' implementations on embedded platforms. The comparison analyzes the optimizations applied and the corresponding performance to provide conclusions on the most fruitful and essential optimizations. We concluded that it is essential to apply an algorithmic optimization to the model to decrease it's compute and memory requirement, and it is essential to apply a memory-specific optimization to hide the overhead of memory access to achieve high efficiency. Furthermore, it has been revealed that many of the work understudy focus on implementation efficiency, and flexibility is less attempted.

    We have explored the design space of Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) on Epiphany manycore architecture. We adopted a pipeline implementation of CNN that relies on the on-chip memory solely to store the weights. Also, the proposed mapping supported both ALexNet and GoogleNet CNN models, varying precision for weights, and two memory sizes for Epiphany cores. We were able to achieve competitive performance with respect to emerging manycores.

    As a part of the work in progress, we have studied a DL-architecture co-design approach to increase the flexibility of hardware solutions. A flexible platform should support variations in the model and variations in optimizations. The optimization method should be automated to respond to the changes in the model and application constraints with minor effort. Besides, the mapping of the models on embedded platforms should be automated as well.

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  • Ekström, Julia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Elfinsson, Johanna
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Att möjliggöra för barns delaktighet och inflytande genom kommunikation: En fenomenografisk studie om förskollärares uppfattningar kring barns kommunikation.2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att beskriva hur förskollärare framställer kommunikation med barn samt hur förskollärarna uppfattar att de använder kommunikation som verktyg för barns delaktighet och inflytande över sin egen utbildning. Följande frågeställningar ligger till grund för studien: Hur uppfattar förskollärarna kommunikation? samt Hur beskriver förskollärarna kommunikation som möjligt verktyg för barns delaktighet och inflytande? Studien genomsyras av fenomenografi där förskollärares varierade uppfattningar lyfts med hjälp av enskilda intervjuer.  Resultatet för studien presenteras i tre beskrivningskategorier: Relationskapandets betydelse för kommunikation med barn, Uppfattningar om att hinder styr arbetet med kommunikation som verktyg för barns delaktighet och inflytande och Kommunikation som verktyg för barns delaktighet och inflytande.Studiens slutsats är att förskollärarna använder kommunikation som verktyg genom att tillhandahålla olika kommunikationssätt och skapa relationer vilket kan möjliggöra för barnen att uttrycka sina åsikter och göra sin röst hörd, dock uppfattar förskollärarna begränsningar i att utföra arbetet.  

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  • Eriksson, Lea
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Almqvist, Emelie
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av att vårda patienter som motsätter sig behandling2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A patient’s refusal of treatment may be for religious, ethical, or moral reasons. Since the nurse’s main task in her work is to promote health, restore health, prevent illness and relieve suffering, it is of interest to investigate the nurse’s experience of caring for patients who refused treatment. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the nurse’s experiences of caring for patients who refused treatment. Method: A literature review with an inductive approach and four categories emerged. Result: The study shows that nurse’s experiences of caring for patients who refuse treatment are: have a good relationship with the patient, respecting the patient’s autonomy, arguing for the patient’s treatment, and feel an emotional impact. It turned out that a good relationship between the patient and the nurse was important when the patient refused treatment. Nurses respected patient’s autonomy even although they sometimes tried to argue that patients would receive treatment. Nurses could experience strong feelings such as powerlessness, frustration, and anger when the patients refused treatment. Conclusion: The study showed that a good relationship between the nurse and the patient was important in the care of patients who refused treatment. The nurses were careful to respect the patient’s autonomy. If the patient did not want to receive treatment, the nurse tried to get the patient to receive treatment. If this did not work, strong feelings could be experienced.

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  • Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svensson, Sofi
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av att få en bröstrekonstruktion efter mastektomi: En allmän litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer that affects women. In some cases, woman must remove parts of or both breasts, a so-called mastectomy. Losing breasts is both mentally and physically difficult and quality of life is affected and may choose to undergo breast reconstruction. Aim: The aim was to illustrate women's experiences in connection with breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Method: A general literature study was conducted with nine scientific articles with qualitative approach and analyzed with content analysis. Result: To illustrate women's experiences, result is presented through three themes: experiences of gaining information and support, changing body image, expectations and physical recovery, and quality of life and becoming whole again. Results showed the importance to have a contact nurse. With this contact, she felt secure and absorbed information and made choices without worry. The need for a support group for women during the recovery process emerged, body perception changed. Conclusion: Breast reconstruction gave their life back and felt whole again. It is therefore of great importance that nurse´s understand their experiences of how it feels to undergo a breast reconstruction so that they can offer support and provide care throughout the process.

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  • Bodmar, Alexandra
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Varberg.
    Jeréz, Jacqueline
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare. Varberg.
    Sjuksköterskors behov av stöd i samband med orosanmälan vid misstanke om att barn far illa: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children around the world suffer from abuse such as physical, psychological and sexual violence and neglect. Nurses meet children and adults in families in their work where children have been harmed or are at risk of harm. Nurses have an ethical responsibility and duty to report when children are at risk of harm in a report of concern. Although there are ethical codes and an obligation to report, there are circumstances that affect nurses to not always make a report when a child is at risk. The aim of this literature study was to investigate what support nurses need to make a proper report of concern, when there is a suspicion of a child at risk. The study revealed that nurses need emotional, informative and instrumental support to make a complaint. Nurses demand support through knowledge, which can be obtained through education, in order to identify children who are at risk of harm. In addition, organizational support and a good cohesion within a multidisciplinary team is of great importance in promoting nurses' handling of a report of concern, where everyone in healthcare can reflect and share knowledge with each other. Nurses' own upbringing and individual judgement of norms and values have an impact in their decision of what is acceptable in an adult / child relationship, which affect the application process. As a result, nurses need support so that they share the same base of values and duties towards the child and the offender.

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  • charuvila thekkethil simon, prince
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    joseph john, jibin
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS).
    A study on topology optimization and cost estimation of fused depostion modelling parts2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is acquiring a lot of importance in the manufacturing field. It makes the whole manufacturing process easier and effectively brings down the manufacturing cost compared to the traditional methods. It also provides the manufacturer with the freedom of customization according to each customer. In addition, the implementation of Topology Design Optimization helps in further reduction of costs by reducing the material consumption and energy needed to manufacture the product.

    In this thesis, products of TylöHelo AB, a leading manufacturer of sauna and steam are studied and optimized. TylöHelo products are manufactured using injection molding methods, in this process, molds are prepared initially, and later molten plastics are shaped using these molds. Molds are expensive and hard to manufacture too. In these types of techniques, the rate of manufacturing is high, but customization is very hard for each new type of design. A new mold has to be printed for each new design. Due to the high cost of mold designing and manufacturing, customization is very rarely seen.

    In this thesis, a certain product of TylöHelo sauna assembly is selected and redesigned using Topology Optimization to achieve both reduced manufacturing cost and good mechanical properties without compromising on the functional behavior. Solid mechanics simulation is performed to assess the mechanical properties of the part optimized and is compared to the original part. Furthermore, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), an extrusion-based AM, is used for fabricating the part and then implemented in the assembly of the sauna room. Finally, a detailed cost analysis is presented to provide an estimation of savings incurred for the company.

    This thesis identified two new topology optimized design based on manual methods and using the software. The results show that the new designs had nearly 58 to 67% cost reduction compared to the original 3D printed design and 64-69% reduction in mass of the product. This also means that the 3D printed topology optimized part can match the prices set by the injection molding. However, the 3D printed part quality and high-volume production can still be a challenge. This thesis also provides a guideline for the redesign manufactures, trying to incorporate Additive manufacturing in their production line.

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