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  • Public defence: 2020-01-31 09:00 R4318, Halmstad
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Health among people with psychotic disorders and effects of an individualized lifestyle intervention to promote health2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the thesis was to increase knowledge of health among people with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and other long-term psychotic conditions. The aim was also to investigate health effects, in terms of clinical health outcomes and self-reported questionnaires, of atwo-year individualized lifestyle intervention implemented in psychiatric outpatient services involving cooperation with the municipal social psychiatry services. The motivation for the study was to generate new knowledge in order to be able to promote health in people with psychotic disorders and to improve the care and support provided for this target group. The thesis consists of four studies. A quantitative study (Study I), was conducted using a cross-sectional design to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the relationships between self-rated salutogenic health, sense of coherence, CVD risk, and body mass index among people with psychoticdisorders (n=57). The study was conducted in four psychiatric outpatient services; questionnaires were completed by the participants and clinical health measurements were collected by the participant’s contact nurse at the psychiatric outpatient services. The participants showed a moderate/high risk of CVD, the mean for BMI was 31.9 (59.6% were obese) and 31.6% were overweight. The results did not reveal any relationships between the subjective and objective measuresof health indicating the need for both subjective and objective assessments of health in psychiatric care. In a qualitative study (Study II), data were collected with semi-structured interviews (n=16) andanalyzed with qualitative content analysis. The interviews resulted in an overall theme “Being regarded as a whole human being by self and others”, which showed the multidimensional nature of health and the issues that enable healthy living among people with severe mental illness. Three categories emerged: (i) everyday structure (ii), motivating life events and (iii) support from significant others. The results indicate that a person with severe mental illness needs to be encountered as a wholeperson if healthy living is to be enabled. In a quasi-experimental study (Study III), the potential effects of participation in the two-year lifestyle intervention (intervention group n=54 and control group (n=13) were investigated. The data were collected at baseline, after 12 months and after 24 months using the self-reported questionnaire the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) and the National Public Health Survey. Measures of clinical healthoutcomes were conducted by the participant’s contact nurse at the psychiatric outpatient services. Multilevel modeling was used to test differences in changes over time. Significant changes were foundin physical activity, HbA1c and waist circumference after participation in individualized lifestyle intervention. The relationship between changes in physical activity, levels of salutogenic health and glycated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) were investigated (n=54) in Study IV. The data were collected atbaseline, after 12 months and after 24 months using the self-reported questionnaires Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) and National Public Health Survey. Within-person changes in physical activity between baseline and at the end of the twenty-four-month intervention were calculated. Selfreported increased physical activity was positively associated with self-rated salutogenic health and negatively associated with level of HbA1c after participation in the intervention. The thesis shows that a well-founded assessment of general health needs must consider both the individual's subjective experiences and objective measurements in order to form a solid foundation for dialogue and shareddecision-making about essential care services. The results also show that it is possible to stimulate healthy behavioral changes with a two-year individualized lifestyle intervention and bring both subjectively and objectively measured health benefits for people with psychotic disorders. The importance of nurses in psychiatric care applying a holistic approach and integrating lifestyle interventions into daily person-centered psychiatric care in collaboration with other healthcare providers to facilitate changes towards a healthy lifestyle in persons with psychotic illness is emphasized in the thesis.

  • Public defence: 2020-01-31 13:00 J102 Wigforss, Halmstad
    Fan, Yuantao
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), CAISR - Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research.
    Wisdom of the Crowd for Fault Detection and Prognosis2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring and maintaining the equipment to ensure its reliability and availability is vital to industrial operations. With the rapid development and growth of interconnected devices, the Internet of Things promotes digitization of industrial assets, to be sensed and controlled across existing networks, enabling access to a vast amount of sensor data that can be used for condition monitoring. However, the traditional way of gaining knowledge and wisdom, by the expert, for designing condition monitoring methods is unfeasible for fully utilizing and digesting this enormous amount of information. It does not scale well to complex systems with a huge amount of components and subsystems. Therefore, a more automated approach that relies on human experts to a lesser degree, being capable of discovering interesting patterns, generating models for estimating the health status of the equipment, supporting maintenance scheduling, and can scale up to many equipment and its subsystems, will provide great benefits for the industry. 

    This thesis demonstrates how to utilize the concept of "Wisdom of the Crowd", i.e. a group of similar individuals, for fault detection and prognosis. The approach is built based on an unsupervised deviation detection method, Consensus Self-Organizing Models (COSMO). The method assumes that the majority of a crowd is healthy; individual deviates from the majority are considered as potentially faulty. The COSMO method encodes sensor data into models, and the distances between individual samples and the crowd are measured in the model space. This information, regarding how different an individual performs compared to its peers, is utilized as an indicator for estimating the health status of the equipment. The generality of the COSMO method is demonstrated with three condition monitoring case studies: i) fault detection and failure prediction for a commercial fleet of city buses, ii) prognosis for a fleet of turbofan engines and iii) finding cracks in metallic material. In addition, the flexibility of the COSMO method is demonstrated with: i) being capable of incorporating domain knowledge on specializing relevant expert features; ii) able to detect multiple types of faults with a generic data- representation, i.e. Echo State Network; iii) incorporating expert feedback on adapting reference group candidate under an active learning setting. Last but not least, this thesis demonstrated that the remaining useful life of the equipment can be estimated from the distance to a crowd of peers. 

  • Public defence: 2020-02-21 10:00 O103, Halmstad
    Cederholm Björklund, Jennie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL). Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Value creation for sustainable rural development – perspectives of entrepreneurship in agriculture2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship and innovation are regarded as key factors in the development of society - not least in the development of sustainable rural areas, where they are emphasised by both authorities and research. This thesis is situated in this field of inquiry and studies entrepreneurship in agriculture. It explores how we can further develop both agriculture and sustainable rural areas. Farmers have traditionally played a significant role in rural areas and rural development, and still do. However in pace with societal development and the reduced number of farms and farm production, their role has changed. Today, they are considered as raw material producers, being the first link in a food chain, and active in landscape conservation in the countryside. However, agriculture plays a significant role in rural development and in Sweden, authorities strive for development of sustainable rural areas by encouraging economic growth and innovation within and between companies (business models, value chains etc.). They work with economic growth strategies, but both their management and results are criticised (OECD, 2019).This thesis states that greater contextualized knowledge is required to facilitate sustainable rural and agricultural development. Against this background, the purpose of this thesis is to explore entrepreneurship in agriculture from different perspectives, to find mechanisms affecting value creation for sustainable rural development.

    To meet the research purpose, Swedish agricultural entrepreneurship was studied from different perspectives and data was collected with different methods enabling significant triangulation of data. Studies of challenges in entrepreneurship and sustainable rural development were conducted from individual farmer and business perspectives as well as from the individual and organisational levels of actors within the support system, actors such as advisors, authorities, policy makers and officials. Thus, it was possible to explore perspectives on entrepreneurship in agriculture and identify mechanisms and structures affecting value creation for sustainable rural development. Mechanisms can be explained as underlying, invisible and sometimes unconscious and non-rational factors, feelings, norms, values or attitudes that affect behaviour in various ways.

    The key theories and literature covered included the concept of entrepreneurship with the intertwined sub-concepts of innovation and management at individual, business, organisational and societal levels.The thesis probed under the surface of rural development, exploring agricultural development at business level by using the concepts of Sustainable Entrepreneurship, Business Model Innovation and Barriers to Sustainable Business Model Innovation when exploring the challenges farmers face. The concepts of Self-leadership, Emotional Intelligence and Entrepreneurial Orientation helped to explore how challenges are approached, by for example understanding mechanisms concerned with feelings and mind-set. Further, the thesis also studied how entrepreneurship was encouraged and supported by the agricultural support system, and, with help from the Complexity Leadership Theory, established the urgent need of adaption to environmental changes and the creation of innovation within the system. The concepts of Agricultural and Rural Entrepreneurship and Embeddedness helped in understanding and shed light on the importance of considering the mutual influence and interplay between farmers, actors within the support system, embeddedness in context and rural entrepreneurship.

    This thesis makes several contributions. It extends knowledge about entrepreneurship in agriculture by highlighting the importance of understanding embeddedness and the concept of agricultural sustainability, and by this providing evidence of the importance of including agriculture in entrepreneurship research. Consequently, this thesis has another viewpoint than previous research which states that farmers are not entrepreneurial and has overlooked agriculture in entrepreneurship research.

    Firstly, it shows that farmers, to a very considerable degree, contribute to sustainable rural development and also play the role of enabler for rural entrepreneurship. Second, by exploring the support system, and thereby providing insights into the challenges within the system, in the organisations and betweenthe organisations, this thesis shows transparency and improved understanding of challenges in for example communication, trust, management and culture. Further, a model contributes suggestions for how to improve the system and create innovation to enable encouragement of entrepreneurship in agriculture. Third, this thesis contributes to business model research by illustrating the importance of including and reflecting on embeddedness in context and the understanding of agricultural sustainabilityin business model innovation. Hence, this thesis extends previous business model research which mainly considered agriculture as the first step in a food production chain, exposed to the same challenges as other non-agricultural companies further up the value chain. By providing insights about challenges to farmers’ entrepreneurship, and how these challenges can be approached as well as how entrepreneurship can be encouraged and supported in agriculture, this thesis can contribute to policies and strategies shifting focus from primarily trying to transform farmers into traditional entrepreneurs to taking advantage of the enabling role played by farmers. This thesis contributes to show the diversity in entrepreneurship, by providing understanding of entrepreneurship in agriculture, where value creation extends far beyond individual companies and competitive advantages, and hence impacts sustainable rural development.